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Lecture 1 1.2 SI Units 1.4 Voltage and Current 1.6 Power and Energy

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SI Units

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Derived Units in SI

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Standardized Prefixes

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Exercise 1 How many hours of video will fit in a 32 GB memory? Assume the followings: 1 GB=2 10 Bytes 480 x 320 Pixels per Frame 2 bytes per Pixel Rate of display: 30 Frames per Second

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Solution 480 x 320 [Pixels/Frame] x 2 [Bytes/Pixel] x 30 [Frames/Second]=9,216,000 Bytes/Second 9,216,000 Bytes/Second=30.89 GB/Hour 32 GB/(30.89 GB/Hour)=1.035 Hour=62 minutes

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Exercise 2 If a signal can travel in a cable at 80% of the speed of light, what length of cable, in inches, represents 1 ns? – Assume the speed of light is 3 x 10 8 m/s

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Solution 80 % of speed of light is 2.4 x 10 8 m/S 2.4 x 10 8 m/S x 10 -9 S=0.24 m=24 cm 2.54 cm =1 inch 24 cm/2.54 cm=9.45 in 1 nS

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Voltage and Current

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Learning by discovery

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Experience Electricity The sudden sharp tingle that you feel is caused by electricity from one terminal of the battery, through the moisture on and in your tongue, to the other terminal. Because the skin of your tongue is very thin and the nerves are close to the surface, you can feel the electricity easily. Warnings: Do not do this experiment at home

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Movement of Electrons The sharp tingle you feel is caused by an electric current. An electric current is caused by the movement of electrons. The movement of electrons is caused by the battery.

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Attraction/Repulsion

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Definition of Voltage Voltage is the energy per unit charge created by the separation

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Intuition Thought Experiments: – Assume V is fixed. Hold 2 X of Q in your hand. Spend 2X of energy to move 2Q from –Q to Q. – Assume Q is fixed. Increase V by 2X. Spend 2X of energy to move Q from –Q to Q.

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Definition of Current

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Intuition about Current

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Direction of Current

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Water Flow Analogy

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Definition of Energy Energy (W)is the ability to do work. – The unit of energy is Joules (J).

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Energy Example

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Definition of Power

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Example of Power 360 J of energy is required to operate an MP3 player for an hour. What is the average power consumption? – 1 hour=3600 seconds – 360 J/3600 seconds=0.1 W or 100 mW

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Analogy Tank=battery The height of the water=voltage The volume of flow through the hole per second=current The smallness of the hole=resistance Water wheel hit by the flow from the hole=power

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Thought Experiment #1 Fix the dimension of the hole Add more water VIP

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Thought Experiment #2 Fix the height of water in the tank (Voltage is fixed) Increase the hole dimension I P.

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How do you measure power?

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Power consumed by typical House appliances AppliancePower (Watts) Toaster712 Waffle maker1150 Projector192 Refrigerator130 Microwave1610 Hair dryer1532 Cable modem8 Wireless router9 Internet phone4 TV (25 inch, analog)70

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Devices can consume power even when they are not used Bose speaker7 Watts Projector7 Watts Microwave6 Watts Rechargeable shaver3 Watts Toaster3 Watts TV3 Watts Point of comparison: MP3 player consumes 0.1 Watts

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Power Consumed by Lights 14 lights on each floor. Each light bulb consumes about 20 Watts. There are 8 floors. 20 Watts x 14 x 8=2240 Watts !!

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Caution! Power is not the same as energy. Power is the rate at which energy is being used. Example – TV consumes 70 Watts or 70 Joules per second. – How much energy is consumed by 1 hour of TV vs 40 hours of TV?

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kWh There is another way to express energy. Since P=W/t, Energy (W) can be expressed as W=Pt Utility companies charged their customers by kWh

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Example 4-3 Determine the number of kilowatt-hours (kWh) for each of the following energy consumption: – 1400 W for 1 hour – 2500 W for 2 hours – 100,000 W for 5 hours

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Energy Consumed by Typical Household Appliances Wireless router and cable modem: 1.Consumes little power. 2.Consume more energy than you think.

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Energy Consumed by OFF Devices My toaster consumes more energy when it is off!!

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Cost Delivery charges: Cost of delivery electricity to homes. ($0.26 per kWh) Generation charges: cost of purchasing electricity. ($0.09 per kWh) Total cost per kWh. (0.35 per kWh)

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Cost of typical household items Even though it may cost just a few pennies a day, over the cost of 1 year, the cost can skyrocket pretty quickly.

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Cost of Not Unplugging the OFF devices. Each device may not consume much power in its off state. But over the course of one year it can be expensive.

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Cost of Not turning Lights Off Our condo can save as much as 2300 a year if we only turn them on at night.

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Electric Car PG&E says that the E-9 rate is mandatory for those customers who plan on refueling an EV on their premises. Driving Tesla 40 miles a day would use 11.2 kW-h. – Electricity cost: between $0.56 and $3.18 depending on the time of day chosen for recharging. Driving an internal combustion engine car for 40 miles a day at 25 mpg would use 1.6 gallons of gas, and at a cost of 3 dollars per gallon would cost 4.80.

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