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Communication Technology By Bhupendra Ratha, Lecturer School of Library and Information Science Devi Ahilya University, Indore

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Presentation on theme: "Communication Technology By Bhupendra Ratha, Lecturer School of Library and Information Science Devi Ahilya University, Indore"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication Technology By Bhupendra Ratha, Lecturer School of Library and Information Science Devi Ahilya University, Indore

2 What is the Communication? A word communication has been drives from the Latin word Communicare which means to communicate, the word used for exchange the information. Communication needs languages as the channel for communication between two or more than two person.

3 Basic requirements and Process of a good communication Sender Message Language Channel Receiver

4 Channels of communications Body language Body language Oral communication Oral communication Verbal communication Verbal communication Audio-visual communication Audio-visual communication Mass communication Mass communication Tele-communication Tele-communication Wireless communication Wireless communication

5 Types of communications One to one communication One to one communication Centralized communication Centralized communication Circular communication Circular communication Free flow communication Free flow communication

6 One to One Hy, Raj How are you Fine, I hope you also fine

7 Centralized communication

8 Circular communication

9 Free-Flow communication

10 Communication Technology Use the modern technology for communicate the information by different channels and medias are called communication technology such as electronic telegraph, telephone, radio, TV, computer, wireless and networking etc. Use the modern technology for communicate the information by different channels and medias are called communication technology such as electronic telegraph, telephone, radio, TV, computer, wireless and networking etc.

11 Tele-communication Tele-communication is the part of Information and Communication Technology because in the very short time we can get information at the international level. It is the process of exchange the information to long-distance

12 Characteristics of Tele-communication Any one can use the Tele-communication technology for exchange the information. Any one can use the Tele-communication technology for exchange the information. The message may be send in coding language which understand only sender and receiver. The message may be send in coding language which understand only sender and receiver. Information are easily exchange in the different format such as text, numerical, graphical, audio-visual etc. Information are easily exchange in the different format such as text, numerical, graphical, audio-visual etc.

13 Cont… It can exchange information globally or each and every area of the world. It can exchange information globally or each and every area of the world. Save the time, money and human power. Save the time, money and human power. It make the privacy of message. It make the privacy of message.

14 History of Tele-communication 3000 BC Smoke signals, Drums, Pigeon etc BC Smoke signals, Drums, Pigeon etc. 490 BC Heliographs 490 BC Heliographs 1837 AD Telegraph by Samuals F B Morse 1837 AD Telegraph by Samuals F B Morse 1876 AD Telephone by Allexander Grahmbell 1876 AD Telephone by Allexander Grahmbell

15 Cont… 1894 AD Radio by Marconi 1894 AD Radio by Marconi 1926 AD T. V. by J. L. Baird 1926 AD T. V. by J. L. Baird 1963 AD Audio tape by Phillips com AD Audio tape by Phillips com AD Internet by ARPANET 1969 AD Internet by ARPANET

16 Cont… 1977 Fiber optical telephone cable Fiber optical telephone cable. 1980WWW by Terner Lee 1980WWW by Terner Lee 1981 Walkman by Sony comp Walkman by Sony comp. 1990html 1990html

17 Tele-communication media Bounded/Cable mediaBoundless/Wireless Media Fiber-Optical Cable Twisted-Pair Cable Coaxial CableRadio Wave Microwave Satellite

18 Bounded/Cable Media When connect the telecommunication component with the cable and exchange the information they call bounded/cable media. When connect the telecommunication component with the cable and exchange the information they call bounded/cable media. There are three types of cable media very commonly used and they are; There are three types of cable media very commonly used and they are; 1. Coaxial Cable 1. Coaxial Cable 2. Twisted-Pair Cable 2. Twisted-Pair Cable 3. Fiber-Optic Cable 3. Fiber-Optic Cable

19 Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable gets its name because two conductors share a common axis; the cable is most frequently referred to coax. A type of coaxial cable that we may be familiar with is our television cable. Its components are as follows; A center conductor An outer conductor An insulation layer A plastic encasement (Jacket)

20 A Center conductor A center conductor, although usually solid copper wire is sometimes made of standard wire. A center conductor, although usually solid copper wire is sometimes made of standard wire.

21 A outer conductor A outer conductor forms a tube surrounding the center conductor. This conductor can consist of braided wires, metallic foil or both. The outer conductor, frequently called the shield, serves as a ground and also protects the inner conductor from EMI. A outer conductor forms a tube surrounding the center conductor. This conductor can consist of braided wires, metallic foil or both. The outer conductor, frequently called the shield, serves as a ground and also protects the inner conductor from EMI.

22 An insulation layer An insulation layer keeps the outer conductor space evenly from the center conductor. An insulation layer keeps the outer conductor space evenly from the center conductor.

23 A plastic encasement (Jacket) A plastic encasement protects the cable from damage. A plastic encasement protects the cable from damage.

24 Classification of Coaxial Cable Thinnet : inch (6mm) 610 feet Thinnet : inch (6mm) 610 feet Thicknet : inch (13mm) 1650 feet Thicknet : inch (13mm) 1650 feet

25 Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted pair cable is popular very much because of its inexpensiveness and ease of installation. A basic twisted pair cable consists of two strands of copper wire twisted together. The twisting reduces the tendency of the cable to radiate radio frequency noise that interferes with nearby cables and electronic components, because the radiated signals from the twisted wires tend to cancel each other out. Twisted pair cable is popular very much because of its inexpensiveness and ease of installation. A basic twisted pair cable consists of two strands of copper wire twisted together. The twisting reduces the tendency of the cable to radiate radio frequency noise that interferes with nearby cables and electronic components, because the radiated signals from the twisted wires tend to cancel each other out.

26 Classification of TPC Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STPC) Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STPC) Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable (UTPC) Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable (UTPC)

27 Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STPC) Shielded Twisted-Pair Cabling consists of one or more twisted-pair of cables enclosed in a foil wrap and woven copper shielding. Early LAN designer used STPC because the shield performed double duty, reducing the tendancy of the cable to radiate EMI and reducing the cables sensitivity to outside interference Shielded Twisted-Pair Cabling consists of one or more twisted-pair of cables enclosed in a foil wrap and woven copper shielding. Early LAN designer used STPC because the shield performed double duty, reducing the tendancy of the cable to radiate EMI and reducing the cables sensitivity to outside interference

28 Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable (UTPC) UTPC doesnt incorporate a braided shield into its structure. However characteristics of UTPC are similar in many ways to STPC, differing primarily in EMI. UTPC doesnt incorporate a braided shield into its structure. However characteristics of UTPC are similar in many ways to STPC, differing primarily in EMI.

29 Fiber-Optical Cable The center conductor of a fiber-optic cable is a fiber that consist of highly refined glass or plastic designed to transmit light signals with little loss. The center conductor of a fiber-optic cable is a fiber that consist of highly refined glass or plastic designed to transmit light signals with little loss. A glass core supports a longer cabling distance, but a plastic core is typically easier to work with. A glass core supports a longer cabling distance, but a plastic core is typically easier to work with. The fiber is coated with a cladding that reflects signals back into the fiber to reduce signal loss. A plastic sheath protects the fiber. The fiber is coated with a cladding that reflects signals back into the fiber to reduce signal loss. A plastic sheath protects the fiber.

30 Cont… Fiber optic network cable consist of two strands separately enclosed in plastic sheaths. One strands sends and the other receivers. Fiber optic network cable consist of two strands separately enclosed in plastic sheaths. One strands sends and the other receivers. Two types of cable configurations are available; Two types of cable configurations are available; 1.Loose configurations. 2.Light configurations.

31 Loose configurations Loose configurations incorporate a space between the fiber and the plastic encasement, this space is filled with a gel or other material. Loose configurations incorporate a space between the fiber and the plastic encasement, this space is filled with a gel or other material.

32 Tight Configurations Tight configurations contain strength wires between the conductor and the outer plastic encasement. Tight configurations contain strength wires between the conductor and the outer plastic encasement.

33 Comparison of cable media Cable type CostInstallationCapacityRange Coaxial Twisted Pair Fiber-Optic Less than TPC LowestHighest Inexpensive / easy Fairly easy Expensive / Difficult 10 mbps 100 mbps 100mbps to above 500 m 100 m 10 km

34 Boundless/Wireless Media When the information transmission without cable media they are called boundless/wireless media. When the information transmission without cable media they are called boundless/wireless media. There are many types of wireless media ; There are many types of wireless media ; 1. Radio wave 2. Microwave 3. Satellite

35 Radio wave In radio transmission a radiating antenna is used to convert a time-varying electric current into an electromagnetic wave, which freely propagates through a no conducting medium such as air or space. In a broadcast radio channel, an omnidirectional antenna radiates a transmitted signal over a wide service area. In radio transmission a radiating antenna is used to convert a time-varying electric current into an electromagnetic wave, which freely propagates through a no conducting medium such as air or space. In a broadcast radio channel, an omnidirectional antenna radiates a transmitted signal over a wide service area.

36 Microwave Microwave is the most important media of telecommunications. The transmission path of microwave links can be established between two land-based antennas or tower. Microwave is the most important media of telecommunications. The transmission path of microwave links can be established between two land-based antennas or tower.

37 Satellite In 1954 the satellite technique has established. It is also most important media of telecommunication. Easily and authentic data transmission by this media. Most telecommunication satellite have been placed in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), a circular orbit 35,785 km above the earth. In 1954 the satellite technique has established. It is also most important media of telecommunication. Easily and authentic data transmission by this media. Most telecommunication satellite have been placed in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), a circular orbit 35,785 km above the earth.

38 Modes of Telecommunications Serial and parallel Serial and parallel Simplex, Half duplex and full duplex Simplex, Half duplex and full duplex Modulation-demodulation Modulation-demodulation Radio wave Radio wave Microwave Microwave Satellite wave Satellite wave

39 Serial and parallel In serial communication, only one bit transmitted at a time and it is the suited for slow and long distance communication, whereas in parallel transmission group of bits as transmitted at a time, which is suited for high speed and short distance communication. In serial communication, only one bit transmitted at a time and it is the suited for slow and long distance communication, whereas in parallel transmission group of bits as transmitted at a time, which is suited for high speed and short distance communication.

40 Simplex, Half duplex, Full duplex Simplex Television Half duplex Full duplex Or and Computer

41 Modulation-demodulation Analog Input Analog Output A/D Converter (Modulation) Digital Signals D/A Converter (Demodulation) Digital Input Signals Digital Input Signals

42 Mode of Radio wave communication Electromagnetic signals Electronic signal Master Station

43 Mode of Microwave communication Atmospheric signals (Air and Surface) Master Station Input signals Transmitter Output signals Repeater Receiver

44 Mode of Satellite Wave Communication Mode of Satellite Wave Communication Satellite Master Station Master Station Input signals Output signals

45 Component of Telecommunication The basic components are follows; The basic components are follows; 1. Sender/Transmitter 2. Message 3. Language 4. Media 5. Receiver

46 Other Component of Telecommunication Other Component of Telecommunication Modem Modem Repeater Repeater Hub Hub Bridge Bridge Router Router Switch Switch Brouter Brouter Gateway Gateway

47 Modem MODEM is contraction of Modulator/ Demodulator, which allows a computer to transmit the information over a telephone line to another computer. MODEM is contraction of Modulator/ Demodulator, which allows a computer to transmit the information over a telephone line to another computer. The modem converts the digital signals into analog signals and analog signals to digital signals. The modem converts the digital signals into analog signals and analog signals to digital signals.

48 Repeater A networking component that extends a network by boosting the signal so that it can travel farther along the cabling. A networking component that extends a network by boosting the signal so that it can travel farther along the cabling. A repeater is a form of digital amplifier that works at the physical layer of OSI mode for regenerate of signals. A repeater is a form of digital amplifier that works at the physical layer of OSI mode for regenerate of signals.

49 Hub Hub is also called wiring concentrators, provide a central attachment point for network cabling. Hub is also called wiring concentrators, provide a central attachment point for network cabling. Hubs can be divided in three categories; Hubs can be divided in three categories; 1. Passive Hub 2. Active Hub 3. Intelligent Hub

50 Bridge A network component used either to extend or to segment networks. Bridges work at the OSI data link layer. They can be used both to join dissimilar media. A network component used either to extend or to segment networks. Bridges work at the OSI data link layer. They can be used both to join dissimilar media. Bridges come in three basic types; Bridges come in three basic types; 1. Local bridges 1. Local bridges 2. Remote bridges 2. Remote bridges 3. Wireless bridges 3. Wireless bridges

51 Router Router works at the network layer of OSI model for networking to move packets between using their logical addresses are the destination host. Router works at the network layer of OSI model for networking to move packets between using their logical addresses are the destination host.

52 Switch Bridge with more efficiency is called switch. A switch may act as a multi-bridge to connect devices in a LAN. Switch has a buffer for each link to which it is connected. Bridge with more efficiency is called switch. A switch may act as a multi-bridge to connect devices in a LAN. Switch has a buffer for each link to which it is connected.

53 Brouter Any network device having the capabilities of both a bridge and a router. Usually, a brouter will act as a router for one protocol and a bridge for all other protocols. Brouters are not common in network. Any network device having the capabilities of both a bridge and a router. Usually, a brouter will act as a router for one protocol and a bridge for all other protocols. Brouters are not common in network.

54 Gateway Gateway is used to connect the different protocol based networks (like TCP/IP, Apple Talk etc,) A term for a broad category of network components that allow communication between different networking architectures and different protocols. Gateways generally operate at the higher levels of the Open Systems Interconnection. Gateway is used to connect the different protocol based networks (like TCP/IP, Apple Talk etc,) A term for a broad category of network components that allow communication between different networking architectures and different protocols. Gateways generally operate at the higher levels of the Open Systems Interconnection.


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