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Networking Computers Copyright © 2006 by James Hug.

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1 Networking Computers Copyright © 2006 by James Hug

2 2 Types of Computer Networks Mainframe/Terminal Mainframe/Terminal 1960s/70s technology 1960s/70s technology Computation centralized Computation centralized Server/Client Server/Client 1980s technology 1980s technology Computation distributed with a central point of data storage Computation distributed with a central point of data storage Large installations Large installations Peer to Peer Peer to Peer 1990s technology 1990s technology Primarily for file sharing between computers Primarily for file sharing between computers Limited to 10 computers (Microsoft limitation) Limited to 10 computers (Microsoft limitation)

3 3 Typical Installation

4 4 Communication Systems Ethernet Ethernet Open network system (most popular) Open network system (most popular) Low hardware costs Low hardware costs Token Ring Token Ring Closed network system - IBM Closed network system - IBM Limited to 4 Mbs or 16 Mbs (cable dependent) Limited to 4 Mbs or 16 Mbs (cable dependent) ARCnet ARCnet Obsolete system Obsolete system Limited to 15 Mbs Limited to 15 Mbs

5 5 Communication Systems (conti.) USB USB Limited flexibility Limited flexibility 100/400 Mbs 100/400 Mbs Maximum cable length 16 foot Maximum cable length 16 foot FireWire (IEEE 1394) FireWire (IEEE 1394) Limited flexibility Limited flexibility 480 Mbs 480 Mbs Maximum cable length 16 foot Maximum cable length 16 foot

6 6 Communication Systems (conti.) AppleTalk AppleTalk Closed network system - Apple Computer Closed network system - Apple Computer Used primarily for their printer sharing Used primarily for their printer sharing StarLan StarLan Closed network system Closed network system HPNA HPNA Phoneline network system Phoneline network system Power Line Power Line Others Others

7 7 Ethernet Cable Systems ThinNet (10Base2) ThinNet (10Base2) Coaxial cable (bus topology) Coaxial cable (bus topology) Half duplex communication Half duplex communication Limited to 10 Mbs Limited to 10 Mbs Limited to 900 foot total length Limited to 900 foot total length Limited installation flexibility Limited installation flexibility Rapidly becoming obsolete Rapidly becoming obsolete

8 8 Ethernet Systems (conti.) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Half or Full Duplex [10/100/1000BaseT(x)] Half or Full Duplex [10/100/1000BaseT(x)] Speed is depended on the cable type Speed is depended on the cable type Cable Types Cable Types Cat-1 – Telephone (voice) Cat-1 – Telephone (voice) Cat-2 – 4 Mbs (Token Ring) Cat-2 – 4 Mbs (Token Ring) Cat-3 – 10 Mbs (Ethernet) – 300 foot max. length Cat-3 – 10 Mbs (Ethernet) – 300 foot max. length Cat-4 – 20 Mbs (Token Ring) Cat-4 – 20 Mbs (Token Ring) Cat-5 – 100 Mbs (Ethernet) – 300 foot max. length Cat-5 – 100 Mbs (Ethernet) – 300 foot max. length Cat-6 – 250 Mbs (Ethernet) – 300 foot max. length Cat-6 – 250 Mbs (Ethernet) – 300 foot max. length

9 9 Ethernet Systems (conti.) Fiber Optic (FDDI) Fiber Optic (FDDI) 1000 Mbs (Ethernet limitation) 1000 Mbs (Ethernet limitation) Same cable can share other transmission protocols (i.e. ATM, etc.) at the same time Same cable can share other transmission protocols (i.e. ATM, etc.) at the same time Length limitation – miles (depended on hardware) Length limitation – miles (depended on hardware) Used extensively to connect server farms together Used extensively to connect server farms together

10 10 Ethernet Systems (conti.) Wireless Wireless IEEE a IEEE a 5.4 MHz – 54 Mbs – 100 foot line of sight 5.4 MHz – 54 Mbs – 100 foot line of sight IEEE b IEEE b 2.4 MHz – 11 Mbs – 300 foot line of sight 2.4 MHz – 11 Mbs – 300 foot line of sight IEEE g IEEE g 2.4 MHz – 54 Mbs – 300 foot line of sight 2.4 MHz – 54 Mbs – 300 foot line of sight IEEE gx IEEE gx 2.4 MHz – 108 Mbs – 300 foot line of sight 2.4 MHz – 108 Mbs – 300 foot line of sight

11 11 Hardware Requirements Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Interface Card (NIC) Each computer must have one, either an installed or built onto the motherboard Each computer must have one, either an installed or built onto the motherboard It can be either wired or wireless It can be either wired or wireless Must be compatible with cable system Must be compatible with cable system I recommend 100BaseT(x) for wired systems I recommend 100BaseT(x) for wired systems Cost (wired) $10.00 each Cost (wired) $10.00 each Cost (wireless) $60.00 each Cost (wireless) $60.00 each

12 12 Hardware Requirements (conti.) Hub/Switch/Router/Wireless Access Point Hub/Switch/Router/Wireless Access Point For connecting two computers together – none is needed, but a cross over type cable is required For connecting two computers together – none is needed, but a cross over type cable is required For networking several computers together (Peer to Peer) with no Internet connection – either a Hub/Switch/Wireless AP is needed For networking several computers together (Peer to Peer) with no Internet connection – either a Hub/Switch/Wireless AP is needed For networking several computers to a broadband connection (DSL/Cable) – a Router is needed For networking several computers to a broadband connection (DSL/Cable) – a Router is needed

13 13 Hardware Requirements (conti.) Hub/Switch/Router costs Hub/Switch/Router costs Hub $ depended on number of ports Hub $ depended on number of ports Switch $ depended on number of ports Switch $ depended on number of ports Router (wired) $ depended on number of ports Router (wired) $ depended on number of ports Router (wireless b) $50.00 Router (wireless b) $50.00 Router (wireless g/gx) $60.00 Router (wireless g/gx) $60.00

14 14 Hardware Requirements (conti.) Cable cost Cable cost CAT-5/6 cable $0.20 per foot (with connectors affixed) CAT-5/6 cable $0.20 per foot (with connectors affixed)

15 15 Typical Installation

16 16 Transmission Protocols TCP/IP TCP/IP Internet standard also used by Unix (Linux) and Windows 2000 & XP Internet standard also used by Unix (Linux) and Windows 2000 & XP NetBEUI NetBEUI Used in peer to peer networks Used in peer to peer networks With the introduction of Windows XP - no longer supported by Microsoft With the introduction of Windows XP - no longer supported by Microsoft IPX/SPX IPX/SPX Used in legacy Novell systems Used in legacy Novell systems

17 17 Transmission Protocols (conti.) Other systems Other systems PPP – Dial up modem (POT) PPP – Dial up modem (POT) PPPoE – Broadband (DSL & TV Cable) PPPoE – Broadband (DSL & TV Cable) PPTP – Virtual Private Networks PPTP – Virtual Private Networks UPnP – Special devices (printer servers, household appliances, etc.) UPnP – Special devices (printer servers, household appliances, etc.) AppleTalk - Used primarily for printer sharing AppleTalk - Used primarily for printer sharing DLC – IBM mainframe/terminal DLC – IBM mainframe/terminal ATM – Teleco network interconnections ATM – Teleco network interconnections

18 18 Software Requirements (Peer to Peer network) DOS & Windows 3.1 systems DOS & Windows 3.1 systems Third party software is required (Lantastic, etc.) Third party software is required (Lantastic, etc.) Windows 3.11 & 95 systems Windows 3.11 & 95 systems Third party software is required (Lantastic, etc.) Third party software is required (Lantastic, etc.) Windows 95(OSR) & 98(x) systems Windows 95(OSR) & 98(x) systems Included in operating system Included in operating system Windows 2000 & XP systems Windows 2000 & XP systems Included in operating system Included in operating system

19 19 Hardware Installation Desktop Computers Desktop Computers Install NIC card in computer (if needed) Install NIC card in computer (if needed) Be sure to unplug the power cord Be sure to unplug the power cord Remove case cover Remove case cover Install NIC card in an available slot Install NIC card in an available slot Replace case cover Replace case cover Laptop computers Laptop computers Some Laptop computers have a NIC built into them; if not, insert a NIC PCMCA card into the PCMCA slot and reboot the computer Some Laptop computers have a NIC built into them; if not, insert a NIC PCMCA card into the PCMCA slot and reboot the computer

20 20 Hardware Installation (Conti.) Driver Installation Driver Installation Run the software that came with the NIC card Run the software that came with the NIC card If no software came with the NIC card, do: If no software came with the NIC card, do: Click right mouse button on My Computer Click right mouse button on My Computer Click left mouse button on Properties Click left mouse button on Properties Windows 98(x) – click left mouse button on Device Manager Windows 98(x) – click left mouse button on Device Manager Windows 2000 & XP – click left mouse button on Hardware & click left mouse button on Device Manager Windows 2000 & XP – click left mouse button on Hardware & click left mouse button on Device Manager

21 21 Hardware Installation (Conti.) Driver Installation (conti.) Driver Installation (conti.) Run the Add Hardware Manager Wizard Run the Add Hardware Manager Wizard Or manually install the device driver Or manually install the device driver Verify in the Device Manager that the driver is installed properly and enabled Verify in the Device Manager that the driver is installed properly and enabled There should be no yellow explanation marks (!) on any of the devices There should be no yellow explanation marks (!) on any of the devices Look in the properties of the device, it will tell you if the device is enabled Look in the properties of the device, it will tell you if the device is enabled

22 22 Connection Software (Services) Internet Connection (Broadband) Internet Connection (Broadband) Windows 98(x) systems Windows 98(x) systems In Settings > Control Panel > Network verify that the following are installed and install if missing: In Settings > Control Panel > Network verify that the following are installed and install if missing: Client for Microsoft Networks Client for Microsoft Networks Microsoft Family Logon Microsoft Family Logon File and printer sharing for Microsoft Networks File and printer sharing for Microsoft Networks NETBEUI -> Dial up Adapter NETBEUI -> Dial up Adapter NETBEUI -> NIC adapter NETBEUI -> NIC adapter TCP/IP -> Dial up Adapter TCP/IP -> Dial up Adapter TCP/IP -> NIC adapter TCP/IP -> NIC adapter Select Microsoft Family Logon as Primary Network Logon Select Microsoft Family Logon as Primary Network Logon In File and Print Sharing tab check the appropriate boxes In File and Print Sharing tab check the appropriate boxes

23 23 Connection Software (Services) Internet Connection (Broadband) Internet Connection (Broadband) Windows 2000 & XP systems Windows 2000 & XP systems If you decide to convert all of your computers on your LAN to Microsofts new standard (NETBIOS over TCP/IP) do the following: If you decide to convert all of your computers on your LAN to Microsofts new standard (NETBIOS over TCP/IP) do the following: In My Network places screen under Network Tasks run the Set up a small home or office network In My Network places screen under Network Tasks run the Set up a small home or office network Make a Network Install floppy disk and run it on your other computers Make a Network Install floppy disk and run it on your other computers If you decide to stay with Microsofts discontinued NETBEUI protocol find and install the NETBEUI protocol in your Local Network Connection Properties panel If you decide to stay with Microsofts discontinued NETBEUI protocol find and install the NETBEUI protocol in your Local Network Connection Properties panel

24 24 Finding & Installing NetBEUI On the Window XP installation CD-ROM in the \VALUEADD\MSFT\NETBEUI folder On the Window XP installation CD-ROM in the \VALUEADD\MSFT\NETBEUI folder 1. Copy the NBF.SYS file to the hard disks folder \WINDOWS\SYSTEMS\DRIVERS 1. Copy the NBF.SYS file to the hard disks folder \WINDOWS\SYSTEMS\DRIVERS 2. Copy the NETNBF.INF file to the hard disks folder \WINDOWS\INF 2. Copy the NETNBF.INF file to the hard disks folder \WINDOWS\INF In Local Network Connection Properties install the NetBEUI protocol for each NIC device In Local Network Connection Properties install the NetBEUI protocol for each NIC device

25 25 Wireless Network Security Reconfigure the router: Reconfigure the router: Change the router name and password Change the router name and password Rename the wireless network name Rename the wireless network name Turn off SSID broadcasting Turn off SSID broadcasting Setup MAC filters for only permitted wireless computers Setup MAC filters for only permitted wireless computers Use encryption (WEP, WPA etc.) Use encryption (WEP, WPA etc.)

26 26 How To Web Site My best known help web site is PC911 My best known help web site is PC911 html html html html Good Luck and Happy Networking Good Luck and Happy Networking James Hug James HugJames HugJames Hug


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