Presentation on theme: "Vitamins and minerals are valuable micronutrients that the body needs to be strong and healthy. 1."— Presentation transcript:
1Vitamins and minerals are valuable micronutrients that the body needs to be strong and healthy. 1
2When vitamins were first discovered they were assigned letters. Once we learned they are chemicals they gave them chemical names. For example, Vitamin C is also called ASCORBIC ACID.
3Many vitamins are needed daily so loading up on just one does not help your body. Eating a variety of foods is essential.
4What Are Vitamins?Vitamins work with enzymes to keep cells healthy and active.They do not supply energy, but the body cannot produce energy without vitamins.Vitamins and minerals are called MICRONUTRIENTS because we need them in such small amounts.
5What Are Vitamins? Antioxidants protect cells from harmful substances. They repair damaged cells by changing free radicals.antioxidantsSubstances that protect cells and the immune system from damage by harmful chemicals.free radicalsAn unstable substance that candamage body cells.
6What Are Vitamins? (put on p.2) Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and pass into the bloodstream.Vitamin C and the B vitamins fall into this category.Only stay in the body for a short time. If not used right away they are passed out of the body in urine.Drinking plenty of water is essential.6
7Causes poor appetite, weakness, bruising, and soreness in joints. Vitamin C Functions:Maintain healthy blood vessels, bones, skin, and teeth.Helps with making of collagen which gives structure to bones, cartilage, and muscle.Helps the body heal wounds and fight infections.Lack of Vitamin C:Causes poor appetite, weakness, bruising, and soreness in joints.Severe lack causes SCURVY.Sources: Citrus fruits, strawberries7
8B Vitamins(Sources- Whole Grain Foods): B1: Thiamin- Aids in making carbohydrates into energy. Needed for muscle coordination and a healthy nervous system.B2: Riboflavin- Helps get energy from food (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Contributes to body growth and making of red blood cells.B3: Niacin- Helps get energy from food (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Needed for healthy nervous system and mucous membranes.8
9B Vitamins:B6: Pyridoxine- Helps body release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Promotes healthy nervous system. Helps make nonessential amino acids and helps make niacin in the body.B9: Folate (Folacin or Folic Acid)- Helps build red blood cells and form genetic material DNA. Helps the body use proteins. Too little can cause anemia. Helps prevent birth defects of the brain and spinal cord.B12: Helps the body process carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.Vitamin B12 is found in meat and milk products, but not in plant foods. Vegetarians must get B12 from Fortified grain products.9
10B Vitamins:B5: Pantothenic Acid- Helps the body release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. It helps the body produce cholesterol and promotes normal growth and development. Also needed for a healthy nervous system.Biotin- Helps body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Helps stabilize the level of glucose in the blood.10
11What Are Vitamins?Fat-soluble vitamins are transported by fat and stored in the liver.Vitamins A, D, E, and K fall into this category.Excess fat soluble vitamins are mainly stored in the liver.Large amounts of these vitamins can harm the body.
12Vitamin A-3 forms: Retinol, Retinal, and Retinoic acid.Helps with good vision and maintain tissues and skin.Supports reproduction and growth.Too much Vitamin A can cause Toxicity.Vitamin D-Works with calcium and phosphorous to make sure bones grow properly.Your body makes Vitamin D when sunlight touches your skin.
13Vitamin E-Powerful antioxidant.Protects cells from oxidation damage, especially in the lungs.Can reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers.Vitamin K-Helps the blood clot so that wounds will stop bleeding.
14Free Radicals and Antioxidants Free radicals are linked to over 200 diseases. Free radicals damage body cells and cause the body to age. They also increase the risk of disease.
15As you watch the video clip answer the following questions: What create free radicals in the body?What food groups are highest in antioxidants?What diseases can potentially be treated/prevented by adequate intake of antioxidants?What do antioxidants do?What berry is highest in antioxidants?
20What Are Vitamins? Name sources for each of the vitamins on the left. Vitamin Cred berries, kiwi, red and green bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, and juices made from guava, grapefruit, and oranges.fortified breads, cereals, and pasta; meat and fish; dried beans, soy foods, and peas; and whole grains like wheat germB1- ThiaminB2- Riboflavinmeat, eggs, legumes (like peas and lentils), nuts, dairy products, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, and fortified cereals.red meat, poultry, fish, fortified hot and cold cereals, and peanutsB3-Niacin
21What Are Vitamins? Name sources for each of the vitamins on the left. FolateLiver, dried beans and other legumes, green leafy vegetables, asparagus, and orange juice are good sources of this vitamin. So are fortified bread, rice, and cerealsB12naturally in fish, red meat, poultry, milk, cheese, and eggs. It's also added to some breakfast cereals
22What Are Vitamins? Name sources for each of the vitamins on the left. Vitamin ADairy products; liver; egg yolks; foods high in beta-carotene; such as carrots; sweet potatoes; broccoli; and dark green, leafy vegetables.Vitamin ENuts; seeds; green leafy vegetables; wheat germ; vegetable oils and products made from them; soybean oil.Fortified dairy products; egg yolks; fatty fish, such as herring, salmon, and mackerel; fortified breakfast cereals.Vitamin DGreen leafy vegetables; other vegetables; some fruits.Vitamin K
23What Are Minerals?Become part of the body tissues. (iron in blood, calcium and phosphorous in bones and teeth)Minerals team with vitamins in chemical reactions.Calcium helps keep bones strong and prevents osteoporosis.Magnesium builds bones, makes proteins, and contributes to heart function.Electrolytes help cells do their part to keep body fluids in balance.23
24What Are Minerals?People need 100 mg/day of major minerals, but less than 100 mg/day of trace minerals.major mineralA mineral that you need in the amount of 100 mg or more a day.trace mineralA mineral that you need in theamount of less than 100 mg a day; sometimes called micro-minerals.24
26Calcium: Essential for bone growth and strength, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and the transmission of nerve signals Phosphorous: Allows cells to function normally; helps the body produce energy; key in bone growth Magnesium: Helps with heart rhythm, muscle and nerve function, bone strength Sodium, Chloride, potassium (electrolytes): Important for fluid balance
27What Are Minerals?Iron, iodine, zinc, and selenium are examples of trace minerals.What are some of the problems that can be caused by a lack of iodine?27
28What Are Minerals?Name sources for each of the major minerals on the left.MineralSourcesDairy; canned fish with edible bones; dry beans, peas, lentils; dark green vegetables; tofu made with calcium sulfate.CalciumPhosphorusMeat; poultry; fish; eggs; nuts; dry beans, peas; dairy; grainsWhole-grain products; green vegetables; dry beans and peas; nuts and seeds.MagnesiumSodium (Electrolyte)Table salt; processed foods.Chloride (Electrolyte)Table salt.Potassium (Electolyte)Fruits, including bananas and oranges; vegetables; meats; poultry; fish; dry beans and peas; dairy products.
29Iron: Key component of red blood cells and many enzymes Zinc: Supports the body's immunity and nerve function; important in reproduction Copper: Important in the metabolism of iron Iodine: Important in the production of thyroid hormones Selenium: Protects cells from damage; regulates thyroid hormone
30What Are Minerals?Name sources for each of the trace minerals on the left.MineralSourcesMeat; seafood; egg yolks; dark green, leafy vegetables; dry beans; enriched and whole-grain products; dried fruit.IronZincMeat; liver; poultry; fish; shellfish; dairy; dry beans and peas; peanuts; whole-grain breads and cereals; eggs; miso.Whole-grain products; seafood; variety meats; dry beans; nuts; seeds.CopperIodineSaltwater fish; iodized salt.SeleniumWhole-grain breads; vegetables; meat; variety meats; seafood.
31Chapter SummaryVitamins and minerals are micronutrients that help to keep the body healthy.Vitamins work with enzymes to keep cells healthy and active.Antioxidants are special vitamins and minerals that protect against free radicals.Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and pass easily through the bloodstream during digestion.
32Chapter SummaryFat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver for the body to use when needed.Minerals often team with vitamins in chemical reactions.Major minerals are those that the body requires 100 mg or more of each day.The body needs less than 100 daily mg of trace minerals.
33Chapter SummaryThe best way to obtain vitamins and minerals is through a healthful and varied diet.
34ReviewDo you remember the vocabulary terms from this chapter? Use the following slides to check your knowledge of the definitions.The slides in this section include both English and Spanish terms and definitions.Start
35Substances that protect cells and the immune system antioxidantesantioxidantsSustancias que protegen a las células y al sistema inmune de daño por sustancias químicas dañinas.Substances that protect cells and the immune systemfrom damage by harmful chemicals.Show Definition
36An unstable substance that can damage body cells. free radicalradical libreAn unstable substance that can damage body cells.Una sustancia inestable que puede dañar las células del cuerpo.Show Definition
37water-soluble vitamin vitamina soluble en agua A vitamin that dissolves in waterand passes easilyinto the bloodstream during digestion.Una vitamina que se disuelve en agua y que pasa fácilmente al flujo sanguíneo durante la digestión.Show Definition
38vitamina soluble en grasa fat-soluble vitaminvitamina soluble en grasaA vitamin that isabsorbed and transported by fat.Una vitamina que la grasa absorbe y transporta.Show Definition
39Poisoning from too much of a substance. toxicitytoxicidadPoisoning from too much of a substance.Envenenamiento por ingerir demasiado de una sustancia.Show Definition
40A mineral that you need in the amount of 100 mg or more a day. major mineralmineral primarioA mineral that you need in the amountof 100 mg or morea day.Mineral que necesitas en cantidades de 100 mg o más al día.Show Definition
41form particles called electrolytes, which help cells function. electrolyte mineralelectrolito mineralA mineral that helpsform particles called electrolytes, whichhelp cells function.Un mineral que ayuda a formar las partículas llamadas electrolitos, que a su vez ayudan a las células a funcionar bien.Show Definition
42High blood pressure linked to high salt intake. hypertensionhipertensiónHigh blood pressure linked to high salt intake.Alta presión sanguínea relacionada con un alto consumo de sal.Show Definition
43trace mineral mineral secundario A mineral that you need in the amount of less than 100 mg a day; sometimes called micro-minerals.Mineral del que necesitas menos de 100 mg al día; también se conocen como micro-minerales.Show Definition
44iron deficiency anemia anemia por deficiencia de hierro Too little iron leadsto having too few red blood cells, causingpeople to become tired, weak, short ofbreath, pale, and cold.La falta de hierro reduce el número de glóbulos rojos, lo que causa cansancio, debilidad, falta de aire y frío en la persona.Show Definition
45picapicaAn unusual appetite for ice, clay, or other nonfood items; a craving for thingsthat are not normally eaten.Apetito fuera de lo común por hielo, arcilla u otros artículos no alimenticios; antojo para cosas que normalmente no se comen.Show Definition
46Condición en la que el cuerpo tiene muy poca agua. stabilizedeshidrataciónTo hold steady.Condición en la que el cuerpo tiene muy poca agua.Show Definition
47regulate regular Control and maintain. Controlar y mantener. Show Definition