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Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 1 Vitamins and minerals are valuable micronutrients that the body needs.

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Presentation on theme: "Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 1 Vitamins and minerals are valuable micronutrients that the body needs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 1 Vitamins and minerals are valuable micronutrients that the body needs to be strong and healthy.

2 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 2 When vitamins were first discovered they were assigned letters. Once we learned they are chemicals they gave them chemical names. For example, Vitamin C is also called ASCORBIC ACID.

3 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 3 Many vitamins are needed daily so loading up on just one does not help your body. Eating a variety of foods is essential.

4 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 4 What Are Vitamins? Vitamins work with enzymes to keep cells healthy and active. They do not supply energy, but the body cannot produce energy without vitamins. Vitamins and minerals are called MICRONUTRIENTS because we need them in such small amounts.

5 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 5 What Are Vitamins? Antioxidants protect cells from harmful substances. They repair damaged cells by changing free radicals. antioxidants Substances that protect cells and the immune system from damage by harmful chemicals. free radicals An unstable substance that can damage body cells.

6 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 6 What Are Vitamins? (put on p.2) Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and pass into the bloodstream. Vitamin C and the B vitamins fall into this category. Only stay in the body for a short time. If not used right away they are passed out of the body in urine. Drinking plenty of water is essential.

7 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 7 Vitamin C Functions: Maintain healthy blood vessels, bones, skin, and teeth. Helps with making of collagen which gives structure to bones, cartilage, and muscle. Helps the body heal wounds and fight infections. Lack of Vitamin C: Causes poor appetite, weakness, bruising, and soreness in joints. Severe lack causes SCURVY. Sources: Citrus fruits, strawberries

8 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 8 B Vitamins(Sources- Whole Grain Foods): B1: Thiamin- Aids in making carbohydrates into energy. Needed for muscle coordination and a healthy nervous system. B2: Riboflavin- Helps get energy from food (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Contributes to body growth and making of red blood cells. B3: Niacin- Helps get energy from food (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Needed for healthy nervous system and mucous membranes.

9 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 9 B Vitamins: B6: Pyridoxine- Helps body release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Promotes healthy nervous system. Helps make nonessential amino acids and helps make niacin in the body. B9: Folate (Folacin or Folic Acid)- Helps build red blood cells and form genetic material DNA. Helps the body use proteins. Too little can cause anemia. Helps prevent birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. B12: Helps the body process carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. –Vitamin B12 is found in meat and milk products, but not in plant foods. Vegetarians must get B12 from Fortified grain products.

10 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 10 B Vitamins: B5: Pantothenic Acid- Helps the body release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. It helps the body produce cholesterol and promotes normal growth and development. Also needed for a healthy nervous system. Biotin- Helps body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Helps stabilize the level of glucose in the blood.

11 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 11 Fat-soluble vitamins are transported by fat and stored in the liver. Vitamins A, D, E, and K fall into this category. Excess fat soluble vitamins are mainly stored in the liver. Large amounts of these vitamins can harm the body. What Are Vitamins?

12 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 12 Vitamin A- 3 forms: Retinol, Retinal, and Retinoic acid. Helps with good vision and maintain tissues and skin. Supports reproduction and growth. Too much Vitamin A can cause Toxicity. Vitamin D- Works with calcium and phosphorous to make sure bones grow properly. Your body makes Vitamin D when sunlight touches your skin.

13 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 13 Vitamin E- Powerful antioxidant. Protects cells from oxidation damage, especially in the lungs. Can reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers. Vitamin K-Helps the blood clot so that wounds will stop bleeding.

14 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 14 Free Radicals and Antioxidants Free radicals are linked to over 200 diseases. Free radicals damage body cells and cause the body to age. They also increase the risk of disease.

15 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 15 As you watch the video clip answer the following questions: 1.What create free radicals in the body? 2.What food groups are highest in antioxidants? 3.What diseases can potentially be treated/prevented by adequate intake of antioxidants? 4.What do antioxidants do? 5.What berry is highest in antioxidants?

16 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 16

17 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 17 Vitamin D Definciency vs. Skin Cancer

18 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 18 Free Radicals and Antioxidants

19 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 19 Free Radicals and Antioxidants

20 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 20 What Are Vitamins? fortified breads, cereals, and pasta; meat and fish; dried beans, soy foods, and peas; and whole grains like wheat germ Vitamin Cred berries, kiwi, red and green bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, and juices made from guava, grapefruit, and oranges. B1- Thiamin B2- Riboflavin meat, eggs, legumes (like peas and lentils), nuts, dairy products, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, and fortified cereals. VitaminSources B3-Niacin red meat, poultry, fish, fortified hot and cold cereals, and peanuts Name sources for each of the vitamins on the left.

21 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 21 What Are Vitamins? Folate Liver, dried beans and other legumes, green leafy vegetables, asparagus, and orange juice are good sources of this vitamin. So are fortified bread, rice, and cereals B12 naturally in fish, red meat, poultry, milk, cheese, and eggs. It's also added to some breakfast cereals VitaminSources Name sources for each of the vitamins on the left.

22 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 22 What Are Vitamins? Vitamin ADairy products; liver; egg yolks; foods high in beta-carotene; such as carrots; sweet potatoes; broccoli; and dark green, leafy vegetables. Vitamin ENuts; seeds; green leafy vegetables; wheat germ; vegetable oils and products made from them; soybean oil. Vitamin D Fortified dairy products; egg yolks; fatty fish, such as herring, salmon, and mackerel; fortified breakfast cereals. VitaminSources Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables; other vegetables; some fruits. Name sources for each of the vitamins on the left.

23 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 23 What Are Minerals? Become part of the body tissues. (iron in blood, calcium and phosphorous in bones and teeth) Minerals team with vitamins in chemical reactions. Calcium helps keep bones strong and prevents osteoporosis. Magnesium builds bones, makes proteins, and contributes to heart function. Electrolytes help cells do their part to keep body fluids in balance.

24 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 24 What Are Minerals? People need 100 mg/day of major minerals, but less than 100 mg/day of trace minerals. major mineral A mineral that you need in the amount of 100 mg or more a day. trace mineral A mineral that you need in the amount of less than 100 mg a day; sometimes called micro-minerals.

25 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 25 ©2002 Learning Zone Express 25 Minerals Functions in the Body: The body depends on minerals for practically every process necessary for life. The body requires 16 minerals daily.

26 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 26 Calcium: Essential for bone growth and strength, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and the transmission of nerve signals Phosphorous: Allows cells to function normally; helps the body produce energy; key in bone growth Magnesium: Helps with heart rhythm, muscle and nerve function, bone strength Sodium, Chloride, potassium (electrolytes): Important for fluid balance

27 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 27 What Are Minerals? Iron, iodine, zinc, and selenium are examples of trace minerals. What are some of the problems that can be caused by a lack of iodine?

28 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 28 What Are Minerals? Calcium Dairy; canned fish with edible bones; dry beans, peas, lentils; dark green vegetables; tofu made with calcium sulfate. PhosphorusMeat; poultry; fish; eggs; nuts; dry beans, peas; dairy; grains Magnesium Whole-grain products; green vegetables; dry beans and peas; nuts and seeds. MineralSources Sodium (Electrolyte)Table salt; processed foods. Name sources for each of the major minerals on the left. Chloride (Electrolyte)Table salt. Potassium (Electolyte)Fruits, including bananas and oranges; vegetables; meats; poultry; fish; dry beans and peas; dairy products.

29 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 29 Iron: Key component of red blood cells and many enzymes Zinc: Supports the body's immunity and nerve function; important in reproduction Copper: Important in the metabolism of ironmetabolism Iodine: Important in the production of thyroid hormonesthyroid Selenium: Protects cells from damage; regulates thyroid hormone

30 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 30 What Are Minerals? Iron Meat; seafood; egg yolks; dark green, leafy vegetables; dry beans; enriched and whole-grain products; dried fruit. ZincMeat; liver; poultry; fish; shellfish; dairy; dry beans and peas; peanuts; whole-grain breads and cereals; eggs; miso. Copper Whole-grain products; seafood; variety meats; dry beans; nuts; seeds. MineralSources IodineSaltwater fish; iodized salt. Name sources for each of the trace minerals on the left. SeleniumWhole-grain breads; vegetables; meat; variety meats; seafood.

31 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 31 Chapter Summary Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients that help to keep the body healthy. Vitamins work with enzymes to keep cells healthy and active. Antioxidants are special vitamins and minerals that protect against free radicals. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and pass easily through the bloodstream during digestion.

32 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 32 Chapter Summary Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver for the body to use when needed. Minerals often team with vitamins in chemical reactions. Major minerals are those that the body requires 100 mg or more of each day. The body needs less than 100 daily mg of trace minerals.

33 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 33 Chapter Summary The best way to obtain vitamins and minerals is through a healthful and varied diet.

34 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 34 Review Start Do you remember the vocabulary terms from this chapter? Use the following slides to check your knowledge of the definitions. The slides in this section include both English and Spanish terms and definitions.

35 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 35 antioxidants antioxidantes Substances that protect cells and the immune system from damage by harmful chemicals. Sustancias que protegen a las células y al sistema inmune de daño por sustancias químicas dañinas. Show Definition

36 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 36 free radical radical libre An unstable substance that can damage body cells. Una sustancia inestable que puede dañar las células del cuerpo. Show Definition

37 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 37 water-soluble vitamin vitamina soluble en agua A vitamin that dissolves in water and passes easily into the bloodstream during digestion. Una vitamina que se disuelve en agua y que pasa fácilmente al flujo sanguíneo durante la digestión. Show Definition

38 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 38 fat-soluble vitamin vitamina soluble en grasa A vitamin that is absorbed and transported by fat. Una vitamina que la grasa absorbe y transporta. Show Definition

39 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 39 toxicity toxicidad Poisoning from too much of a substance. Envenenamiento por ingerir demasiado de una sustancia. Show Definition

40 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 40 major mineral mineral primario A mineral that you need in the amount of 100 mg or more a day. Mineral que necesitas en cantidades de 100 mg o más al día. Show Definition

41 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 41 electrolyte mineral electrolito mineral A mineral that helps form particles called electrolytes, which help cells function. Un mineral que ayuda a formar las partículas llamadas electrolitos, que a su vez ayudan a las células a funcionar bien. Show Definition

42 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 42 hypertension hipertensión High blood pressure linked to high salt intake. Alta presión sanguínea relacionada con un alto consumo de sal. Show Definition

43 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 43 trace mineral mineral secundario A mineral that you need in the amount of less than 100 mg a day; sometimes called micro-minerals. Mineral del que necesitas menos de 100 mg al día; también se conocen como micro-minerales. Show Definition

44 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 44 iron deficiency anemia anemia por deficiencia de hierro Too little iron leads to having too few red blood cells, causing people to become tired, weak, short of breath, pale, and cold. La falta de hierro reduce el número de glóbulos rojos, lo que causa cansancio, debilidad, falta de aire y frío en la persona. Show Definition

45 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 45 pica An unusual appetite for ice, clay, or other nonfood items; a craving for things that are not normally eaten. Apetito fuera de lo común por hielo, arcilla u otros artículos no alimenticios; antojo para cosas que normalmente no se comen. Show Definition

46 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 46 stabilize deshidratación To hold steady. Condición en la que el cuerpo tiene muy poca agua. Show Definition

47 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 47 regulate regular Control and maintain. Controlar y mantener. Show Definition

48 Glencoe Food for Today Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals 48 End of Chapter 8 Vitamins & Minerals


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