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ITNW 1325, Chapter III, Part II

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Presentation on theme: "ITNW 1325, Chapter III, Part II"— Presentation transcript:

1 ITNW 1325, Chapter III, Part II
Network Cables ITNW 1325, Chapter III, Part II

2 Coaxial Cable

3 Coaxial Cable Overview:
Was the foundation of Ethernet networks in 1970s – replaced by newer twisted pair and fiber cable Has a single or multiple copper strands at its center – protected by PVC or Teflon insulation Protected and grounded via metallic shield (“braiding”) Protected from physical damage by a layer of dielectric insulator (“sheath”) on the outside Allows relatively long segments and highly resistant to noise – more expensive and less convenient to handle

4 Coaxial Cable Overview (continued):

5 Coaxial Cable Overview (continued):
Defined by Radio Guide (RG) specifications – with few most common types in use Classify the cores according to American Wire Gauge (AWG) numbers – the smaller is the diameter, the larger is the AWG number Differ by materials used for the core and for shielding, the core’s diameter, impedance, attenuation, data rates, and terminators used

6 Coaxial Cable RG-6: Contains an 18 AWG conducting copper core with an impedance of 75 ohms – thick and not flexible Used for delivering cable TV and Internet service over long distances to residential areas – not used for LANs

7 Coaxial Cable RG-6 (continued):

8 Coaxial Cable RG-8 (“Thicknet”, “10Base5”):
Contains an 10 AWG conducting copper core with an impedance of 50 ohms – very thick and inconvenient Allowed throughput up 10 Mbps with a maximum segment length of 500 m Used within first baseband (Ethernet) data networks

9 Coaxial Cable RG-8 (continued):

10 Coaxial Cable RG-58 (“Thinnet”, “10Base2 Cable”):
Contains a 24 AWG conducting copper core with an impedance of 50 ohms – thin and quite flexible Allowed throughput up 10 Mbps with a maximum segment length of 185 m Entirely replaced the 10Base5 cable within baseband data networks – popular in mid-80s and 90s

11 Coaxial Cable RG-58 (continued):

12 Coaxial Cable RG-59: Contains a 20 or 22 AWG conducting copper core with an impedance of 75 ohms – thin and quite flexible Allowed throughput up 10 Mbps with a maximum segment length of 185 m Used for delivering video signals for short distances Less expensive than RG-6 but suffers from attenuation

13 Coaxial Cable RG-59 (continued):

14 Coaxial Cable Termination

15 Coaxial Cable Termination
Overview: Necessary to avoid bouncing of the signal off the cable’s ends – accomplished by using connectors or special terminators with the same impedance as the cable used Two common types – F-type and BNC F-Connector: Suitable for cables with a solid metal core – becomes the pin in the center of the connector (used in RG-6) Mounted on a cable by crimping or compression – both male and female connectors are threaded and screw together like a nut and bolt assembly

16 Coaxial Cable Termination
F-Connector (continued): Male Female

17 Coaxial Cable Termination
Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) Connector: Mounted on a cable by crimping, compression, or twisting – connects to another BNC connector via a turning and locking mechanism (“bayonet coupling”) Male connector uses its own conducting pin – not the core of the cable like F-type ones Commonly used with RG-59 cable

18 Coaxial Cable Termination
BNC Connector (continued): Male Female

19 Coaxial Cable Termination
BNC Connector (continued):

20 Twisted Pair (TP) Cable

21 Twisted Pair Cable Overview:
Carries color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires Wires in each pair are twisted around each other – from 1 to 4200 pairs depending on the cable type Inexpensive, flexible, easy to install Twist ratio – the number of twists per meter – measures resistance to crosstalk Higher twist ratio leads to lesser crosstalk but requires more cable – increases attenuation and raises the cost

22 Twisted Pair Cable Overview (continued):
Uses a variety of twist ratios, pair numbers, copper grades, shielding types, etc. The TIA/EIA 568 standard defines categories – CAT5, CAT6, or CAT7 TP cable is needed for modern LANs Comes in two types – shielded and unshielded

23 Twisted Pair Cable Shielded (STP):
Shielding prevents external EM forces from distorting the signal traveling in the wires Each pair in individually insulated and surrounded by metallic shielding Grounded shielding enhances its protective effects Noise, shielding material, quality, and symmetry, and grounding affect the protection provided

24 Twisted Pair Cable Unshielded (UTP):
Employs no shielding – contains insulated wire pairs encased in a plastic sheath only Provides acceptable resistance to and less expensive than STP – widely used on computer networks

25 Twisted Pair Cable STP vs. UTP:
Provide same levels of throughput – from 10 Mbps to 10Gbps – depending on quality and type STP is more expensive since uses more materials, is less common, and required more expensive installation due to grounding High-grade UTP is priced similarly to mid-grade STP

26 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories

27 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
Contains four wire pairs Provides 10 Mbps throughput and 16 MHz bandwidth Limits segment length to 100 m (330 ft) Widely used in VoIP networks CAT4: Provides 10 Mbps throughput and 20 MHz bandwidth Carries better interference protection than CAT3 Both are replaced by newer UTP categories

28 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT4 (continued):

29 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
Contains four wire pairs Provides 100 Mbps throughput and 100 MHz bandwidth Limits the length of each segment to 100 m (330 ft) Connects to a NIC via an RJ-45 connector Uses 118 twists per meter (3 per inch) on average Was produced in large quantities – still widely available Inexpensive, effective, popular

30 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT5 (continued):

31 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
A version of CAT 5 cable with high-quality copper Contains four wire pairs Has higher twist ratios Incorporates better cross-talk reduction methods Provides 350 MHz bandwidth Allows 350/100 m segments at 100/1000 Mbps Inexpensive – widely used within 1 Gbps networks

32 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT5e (continued):

33 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
Contains four wire pairs, each wrapped in foil insulation Additional insulation covers the bundle of four pairs Carries fire-resistant plastic sheath on the outside Resistant to crosstalk 250 MHz bandwidth provides up to 10 Gbps throughput Allows 100 m (300 ft) long or 37 m (120 ft) long segments (for up to 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps, respectively) Uses newer GG-45 connectors Widely used in modern 1 Gbps networks

34 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT6 (continued):

35 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT6 (continued):

36 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
A higher-grade version of CAT6 cable Further reduces attenuation and crosstalk Allows longer segment lengths – up to 100 m at 10 Gbps Provides 550 MHz bandwidth Requires GG-45 connectors De Facto standard on modern networks

37 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT6e (continued):

38 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
Contains increased amount of shielding Larger, heavier, less flexible Has 600 MHz bandwidth Provides 10 Gbps throughput on up to 100 m (330 ft) segment length, with large margin Requires GG-45 connectors De Facto standard on modern backbone networks CAT7a: In theory – 1 GHz, 40/100 Gbps at up to 50/15 m Currently under development

39 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
CAT7 (continued):

40 TIA/EIA Twisted Pair Categories
Cost: PCI Express NIC, single RJ-45 connector: $30–40 CAT6 50 ft patch cable: $10–12 Troubleshooting implies replacing cable

41 Twisted Pair Termination

42 Twisted Pair Termination
Overview: Proper termination is required on both ends Poor termination leads to a data loss or a noise TP cable is automatically terminated when RJ-45 and GG-45 jacks are crimped onto it Two TIA/EIA standards exist for inserting the cable into jacks – 568A and 568B Any of the two standard can be used – the same one should be used on the entire network TP patch cable – sold in stores as premade, terminated, tested, and packaged cable

43 Twisted Pair Termination
Termination (overview): Green Pair #3 – Transmit Orange Pair #2 – Transmit Orange Pair #2 – Receive Green Pair #3 – Receive

44 Twisted Pair Termination
Straight-Through: Implies same TIA/EIA standard used on both ends Wires aren’t twisted end-to-end Used for connecting a PC to a hub or a switch Crossover: Implies using TIA/EIA 568A standard on one end and TIA/EIA 568B standard on another end Used for connecting two workstations or two network devices directly

45 Twisted Pair Termination
Crossover (continued):

46 Making Twisted Pair Cables

47 Making Twisted Pair Cables
Tools Needed: A wire cutter A wire stripper (removes the sheath) A crimping tool (fixes wires inside the connector) May come within same device Steps: Make a clean cut at both ends of wire using wire cutter Remove one inch of the sheath off of one end or wire Make sure to not to damage insulation

48 Making Twisted Pair Cables
Steps (continued): Separate the pairs and unwind each pair for up to ½ inch Align the wires on a flat surface according to colors and positions Pull steadily across the unwound section of each wire (“groom” wires) Slide wires into their positions in the RJ-45 plug Place the RJ-45 plug in the crimping tool and press firmly avoiding any rotation Use tester to verify transmission over the wire made

49 Fiber Optic Cable

50 Fiber Optic Cable Layered Structure:
Inner core – glass or plastic fibers at the center that carry laser pulses or an LED light used for data transmission Cladding – a layer of plastic or glass around the fibers that reflects the light back to the core Plastic buffer – an opaque layer that protects the cladding and the core and absorbs any light that escapes Strands of Kevlar – a polymeric fiber that surrounds the plastic buffer and prevents stretching and damaging Plastic sheath – providing the overall cable protection

51 Fiber Optic Cable Layered Structure (continued):

52 Fiber Optic Cable Single-Mode Fiber (SMF):
Uses narrow core – less than 10 microns in diameter Propagates light without reflections – causes no dispersion and no significant energy loss Provides the highest bandwidth of all media and allows the longest distance without requiring repeaters Allows 60 km (37 mi) long segments at 10 Gbps Good for connecting large networks together The most expensive networking medium Suitable for WANs

53 Fiber Optic Cable Single-Mode Fiber (continued):

54 Fiber Optic Cable Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF):
Uses wider core – from 50 to 115 microns in diameter, with 62.5 microns being most common size Multiple laser or LED pulses are sent over the fiber at different angles Allows 300 m (910 ft) long segments at 10 Gbps, 550 m (1670 ft) at 1 Gbps, and 2 km (6060 ft) at 100 Mbps Used for connecting network devices to a backbone Suitable for both LANs and WANs

55 Fiber Optic Cable SMF vs. MMF:

56 Fiber Optic Cable MMF vs. Copper, Advantages:
Allows longest distances without requiring repeaters Much more resistant to noise Very secure – tapping into light transmissions isn’t easy MMF vs. Copper, Disadvantages: Installation and field repairs are much more complex for MMF (requires special equipment) Much more expensive MMF is used to provide much higher throughput – not anymore (CAT7 TP cable – up to 10 Gbps)

57 Fiber Optic Cable Characteristics:
Highest throughput – no resistance allows achieving 100 Gbps per channel and reduces errors Highest cost – most expensive medium, NICs, and hubs, plus the highest installation costs – not practical for small networks Best EMI and noise immunity – no current used Size and scalability – segment length is limited by degradation of the signal (“optical loss”), with typical values from 150 to 40,000 meters (455 to 121,200 ft) Imperfections at connection points affect segment length

58 Fiber Optic Cable Connectors:
Ten different types exist, with four being being most common – Straight Tip (ST), Standard Connector (SC), Local Connector (LC), and Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack (MT-RJ) All can be used for both SMF and MMF ST and SC are used on older networks LC and MT-RJ are smaller in size – allow higher density at termination points, used in newer networks MT-RJ connector contains two strands of fiber in a short protective tube (“ferrule”), allowing full-duplex mode

59 Fiber Optic Cable Connectors (continued): ST connector SC connector

60 Fiber Optic Cable Connectors (continued): LC connector MT-RJ connector

61 Fiber Optic Cable Connectors (continued):

62 Fiber Optic Cable Cost: PCI Express NIC, single LC connector: $500–600
MMF 50 ft cable, LC connecter: $50 – 60 Troubleshooting implies using professional services Installation time and labor costs are much higher than for TP cable

63 Homework Read the chapter and the summary section, then review the key terms learned Answer the review questions and verify your answers with the chapter or lecture slides Complete the case projects 3-1 and 3-3

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