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© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast training Prepared by James Reynolds Senior Product.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast training Prepared by James Reynolds Senior Product."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast training Prepared by James Reynolds Senior Product Manager Access Transport Technologies Group

2 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 2 DOCSIS 1.1/2.0 relied on the snooping of IGMPv2 messaging by the CM. DOCSIS 3.0 defines the cable modem to be multicast protocol agnostic and introduces centralized control at the CMTS. Backwards compatibility –To ensure that a DOCSIS 3.0 cable modem can operate in a Pre-3.0 DOCSIS environment, the CM is still required to snoop IGMPv2 messages when operating with a Pre-3.0 DOCSIS CMTS.

3 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 3 DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast model

4 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 4 DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast model A CMTS-initiated control mechanism replaces the IGMPv2 snooping and the associated multicast filtering in the cable modem in earlier DOCSIS versions From the CMTS perspective, –a DSID identifies a subset of CMs intended to receive the same Multicast session. From the CM perspective, –the DSID is a filtering and forwarding criterion for multicast packets. The group forwarding attributes associated with a DSID enable or disable the forwarding of multicast packets to specific interfaces in the cable modem.

5 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 5 DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast model Downstream multicast packet forwarding at the CM is achieved by filtering and forwarding packets based on DSIDs. This involves the following three high level functions: –Labeling multicast packets with a DSID by the CMTS –Communicating DSIDs and associated group forwarding attributes to a CM by the CMTS –Filtering and forwarding of DSID labeled multicast packets by the CM.

6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 6 Examples of DSID use

7 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 7 Example: Avoiding the duplicate delivery of downstream multicast traffic Why is this a problem? –when a multicast session is replicated to separate downstream channels in order to reach DOCSIS 2.0 CMs on each channel, a DOCSIS 3.0 CM that receives both channels needs to avoid delivering both copies of the packet to its CPE interface

8 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 8 Example: Avoiding the duplicate delivery of downstream multicast traffic How is this fixed? –DSID is pre-pended to multicast Ethernet frames This extended MAC header is ignored by D2.0 modems –CM1 and CM2 will receive the multicast –CM3 only told to receive DSID1 thus will pass only one copy of the multicast to the nominated interface

9 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 9 Example: Limiting the multicast source with D3.0 modems The DSID can specify both Source and Group (S,G) of a source specific multicast. Why do this? –To prevent multicast spoofing How? –The CMTS signals CM1 to recognize DSID3 but not DSID4, and –the CMTS signals CM2 to recognize DSID4 but not DSID3

10 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 10 When are DSID received by the D3.0 modem Before registration During registration After registration

11 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 11 When are DSID received by the D3.0 modem Before registration During registration After registration Before the modem boots, it will receive a pre-registration DSID in the Mac Domain Descriptor This DSID is for all multicast traffic required to assist the booting modem – e.g. well-known IPv6 multicast traffic This pre-registration DSID must be changed after registration

12 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 12 When are DSID received by the D3.0 modem Before registration During registration After registration The registration response will include the DSID for all multicast that the modem will use after registration –e.g. static IGMP group joins on an interface can cause this

13 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 13 When are DSID received by the D3.0 modem Before registration During registration After registration Dynamically using a Dynamic Bonding Change (DBC) message –e.g. after a DBC in a VDCO application, the new multicast group being subscribed to must be detailed in a DSID

14 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 14 Modem interfaces specified in the DSID A CM may have several logical and physical interfaces to internal and external multicast clients Each embedded Service Application Functional Entity (eSAFE) is a potential multicast client connected via a separate logical CPE interface. – example: eMTA – the MTA is an eSAFE client Each external CPE port is a separate interface to a potential multicast client. For the purpose of IP multicast forwarding, a CM can be thought of as a bridge with one port connecting to the CMTS and up to 16 non-CMTS facing ports connecting to Multicast Clients.

15 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 15 How a multicast is joined in DOCSIS 3.0 terms IGMPv3 [RFC 3376] for IPv4 –Note: Support for IGMP version 3 includes backward compatibility for IGMP version 2 [RFC 2236] MLDv2 [RFC 3810] for IPv6 –Note: Support for MLD version 2 includes backward compatibility for MLD version 1 [RFC 2710] The CMTS acts as an IGMP / MLD querier and as an IPv4/IPv6 multicast router The membership reports are passed transparently by the CM towards the CMTS. Multicast Clients send triggered IGMP/MLD membership reports when they want to start or stop receiving an IP Multicast Session. When the CMTS processes these triggered membership reports, the CMTS sends DBC messages (including DSIDs) to control forwarding of multicast packets by a CM

16 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 16 Multicast QoS The mechanism for providing QoS to a group of CMs is similar to the mechanism for providing it to an individual CM: Classify traffic into service flows and define the QoS for the service flows –the highest priority classifier that matches a downstream packet identifies the service flow for scheduling the packet.

17 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 17 Multicast QoS

18 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 18 Multicast QoS In the case of multicast traffic, the classifiers are called "Group Classifier Rules" (GCRs), and the service flows are called Group Service Flows (GSFs). GCRs and GSFs are associated with a Downstream Channel Set (DCS), which is either a single downstream channel or a downstream bonding group of multiple downstream channels.

19 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 19 Multicast QoS The multicast is identified in the CMTS by: –DCSid –DSID Note that the destination MAC address will be transformed as per standard RFC DCSid –index of a Downstream Channel Set that corresponds to either a single downstream channel or a downstream bonding group of multiple channels DSID –Downstream Service Identifier that identifies the group of Cable Modems to which the CMTS Forwarder is transmitting the packet

20 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 20 Multicast QoS DSID The CMTS assigns a different DSID to the same multicast session replicated on different DCSs. The CMTS assigns a different DSID to each different multicast session replicated to the same DCS. A DSID value is unique per MAC Domain

21 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 21 Multicast QoS CMTS Forwarder requests a MAC Domain to transmit a joined IP multicast session packet on a particular DCS The MAC domain will replicate the multicast if required The MAC Domain compares the packet against the list of Group Classifier Rules (GCRs) associated with the DCS of the request

22 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 22 Multicast QoS A Group Service Flow is a downstream Service flow with the same QoS Parameter Sets as an Individual Service Flow (ISF) created for an individual cable modem A GSF is always active: its Provisioned, Admitted, and Active QoS Parameter Sets are the same set

23 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 23 Multicast QoS GCRs, like individual classifier rules, have a rule priority. If the multicast packet matches more than one GCR then the CMTS uses the GCR with highest rule priority to select the GSF for transmitting the packet.

24 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 24 Multicast QoS If the packet does not match any GCR, the CMTS forwards it to a Default Group Service Flow –Using QoS parameters from the identified Default Group Service Class for the CMTS

25 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 25 Multicast QoS cable operator controls the creation of GCRs and GSFs by configuring entries in –Group Configuration (GC) and –Group QoS Configuration (GQC) tables –The Group QOS Config in turn refers to Service Classes for the QOS specification These tables only configure the QoS for IP Multicast sessions; they do not control how CMTS replicates IP Multicast Sessions on DCS

26 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 26 Group Config

27 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 27 GC - Group (Classifier) Configuration Group Configuration Group QoS Config Group PHS Config Group Encryption Config Replication Session defines the matching criteria for multicast sessions that have been configured for specific QoS treatment –Match by source –Match by group

28 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 28 GC - Group (Classifier) Configuration Group Configuration Group QoS Config Group PHS Config Group Encryption Config Replication Session the specific QoS attributes of a Group Service Flow (GSF) An index into the Group Qos Config table

29 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 29 Group (Classifier) Configuration Group Configuration Group QoS Config Group PHS Config Group Encryption Config Replication Session PHS rules associated with a multicast session

30 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 30 Group (Classifier) Configuration Group Configuration Group QoS Config Group PHS Config Group Encryption Config Replication Session defining the rules for encrypting multicast sessions

31 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 31 Group (Classifier) Configuration Group Configuration Group QoS Config Group PHS Config Group Encryption Config Replication Session Informative: the status of all multicast sessions actively being forwarded on all DCS in a CMTS

32 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 32 Group QOS Config

33 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 33 Group QOS Config uses Service Class Names to define the specific QoS treatment that a given multicast session requires Also: –Required attribute mask for a DCS –Forbidden attribute mask for a DCS –Aggregate attribute mask from dynamic channels in a DCS Typical QoS parameters for a GSF include Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate and the Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate

34 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 34 Group QoS Config - downstream binary attributes DOCSIS 3.0 introduces the concept of assigning Service Flows to channels or bonding groups based on binary attributes The CMTS attempts to assign service flows to channels or bonding groups such that all required attributes are present and no forbidden attributes are present. Associated with each channel or provisioned bonding group is a "Provisioned Attribute Mask" with a 1 or 0 in each bit position of a 32-bit integer. The specification-defined attributes are bits 16 through 31 of the Attribute masks.

35 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 35 Group QoS Config - examples of downstream binary attributes Examples of binary attributes of a downstream interface include: –Bonded, whether or not the downstream interface represents a bonding group; –High Availability, e.g., the existence of spare hardware that can automatically take over for a failed channel; –M-CMTS, whether the channel is an M-CMTS DEPI tunnel or an integrated RF channel –Low Latency, e.g., whether the channel has a lower than usual latency due to a lower interleaver delay; –DSG, i.e., intended as a single downstream channel on which to put all DSG CMs; –IPVideo, i.e., intended as a DBG on which to put all IP Video; –Business, i.e., intended for business committed information rate service; and –Synchronized, i.e., whether the channel is synchronized to the upstream master clock.

36 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 36 Group QoS Config - examples of downstream binary attributes

37 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 37 Group QoS Config Service Flow Required Attribute Mask optional in upstream and downstream service flows. If specified, it limits the set of channels and bonding groups to which the CMTS assigns the service flow requiring certain Cable Operator-determined binary attributes.

38 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 38 Group QoS Config Service Flow Forbidden Attribute Mask optional in upstream and downstream service flows. If specified, it limits the set of channels and bonding groups to which the CMTS assigns the service flow by forbidding certain attributes

39 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 39 Group QoS Config Service Flow Attribute Aggregation Rule Mask optional in upstream and downstream service flows. Applicable only to dynamic bonding groups. It controls, on a per-attribute basis, whether the attribute is required or forbidden on any or all channels of a bonding group that aggregates multiple channels. It can be considered to control how an "aggregate" attribute mask for the bonding group is built by either ANDing or ORing the attributes of individual channels of the bonding group

40 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 40 Group Encryption Config

41 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 41 Group Encryption Config To configure and enable an encryption profile that can be applied to a QoS group configuration (GC), use the cable multicast group-encryption command. You must configure an encryption profile before you can add an encryption profile to a QoS multicast group. SUMMARY STEPS –1. enable –2. configure terminal –3. cable multicast group-encryption number algorithm 56bit- des

42 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 42 What we have so far - provisioning Based on Multicast we are providing, we create the Group (Classifier) Config We create the Group QOS config that –references a service class name and –the service flow binary attributes Example: we specify that a multicast (S,G) will require a HA bonded channel with a certain Tmax and Tmin Config Service Class for MCast Group Config Classification MCast based on (S,G) Config the service flow binary attributes we need

43 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 43 What we have so far - in action Based on client group request using IGMP or MLD, we know what DCS that user has access to Group classifier rule, classifies into the required service flow ( created from CM config file and or the service class name). The service flow binary attributes are matched to those of the available downstreams (e.g. we require bonded or not) in the DCS. The MCast is forwarded on the appropriate channel / bonded channel to reach the subscriber Config Classification MCast based on (S,G) or TOS service flow binary attributes are applied Define the downstream binary attributes we have

44 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 44 Multicast Admission Control Or what happens if there is not enough bandwidth on the selected channel to admit the requested multicast We do not want the multicast to be forwarded if there is not enough guaranteed bandwidth to host the multicast –Blocky or no video

45 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 45 Multicast Admission Control - what is available DOCSIS 2.0 Multicast Admission Control allows admission control like VOIP/Data admission control per interface (Cisco feature) First release (Amazon - end 2008) –DOCSIS 3.0 Intelligent Multicast Admission control supported on MC5x20 based downstream (as per Monet release) –D2.0 style admission control per modular (SPA based) interface Multicast added to the options Voice or Data. –Limit the number of MLD/IGMP joins per interface Second release (mid 2009) – DOCSIS 3.0 Intelligent Multicast Admission Control –DOCSIS 3.0 Multicast Admission control (as per current Monet) supported on modular (SPA based) and MC5x20 based downstream

46 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 46 DOCSIS 3.0 Intelligent Multicast Admission Control Supported in Monet release Future support in Amazon and later releases

47 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 47 DOCSIS 3.0 Intelligent Multicast Admission Control - Monet Admission control allows you to categorize service flows into buckets. Examples of categories are –the service class name used to create the service flow, –service flow priority, or –the service flow type such as unsolicited grant service (UGS). Bandwidth limits for each bucket can also be defined. –For example, you can define bucket 1 for high priority packet cable service flows and specify that bucket 1 is allowed a minimum of 30 percent and a maximum of 50 percent of the link bandwidth.

48 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 48 DOCSIS 3.0 Intelligent Multicast Admission Control - configuration The group QOS configuration table specifies the application type to which each GSF belongs – the application-id Group QoS config –Group service flow Service class –Qos Admission control application-id –Bucket based admission control In this way, the QoS associated with each GSF is independent of the bucket category for the GSF or... the GSF QoS is independent of the admission control to that GSF.

49 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 49 Thankyou


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