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End-To-End Residential Broadband Architecture And Products Opportunities Timothy Kwok, Ph.D Architect Network Architecture Group Windows Networking Microsoft.

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Presentation on theme: "End-To-End Residential Broadband Architecture And Products Opportunities Timothy Kwok, Ph.D Architect Network Architecture Group Windows Networking Microsoft."— Presentation transcript:

1 End-To-End Residential Broadband Architecture And Products Opportunities Timothy Kwok, Ph.D Architect Network Architecture Group Windows Networking Microsoft Corporation

2 Agenda Residential Broadband and Deployment Residential Broadband and Deployment Microsoft ® Residential Broadband Strategy Microsoft ® Residential Broadband Strategy Broadband Support in Windows ® Broadband Support in Windows ® End-to-end ADSL and G.Lite Service Architecture End-to-end ADSL and G.Lite Service Architecture Home Networking Architecture Home Networking Architecture Cable Modem Architecture Cable Modem Architecture Product Opportunities in Broadband Product Opportunities in Broadband Auto Service Provisioning Auto Service Provisioning Call to Action Call to Action

3 What Is Residential Broadband? Fast networks to and through the home Fast networks to and through the home Requirements for residential broadband are different from business needs: Requirements for residential broadband are different from business needs: Demands far greater ease of use Demands far greater ease of use Scale is potentially huge compared to business networking Scale is potentially huge compared to business networking Driven by lifestyle/entertainment/information services Driven by lifestyle/entertainment/information services Market drivers: Market drivers: Fast Web access - #1 consumer request Fast Web access - #1 consumer request Ecommerce - shopping and transactions Ecommerce - shopping and transactions Fat pipes to the home drive in-home networking Fat pipes to the home drive in-home networking

4 How Quickly Will Broadband Happen? U.S. Residential High-Speed Data Service Connections By Technology (M) (IDC 10/98, Jupiter 8/98, Dataquest 10/98)

5 Microsoft Residential Broadband Strategy Objective: enable and accelerate deployment of residential broadband services and applications Objective: enable and accelerate deployment of residential broadband services and applications Network Agnostic, focus on all emerging media: cable, DSL, wireless, etc. Network Agnostic, focus on all emerging media: cable, DSL, wireless, etc. Promote standards and interoperability Promote standards and interoperability Work with existing standards bodies: Work with existing standards bodies: ITU-T, IETF, ADSL Forum, ATM Forum, CableLabs/MCNS ITU-T, IETF, ADSL Forum, ATM Forum, CableLabs/MCNS Accelerate standards development: Accelerate standards development: E.g., PPP over ATM, G.Lite E.g., PPP over ATM, G.Lite Drive ad hoc industry efforts as needed: e.g., UAWG Drive ad hoc industry efforts as needed: e.g., UAWG Working with the industry to drive deployment (network operators and vendors) Working with the industry to drive deployment (network operators and vendors) E.g., ease of use, Auto-Service provisioning E.g., ease of use, Auto-Service provisioning

6 Windows Support For Broadband Networking Implement necessary standards-based networking protocols support into Windows Implement necessary standards-based networking protocols support into Windows Native ATM support (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) Native ATM support (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) PPP over ATM support (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) PPP over ATM support (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) Windows 98 Second Edition Windows 98 Second Edition Full QoS support in Windows 2000 including RSVP, diffserv, QoS policy, and traffic control Full QoS support in Windows 2000 including RSVP, diffserv, QoS policy, and traffic control Windows 98 - RSVP native Windows 98 - RSVP native Internet Sharing (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) Internet Sharing (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) Windows 98 Second Edition Windows 98 Second Edition PPTP support (Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT ® 4.0, Windows 2000) PPTP support (Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT ® 4.0, Windows 2000) Remote NDIS (Windows 98 and Windows 2000: beta H2 99; Windows CE: beta CY 2000) Remote NDIS (Windows 98 and Windows 2000: beta H2 99; Windows CE: beta CY 2000)

7 Accessnetwork ISP (POP) RegionalBroadbandNetwork CO/Cable Hub Corporatenetworks RegionalOperationCenter Internet ContentProviders NetworkAccessProviderServiceProviders Customerpremise Residential Broadband Service Model

8 Residential Broadband Service Requirements Provide four key connectivity services: Provide four key connectivity services: Internet access (information, games, etc.) Internet access (information, games, etc.) Corporate networking: telecommuting Corporate networking: telecommuting Local content (local news-on-demand, video on demand) Local content (local news-on-demand, video on demand) Peer-to-peer communications (video conferencing, IP telephony, multi-player games, etc.) Peer-to-peer communications (video conferencing, IP telephony, multi-player games, etc.) Each service has different requirement sets Each service has different requirement sets

9 Residential Broadband Service Requirements Public network: privacy, authorization, authentication and accounting Public network: privacy, authorization, authentication and accounting Connect simultaneously to multiple ISPs and corporations Connect simultaneously to multiple ISPs and corporations Connect to corporations with multiple layer 3 protocols Connect to corporations with multiple layer 3 protocols Auto-service provisioning (qualification, registration, verification) Auto-service provisioning (qualification, registration, verification) Support multicast Support multicast Support QoS (service classes or per VC QoS) Support QoS (service classes or per VC QoS)

10 DSL Technologies Digital Digital Suitable for data and video Suitable for data and video Subscriber Line Subscriber Line Employs existing copper infrastructure Employs existing copper infrastructure Why bandwidth >> analog modem? Why bandwidth >> analog modem? Shorter distance, typically < 18 Kft Shorter distance, typically < 18 Kft Much wider spectrum (MHz versus 4 kHz) Much wider spectrum (MHz versus 4 kHz) Advanced DSPs Advanced DSPs

11 What Is ADSL? (Full rate) ADSL modems (Full rate) ADSL modems Support both high speed data and POTS on separate spectrum Support both high speed data and POTS on separate spectrum Downstream (dedicated) Downstream (dedicated) 1.5 Mbps (18 Kft); 6-8 Mbps (9-12 Kft) 1.5 Mbps (18 Kft); 6-8 Mbps (9-12 Kft) Upstream (dedicated) Upstream (dedicated) 64 Kbps (18 Kft), 640 Kbps (9-12 Kft) 64 Kbps (18 Kft), 640 Kbps (9-12 Kft) Require splitter installed at customer premise Require splitter installed at customer premise

12 Upstream Downstream Mbps 8 Mbps Frequency (kHz) POTS G.Lite ADSL 0.3 DSL Frequency Spectrum

13 Why Universal-ADSL (G.Lite)? Truck roll required to install full rate ADSL limit deployment scale and rate Truck roll required to install full rate ADSL limit deployment scale and rate Tens of thousands instead of millions Tens of thousands instead of millions Limited by number of trucks :)! Limited by number of trucks :)! Need consumer version of ADSL Need consumer version of ADSL Low complexity Low complexity Easy and fast deployment in millions Easy and fast deployment in millions Remove need of splitter => avoid truck roll Remove need of splitter => avoid truck roll

14 What Is G.Lite? ADSL with no splitter needed ADSL with no splitter needed Up to Mbps Down, 512 kbps Up Up to Mbps Down, 512 kbps Up Reach: be able to operate on short and long loops, trading data rate against reach Reach: be able to operate on short and long loops, trading data rate against reach Complementary to ADSL Complementary to ADSL A training wheel for consumers A training wheel for consumers Focused on internal G.Lite Focused on internal G.Lite PC comes with built-in G.Lite modem PC comes with built-in G.Lite modem Together with analog (V.90) Together with analog (V.90)

15 UAWG (Universal ADSL Working Group) Motivation: accelerate deployment of millions of DSL, not 10,000s Motivation: accelerate deployment of millions of DSL, not 10,000s Complement existing full rate ADSL Complement existing full rate ADSL History History Formed in late 1997 Formed in late 1997 Co-founded by Compaq, Intel, and Microsoft, together with U.S. telcos Co-founded by Compaq, Intel, and Microsoft, together with U.S. telcos Over 50 companies today (including all major DSL vendors) Over 50 companies today (including all major DSL vendors) Goals: accelerate development of G.Lite technologies and interoperability Goals: accelerate development of G.Lite technologies and interoperability Work with ITU to specify G.Lite Work with ITU to specify G.Lite

16 UAWG Accomplishments ITU-T Determined G.Lite in October 1998 ITU-T Determined G.Lite in October 1998 Less than a year from start, versus typical 4-year ITU standards cycle Less than a year from start, versus typical 4-year ITU standards cycle Interoperability efforts begun with UAWG members: with multiple successful tests Interoperability efforts begun with UAWG members: with multiple successful tests

17 End-To-End DSL Service Architecture (Standards-Based) End-to-end ATM between home PCs and destination networks/servers at End-to-end ATM between home PCs and destination networks/servers at Internet service providers (ISPs) Internet service providers (ISPs) Corporate networks Corporate networks Content providers Content providers One or more virtual connections (VCs) to ISPs, corporate networks, local content One or more virtual connections (VCs) to ISPs, corporate networks, local content G.Lite has been specified to support ATM exclusively G.Lite has been specified to support ATM exclusively

18 Advantages Of The ATM End-To-End Model A real WAN solution A real WAN solution Protocol Transparency: multiple protocols at higher layers Protocol Transparency: multiple protocols at higher layers Multiple Service Classes Multiple Service Classes QoS guarantees: on per VC basis QoS guarantees: on per VC basis Security: connection-oriented Security: connection-oriented Fine grain bandwidth scalability: Fine grain bandwidth scalability: Match the adaptiveness of ADSL Match the adaptiveness of ADSL Evolution to other xDSL technologies Evolution to other xDSL technologies

19 ADSL ATMNetwork ISP Internet InternetContentProvider LocalContentProvider Native ATM ServiceProvider Employers Corporate Network Tunnel RAS Baseline Model

20 PPP Over ATM Model PPP runs exclusively over an ATM VC PPP runs exclusively over an ATM VC No other protocols sharing the connection No other protocols sharing the connection Null Encapsulation for mapping PPP over AAL5 Null Encapsulation for mapping PPP over AAL5 SVC: selected using specific B-LLI signalling information element to specify PPP SVC: selected using specific B-LLI signalling information element to specify PPP PVC: default is Null Encapsulated PPP PVC: default is Null Encapsulated PPP Standardized by ADSL Forum and IETF Standardized by ADSL Forum and IETF ADSL Forum TR-012 ADSL Forum TR-012 RFC 2364 RFC 2364 G. Lite has been specified to support ATM exclusively G. Lite has been specified to support ATM exclusively

21 ISP or corporate network PPP ATM PPP IP Client Telco: CO and Core network IP ICP ADSL End-To-End Protocol Architecture

22 ContentProvider ISP Data Center ADSLATMNetwork InternetBackbone ISP POP Call setup PPP Client Authentication

23 ContentProvider ISP Data Center ADSLATMNetwork InternetBackbone ISP POP RADIUSauthentication PPP CHAP PPP Client Authentication

24 ContentProvider ISP Data Center ADSLATMNetwork InternetBackbone ISP POP Connection to Internet services PPP Client Authentication

25 Advantages Of The PPP Over ATM Model Preserves dial-up model to ISP and corporate networks: leverages existing infrastructure Preserves dial-up model to ISP and corporate networks: leverages existing infrastructure Reduce cost by removing modem bank Reduce cost by removing modem bank Support simultaneous connections to multiple networks Support simultaneous connections to multiple networks Multiple PPP calls over separate ATM VCs Multiple PPP calls over separate ATM VCs Support multiple IP addresses at each client Support multiple IP addresses at each client Uses each networks respective IP address space Uses each networks respective IP address space Leveraging PPP capabilities Leveraging PPP capabilities Security, Autoconfiguration, Address Assignment, etc. Security, Autoconfiguration, Address Assignment, etc.

26 Windows Broadband Services Via DSL Modems Demonstration

27 Internet Regional Broadband Network Corporate network Local content DSL modem Gateway PC Kid's PC Dad's PC DSLAM with SVC capability Windows 2000 Server (RAS) NetShow on Windows 2000 Server Server (PPTP/RAS) Home PPP Over ATM SVC To Corporate Network, Internet And Local Content Provider

28 Home Networking And Broadband

29 PC DSL modem PCI PC USB Modem PC 1394 Modem PC 10BaseT Modem PC 10BaseT Modem Hub10BaseT PC 10BaseT PC 10BaseT PC LANHubLAN PC Gateway DSL modem Case A Case B Case C Home PC(s) Configurations

30 Case A - Single PC Modem connection options: Modem connection options: PCI card (exposed to O/S as an ATM device) PCI card (exposed to O/S as an ATM device) USB modem (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) USB modem (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) IEEE 1394 modem (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) - in the future IEEE 1394 modem (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) - in the future Point-to-point Ethernet (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) Point-to-point Ethernet (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS)

31 Case B - Shared Modem Problem: Extending PPP over the local home network Problem: Extending PPP over the local home network Solution: Use local PPTP tunneling, leveraging existing PPTP support in Windows 95, 98, and 2000 Solution: Use local PPTP tunneling, leveraging existing PPTP support in Windows 95, 98, and 2000 Private IP within the home Private IP within the home PPTP to the modem (terminated at modem) PPTP to the modem (terminated at modem) PPP over ATM across the network PPP over ATM across the network Reach different destinations from different PCs Reach different destinations from different PCs Why PPPOE is not recommended? Why PPPOE is not recommended? Re-inventing the existing protocol support Re-inventing the existing protocol support Requires new proprietary protocol development Requires new proprietary protocol development Requires user to install new stack Requires user to install new stack

32 Telco ServiceProvider DsL Modem or PC with built-in DSL modem Client PC HTTP TCP IP PPP L2TP/PPTP IP IP PPP ATMATMATM ADSLSONET/SDH L2TP/PPTP IP Ethernet MAC Local Tunnel Approach (PPTP/L2TP) For Multi-PC

33 Case C - Home Gateway Windows 2000 or Windows 98 as Home Gateway Windows 2000 or Windows 98 as Home Gateway Windows 2000 or Windows 98 PC connects to DSL line as in case A Windows 2000 or Windows 98 PC connects to DSL line as in case A In-home network behaves as Ethernet In-home network behaves as Ethernet Client Devices behind the Windows 2000 or Windows 98 PC using Client Devices behind the Windows 2000 or Windows 98 PC using Autoconfigured using DHCP allocator Autoconfigured using DHCP allocator Shares the Internet connection using NAT technology Shares the Internet connection using NAT technology

34 Product Opportunities In ATM And DSL ATM over ADSL adapter ATM over ADSL adapter External ADSL modem: with Ethernet, or USB interface, or ATM 25 External ADSL modem: with Ethernet, or USB interface, or ATM 25 For Ethernet, supports local tunnel (PPTP) For Ethernet, supports local tunnel (PPTP) For USB, use Remote NDIS For USB, use Remote NDIS ATM 25 NICs with traffic shaping ATM 25 NICs with traffic shaping (ATM over) G.Lite and V.90 built in to PC (ATM over) G.Lite and V.90 built in to PC ATM vendors: excellent SVC support is super critical (with billing and policy control interface) ATM vendors: excellent SVC support is super critical (with billing and policy control interface) Signaling DSLAM: DSL Access Multiplexors Signaling DSLAM: DSL Access Multiplexors

35 Neighborhood Area B Neighborhood Area C Neighborhood Area A Fiber Fiber Node (optoelectronics) Coax About 500 homes passed Amplifier/ line extender Drop Feeder Cable Architecture: Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) (Headend) Cable Hub

36 HFC Cable Architecture Spectrum allocation Spectrum allocation Downstream: MHz Downstream: MHz Upstream: MHz Upstream: MHz Node size: 500 to 2,000 homes passed Node size: 500 to 2,000 homes passed Upgraded return path for upstream communications Upgraded return path for upstream communications Cable modem bandwidth shared per node Cable modem bandwidth shared per node Downstream per 6MHz: Mbps Downstream per 6MHz: Mbps Upstream: 500 kbps - 10 Mbps Upstream: 500 kbps - 10 Mbps

37 HFC CMTS (cable router) CableModem PC Router Switch Local caching, DHCPservers RegionalHeadend (Internet and Broadbandservice Ethernet or USB, or PCI Cable Modem Network Architecture (DOCSIS)

38 Cable Standard Trends CableLabs: CableLabs: DOCSIS (also referred to as MCNS): defines how to provide basic Internet access over cable DOCSIS (also referred to as MCNS): defines how to provide basic Internet access over cable V1.0 is done - deployment by EOY 98 V1.1 adds QoS at the cable MAC layer - deployment by mid/end 99 PacketCable: defines how to support VoIP over cable PacketCable: defines how to support VoIP over cable Builds upon DOCSIS v1.1. Client: external voice adapter integrated with CM Service: primary voice and secondary voice OpenCable: defines a interoperable digital STB OpenCable: defines a interoperable digital STB

39 Cable Modem Products Opportunities Short-term: external Cable modems with Ethernet or USB Interface Short-term: external Cable modems with Ethernet or USB Interface Long-term (low cost) approach: Internal (host-based) cable modems with QoS Long-term (low cost) approach: Internal (host-based) cable modems with QoS Take advantage of Windows QoS support Take advantage of Windows QoS support CMTS and cable modem supports DOCSIS 1.1 for QoS support CMTS and cable modem supports DOCSIS 1.1 for QoS support CMTS supports RSVP (and translation into DOCSIS 1.1) CMTS supports RSVP (and translation into DOCSIS 1.1)

40 Provisioning For DSL

41 The Problem Provisioning of DSL is complicated and expensive today because Provisioning of DSL is complicated and expensive today because Multiple providers (ISP, telcos) coordination Multiple providers (ISP, telcos) coordination Loop qualification Loop qualification PC software and hardware qualification PC software and hardware qualification Service availability not guaranteed Service availability not guaranteed Requires truckroll Requires truckroll Goal: Plug and Play simplicity without truckroll => will allow accelerated deployment of services Goal: Plug and Play simplicity without truckroll => will allow accelerated deployment of services Microsoft has been working with major Telcos, ISPs, CLEC and vendors, and to solve provisioning problem Microsoft has been working with major Telcos, ISPs, CLEC and vendors, and to solve provisioning problem

42 Provisioning Requirements Support multiple purchasing channels Support multiple purchasing channels Online signup and registration Online signup and registration Fastest possible loop qualification Fastest possible loop qualification Automated line and service ordering between ISPs and LECs (XML or EDI) Automated line and service ordering between ISPs and LECs (XML or EDI) No truck roll required (before or after) No truck roll required (before or after) Rapid service fulfillment (like POTS) Rapid service fulfillment (like POTS) Provide interim V.90 service while waiting for DSL service activation Provide interim V.90 service while waiting for DSL service activation

43 Off-the-Shelf PC Ordered from PC OEM Ordered from DSL provider Ordered from ISP/OSP How Does The User Buy?

44 Connecting To Broadband Required steps (not necessarily in order) Required steps (not necessarily in order) User requests service User requests service Loop and PC qualification Loop and PC qualification Loop installation Loop installation Device and Protocol installation Device and Protocol installation Local connection configuration Local connection configuration Local network connectivity establishment Local network connectivity establishment Sign-on, service selection, and connection Sign-on, service selection, and connection Account authorization and service creation Account authorization and service creation

45 Requirements For G.Lite No truck roll - must enable users to it themselves No truck roll - must enable users to it themselves Plug-and-play installation of service Plug-and-play installation of service Configuration required of Configuration required of Physical Layer (DSL line coding) Physical Layer (DSL line coding) ATM layer (PVC and SVC configurations) ATM layer (PVC and SVC configurations) Encapsulation type (PPPOA) Encapsulation type (PPPOA) IP layer (e.g., static addresses) IP layer (e.g., static addresses) Applications (browser settings, etc.) Applications (browser settings, etc.)

46 Provisioning Procedure Client uses V.90 to Referral Server Client uses V.90 to Referral Server Referral Server sends offers Referral Server sends offers May be restricted to OEM partners May be restricted to OEM partners Client connects to chosen ISP Client connects to chosen ISP ISP identifies DSL availability and loop qualification from providers ISP identifies DSL availability and loop qualification from providers Using XML/EDI interchange in real time Using XML/EDI interchange in real time ISP provides Interim Narrowband service to user using INS file ISP provides Interim Narrowband service to user using INS file

47 Provisioning Procedure ISP places DSL order with provider ISP places DSL order with provider Automated using XML and/or EDI Automated using XML and/or EDI DSL provider connects loop and decides Low Layer configuration DSL provider connects loop and decides Low Layer configuration Low Layer INS information is passed to ISP by DSL provider Low Layer INS information is passed to ISP by DSL provider ISP assembles complete Broadband INS and downloads to client ISP assembles complete Broadband INS and downloads to client ICW code on client configures PC and connects broadband service ICW code on client configures PC and connects broadband service

48 PSTN ISP DSL provider Referral Server BB Offer Request Offers (INS) ISP Registration Server Signup Interim INS (NB) Interim Service Loop Qualification Loop Order Low Layer Configuration Broadband INS Analog modem DSL modem Provisioning Procedure

49 Windows Logo For Broadband DSL NIC DSL NIC Prerequisite: Standards based - T1.413 Issue 2, G. Lite (G ) Prerequisite: Standards based - T1.413 Issue 2, G. Lite (G ) NDIS 5.0 driver NDIS 5.0 driver See PC 99 System Design Guide See PC 99 System Design Guide External DSL modem External DSL modem With USB: remote NDIS With USB: remote NDIS With Ethernet: local PPTP tunnel With Ethernet: local PPTP tunnel Cable modem NIC Cable modem NIC Under development: based on ongoing CableLabs host-based cable modem work Under development: based on ongoing CableLabs host-based cable modem work Feedback welcome Feedback welcome

50 Conclusion Residential Broadband Services Tidal wave coming Residential Broadband Services Tidal wave coming G.Lite (G.992.2) allows rapid DSL deployment to millions of homes G.Lite (G.992.2) allows rapid DSL deployment to millions of homes PPP over ATM is the target End-to-End protocol architecture for DSL systems PPP over ATM is the target End-to-End protocol architecture for DSL systems For both ADSL and G.Lite For both ADSL and G.Lite Cable: DOCSIS is the (de facto) standard Cable: DOCSIS is the (de facto) standard For rapid nationwide rollout, must focus on For rapid nationwide rollout, must focus on Interoperability (both physical and higher layers) Interoperability (both physical and higher layers) Auto-service provisioning (true plug and play) Auto-service provisioning (true plug and play)

51 Call To Action Build standards-based solution Build standards-based solution G.Lite (G.992.2) G.Lite (G.992.2) ADSL: ANSI T1.413 Issue 2 ADSL: ANSI T1.413 Issue 2 Higher layer protocol: PPP over ATM over DSL Higher layer protocol: PPP over ATM over DSL Cable modem: DOCSIS 1.0 or 1.1 Cable modem: DOCSIS 1.0 or 1.1 Build ATM/DSL (G.Lite and T1.413) NIC, compatible with NDIS 5.0 (get Windows logo) Build ATM/DSL (G.Lite and T1.413) NIC, compatible with NDIS 5.0 (get Windows logo) Build ATM/DSL support on PC directly Build ATM/DSL support on PC directly Remote NDIS for external DSL and cable modem (e.g., USB) Remote NDIS for external DSL and cable modem (e.g., USB) PPTP local tunnel support for external DSL modem with Ethernet interface PPTP local tunnel support for external DSL modem with Ethernet interface

52 Call To Action Please help expedite DSL and cable Deployment Please help expedite DSL and cable Deployment Interoperability (both physical and higher layers) Interoperability (both physical and higher layers) Auto-service provisioning (true plug and play) Auto-service provisioning (true plug and play) Follow Microsoft design guidelines for DSL Follow Microsoft design guidelines for DSL Provide feedback to our DSL and cable architecture white papers Provide feedback to our DSL and cable architecture white papers

53 References Feedback: send to Feedback: send to For DSL: For DSL: For cable: For cable: Design guidelines and DSL and cable white papers Design guidelines and DSL and cable white papers PC 99 System Design Guide; PC XX at PC 99 System Design Guide; PC XX at Design guidelines for external modems Design guidelines for external modems End-to-end DSL architecture End-to-end DSL architecture End-to-end cable architecture End-to-end cable architecture PPP/ATM, DSL Architecture PPP/ATM, DSL Architecture ATM: The New Paradigm for the Internet, Intranets and Residential Broadband Service and Applications, Tim Kwok, Prentice Hall, 1998 ATM: The New Paradigm for the Internet, Intranets and Residential Broadband Service and Applications, Tim Kwok, Prentice Hall, 1998


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