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Presentation on theme: "© DIAMOND SA / 08-08 / 1 FIBER OPTIC INTERCONNECTIO N TECHNOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:


2 © DIAMOND SA / / 2 History of DIAMOND SA Foundation of DIAMOND SA in Locarno. Processing of diamonds and sapphires for sound systems, industrial jewels, jewels for the watch industry. 1975Crisis in the watch-making industry … 1978… diversification began 1980Beginning of production of a series of high precision optical connectors. Applications: telecom, data, video, avionics, submarine etc. In order to keep up with the demand for this new product and to guarantee excellent customer service, the establishment of further subsidiaries was decided. 1985DIAMOND has representatives in 20 countries all over the world. Losone: 200 employees 1987Further approvals of DIAMOND connectors world-wide. 1993Development of the new E-2000 connector 1994Intensive work in the field of telecommunications, CATV, LAN, sensor applications and measuring technique 1997Introduction of the new company logo TODAYDIAMOND SA has 10 subsidiaries and 46 representatives organisations in 40 countries with a total of 1000 employees world-wide. A new expantion is under construction. DIAMOND is at the forefront of fiber optics: "DIAMOND, THE FIBER MEETING.

3 © DIAMOND SA / / 3 tomorrow: beginning in connectors manufactured weekly of which; terminated in our manufacturing facility in Losone! today: connectors manufactured weekly of which; terminated in our manufacturing facility in Losone! Our production


5 © DIAMOND SA / / 5 (an example of telecommunication connections) Copper cableFiber optic cable (coaxial tube) Number of telephone conversation7'68033'900 per conductor pair Number of conductor pairs per cable12144 Cable diameter (mm)7522 Cable weight (kg/km)8' Maximum distance between 2100 repeaters (km) Fiber Optic Cable Comparison with Copper Cable

6 © DIAMOND SA / / 6 Properties Long distance transmission Increased data transfer thanks to very large bandwidth No electromagnetic influence No grounding problems Small, light and handy cables

7 © DIAMOND SA / / 7 1 x 1 = 3 Basics

8 © DIAMOND SA / / 8 Water tank Light source Expected way of the light Effective way of the light Total reflection at the boundary water-air Light propagation

9 © DIAMOND SA / / 9 Speed of light in vacuum: C 0 = km/sec. Speed of light in glass: C glass = km/sec. MilanZuric h 1 Millisecond MilanZurich 1,5 Millisecond Glas Vacuum Speed of light

10 © DIAMOND SA / / 10 Wavelength (nm) covered distance of a wave during one period (oscillation) Frequency (Hz) Number of oscillations (period per second) Wavelength Frequency f t 1 Sek. Wavelength / Frequency

11 © DIAMOND SA / / 11 analog phone AM radio mobile phone microwave oven X-rays Wavelength Frequency [Hz] km 30km 300m 3m 3cm 0.3mm 3mm 30nm 0.3nm NF range HF range Microwaves range Optical range X / gamma range TV & FM radio Wavelength range of electromagnetic transmission

12 © DIAMOND SA / / 12 Frequency Hz x x x x10 15 Infrared range Ultraviolet range wavelength nm Visible range single mode Laser multi mode Laser 1. Optical window 850 nm 2. Optical window 1300 nm 3. Optical window 1550 nm Laser range Radar range Wavelength range of optical transmission

13 © DIAMOND SA / / 13 Reflection Total reflection Perpendicular to division line Division line Light path Perpendicular to division line Division line Light path Light reflection

14 © DIAMOND SA / / 14 Total reflection Border ray Light refraction Light source Optical denser Medium (n1) Optical thinner Medium (n2) Light propagation in glass fiber

15 © DIAMOND SA / / 15 Coupling the ray of light The light rays which are outside of the defined angle will be absorbed or propagated within the fiber coating. Each fiber has its own acceptance respectively reflected beam angle. NA = Sin = n 1 2 -n 2 2 Numerical aperture

16 © DIAMOND SA / / 16 Fiber types

17 © DIAMOND SA / / 17 Fiber types

18 © DIAMOND SA / / 18 Signal at the fiber inputSignal at the fiber output Propagation of several modes Light conduction by refraction Fiber cores (50 µm and 62,5 µm) Graded Index Fiber Graded index profile - Multimode Fiber

19 © DIAMOND SA / / 19 Propagation of a single mode Fiber core (9µm) Single mode fiber Signal at the fiber outputSignal at the fiber input Step Index profile - Single mode Fiber

20 © DIAMOND SA / / 20 Spectrums

21 © DIAMOND SA / / 21 Fiber attenuation Transmission windows Dispersion1st window2nd window 3rd window

22 © DIAMOND SA / / 22 a = 10 log P out [W] P in [W] = [dB] The attenuation is given by the logarithmic relationship between the Input and the Output power. -3dB = 1/2 P -10dB = 1/10 P -20dB = 1/100 P -30dB =1/1000 P Attenuation

23 © DIAMOND SA / / 23 If a light pulse is coupled within a fiber, then a spreader pulse is to be observed at the fiber end. This impulse spreading increases proportionally with the length. Transmission impulseReceipt impulse Dispersion


25 © DIAMOND SA / / 25 coating core cladding 9 m250 m 125 m Single mode Multi mode 50/62,5 m Fiber construction

26 © DIAMOND SA / / 26 tensile forces lateral pressure humidity expansion overbending The cable serves to protect the fiber against:

27 © DIAMOND SA / / 27 Primary coating Core Cladding 250 m 125 m 9/50/62,5 m 900 m (0.9 mm) 3000 m (3 mm) Secondary coating Kevlar thread Jacket Fiber optic cable construction

28 © DIAMOND SA / / 28 Primary coating Core Cladding 250 m 125 m 9/50/62,5 m 3000 m / 3 mm Secondary coating (fiber bundle) Kevlar thread Jacket Outdoor cable construction

29 © DIAMOND SA / / 29 Secondary protection techniques Gel filling Inner loose tube layer, Polyamide Primary coated fiber, 250 m Gel filling Loose tube fiber Tight buffered fiber Secondary coating Primary coating, 250 m Fiber, 125 m Loose tube fiber bundle Inner loose tube layer, Polyamide Primary coated fiber, 250 m Outer loose tube layer, PTBF, Polyester ca. 3 mm ca. 1.8 mm mm

30 © DIAMOND SA / / 30 Secondary protection techniques Loose tube fiber bundle Outer loose tube layer, PTBF, Polyester Inner loose tube layer, Polyamide Primary coated ribbon fiber, 250 m Micro loose tube fiber Primary coated fiber, 250 m Inner loose tube layer, Polyamide Gel filling ca mm ca. 0.9 mm

31 © DIAMOND SA / / 31 1Transmitter 2Receiver 3Fiber Optics Cable 4Repeater 5Connector 6Splice Connection 7Splitter 8Measuring and Service Point Detachable connecting elements to connection for active equipment interconnection points / interface of several networks measuring, service and switching points in the network Fiber Block Diagram of an Optical Link

32 © DIAMOND SA / / 32 Measurement for connection cables (patchcords) Attenuation for both connections and fiber optics fiber Insertion Loss Measurement According to IEC (method 6); CECC 86000

33 © DIAMOND SA / / 33 Measurement for pigtails Attenuation per fiber optic connections measured value Insertion Loss Measurement According to IEC (method 7); CECC 86000

34 © DIAMOND SA / / 34 1) According to IEC ; CECC Measurement according to procedure 1) up to max. 55 dB measurement structure for discrete components or equipment configuration for series measuring measured value influenced by the quality of single components Measurement according to procedure 2) up to max. 90 dB measured value only refers to the measured object 2) Precision reflectometer WDM Coupler DUT Detector Display Return Loss Measurement


36 © DIAMOND SA / / 36 Sleeve-ferrule-principle Sleeve-pin-principle with physical contact of the convex or angle convex polished connector front faces Consists of a high precision split ceramic sleeve Does not utilize phosphor bronze or metal to reduce possibility of endface contamination Ferrule and split sleeve maintain precise tolerances The antirotation nut prevents rotational movement of the front face: - preventing fiber damage - allowing improved repeatability - enabling precise alignment of fiber and ferrule frontfaces

37 © DIAMOND SA / / 37 9/50/62.5 m 125 m Fiber coupling

38 © DIAMOND SA / / 38 High precision ferrule The ferrule incorporates the fiber and guides itconcentrically into the sleeve The ferrules coating is made of corrosion-resistent and non- abrasive material (tungsten carbide or ceramic) A titanium insert for precise fiber alignment The ferrules diameter of 2,5 mm is defined by international standards The inner diameter of 128 µm allows for diameter variations of the outer diameter of the 125 µm fiber

39 © DIAMOND SA / / 39 Crimping technique The titanium insert is the base for Diamonds precision termination process including active core alignment techniques The axial fiber fixation is done with epoxy: The effective gluing zone of only 5 mm length results in reduced pressure from the adhesive on the fiber due to temperature changes Ensures a constantly low insertion loss for all transmission wavelengths ( nm) Titanium-Insert Fiber Epoxy Zr O 2

40 © DIAMOND SA / / 40 The Circular V-edge of the crimping piston gently deforms the titanium insert and reduces the hole diameter to the diameter of the fiber The ferrule hole conforms to the actual fiber diameter including fiber tolerances The fiber is guided into the center of the hole and ensures uniform distribution of the epoxy At this point the eccentricity is approx. 1 µm 1st crimping

41 © DIAMOND SA / / 41 The second crimp actively aligns the fiber core on the ferrules axis The 120° v-edge of the piston moves the fiber in 1/10 µm steps Light is injected into the fiber in order to illuminate the core. The ferrule is inserted into a high precision Tungsten Carbide sleeve and rotated, in order to detect if there is still any eccentricity between the fiber and ferrule axis After this operation the eccentricity is reduced to 0.25 µm max The perfectly aligned fiber core results in consistently low Insertion Loss values for Diamond connectors Active core alignment (2nd crimping)

42 © DIAMOND SA / / 42 The core eccentricity of fibers mounted in monoblock ferrules are optimized by rotating the ferrule on the connector body or the antirotation key on the connector body The accuracy achieved with this method is a position of the core in a area within ± 50° in relation to the antirotation key For a reference 50°

43 © DIAMOND SA / / 43 Reflection to the front face Reflections occur on fiber surfaces at the exit as well as entry connector endfaces Defects on the endface and poor polishing quality, as well as air gaps between the fibers are responsible for reflections Reflections reduce performance in: broadband systems optical fiber repeaters CATV systems WDM networks

44 © DIAMOND SA / / 44 Convex polishing of the fiber surface guarantees fiber contact for reduction of the reflections Advantages of the titanium-insert Repeatable polishing Minimal fiber undercut or protrusion Less sensitive to fiber undercut or protrusion Low Reflectance PC polishing (Convex) Reduction of the reflections

45 © DIAMOND SA / / 45 Angled polished connectors (APC) virtually eliminate reflection by reflecting the light into the fiber cladding to be dissipated The return loss of an angle polished connector is > 70 dB when unmated APC polishing of a DIAMOND connector is done with the same effort as a PC polish, no price premium, or performance sacrifice as with other manufacturers APC polishing for low reflectance

46 © DIAMOND SA / / 46 Fiber optics connectors standards Standardisation is a condition for the compatibility between products of several manufacturers Comparable optical values such as handling, security and flexibility are decision criteria for the choice of the standards

47 © DIAMOND SA / / 47 Fiber optics connectors standards

48 © DIAMOND SA / / 48 Fiber optics connectors standards


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