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7.1 Chapter 7 Transmission Media Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "7.1 Chapter 7 Transmission Media Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 7.1 Chapter 7 Transmission Media Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 7.2 Figure 7.1 Transmission medium and physical layer

3 7.3 Figure 7.2 Classes of transmission media

4 GUIDED MEDIA Guided media, which are those that provide a conduit from one device to another, include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable. Twisted-Pair Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber-Optic Cable Topics discussed in this section:

5 7.5 Figure 7.3 Twisted-pair cable Why twisted? To make unwanted signals interference cancel out each other.

6 7.6 Figure 7.4 UTP (unshielded twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair) cables Example: Ethernet, phone line

7 7.7 UTP cables 1 – Jacket 2 – Solid twisted pair 3 – Spacer

8 7.8 SSTP cables 1 – Jacket 2 – Shield-braid 3 – Shield-foil 4 – Stranded twisted pair

9 7.9 Figure 7.5 UTP connector

10 7.10 Figure 7.7 Coaxial cable

11 7.11 Figure 7.8 BNC connectors

12 7.12 Twisted-pair cable vs. coaxial cable Bandwidth: coaxial > twisted-pair Transmission distance: twisted-pair > coaxial Thus cable needs frequent use of repeaters.

13 7.13 Figure 7.10 Bending of light ray

14 7.14 Figure 7.11 Optical fiber This is the reason why optical fiber cannot be bended arbitrarily.

15 7.15 Figure 7.14 Fiber construction

16 7.16 Figure 7.15 Fiber-optic cable connectors

17 7.17 Pros and Cons for Optical Fiber Cable Pros: Higher bandwidth Higher bandwidth Less signal attenuation (50km without repeater; twisted pair and coaxial requires 5km per repeater) Less signal attenuation (50km without repeater; twisted pair and coaxial requires 5km per repeater) Immune to electromagnetic interference Immune to electromagnetic interference Resistance to corrosive materials Resistance to corrosive materials Light weight Light weight Good resist to tapping Good resist to tappingCons: Installation and maintance Installation and maintance One direction communication for one line (not duplex) One direction communication for one line (not duplex) Cost Cost

18 UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESS Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. This type of communication is often referred to as wireless communication. Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared Topics discussed in this section:

19 7.19 Figure 7.17 Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

20 7.20 Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

21 7.21 Figure 7.18 Propagation methods FM radio: 87.5 to MHz AM radio: long wave:: kHz–283.5 kHz Medium wave:: 520 kHz–1,610 kHz Short wave:: 2.3 MHz–26.1 MHz

22 7.22 Table 7.4 Bands

23 7.23 Figure 7.19 Wireless transmission waves

24 7.24 Figure 7.20 Omnidirectional antenna

25 7.25 Example: Omnidirectional antenna Use: Wireless router

26 7.26 Radio waves are used for multicast communications, such as radio and television, and paging systems. Note

27 7.27 Figure 7.21 Unidirectional antennas

28 7.28 Microwaves are used for unicast communication such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs. Note

29 7.29 Infrared signals can be used for short- range communication in a closed area using line-of-sight propagation. Note

30 7.30 Example: Unidirectional Anntena Use: Wireless link connecting two remote WLANs

31 7.31 Example: Homemade Unidirectional Antenna - Can antenna

32 7.32 Example: Cellular Tower Use: Cellular Anntena Tower

33 Cellular Tower 7.33 More details: In suburban areas, masts are commonly spaced 1–2 miles (2–3 km) apart and in dense urban areas, masts may be as close as ¼-½ mile (400–800 m) apart. The maximum range of a mast: it is possible to get between 50 to 70 km (30–45 miles). Check map of cell tower in your area:

34 Advantages and Disadvantages Wireless Communication Advantages User Mobility Easy to install Reduced cost Scalability Disadvantages High data error rate Lower transmission data rates Security Battery of Mobile Devices Health Issues


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