Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

K9AY Loop Arrays for Low Band Contesting Richard C. Jaeger, K4IQJ May 16, 2013.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "K9AY Loop Arrays for Low Band Contesting Richard C. Jaeger, K4IQJ May 16, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 K9AY Loop Arrays for Low Band Contesting Richard C. Jaeger, K4IQJ May 16, 2013

2 Dayton 2013 INTRODUCTION K4IQJ Interests /Background Introduction RDF Definition Basic K9AY Loop Pair K9AY Array Comparisons 2-3-4 Element Arrays 4 Element Array Design & Simulation Array Implementation Discussion / Observations Dayton 2013

3 INTRODUCTION Interests Low Band Contesting NAQP CW ARRL & CQWW 160 Contests Stew Perry CW Sprints (Alabama Low Power Record) DXing Top of the Honor Roll, Need P5 on CW, CQ WAZ 300 + Countries Worked on 80 – 10 255 Countries Worked on 160M Dayton 2013

4 INTRODUCTION Need to Hear Well on 160/80 M Big Advantage in NAQP and DX Contests Loops Seem Most Effective Receiving Antennas in My Locations (Poor Ground Conditions) Discussed 2-Element Arrays - 2012 Presented 3-Element End-fire Array – 2011 Latest Effort - 4-Element Array (15.1dB RDF) 100 foot spacing (330 total length) RDF greater than individual beverages Dayton 2013

5 BACKGROUND RDF: Receiving Directivity Factor Design Goal Here: Maximize RDF RDF dB = G for (dB) - G avg (dB) Noise generally comes from all directions RDF compares the main antenna lobe gain to the average gain over the whole hemisphere of the antenna Attributed to W8JI Dayton 2013

6 BACKGROUND Reference Antenna - Short Vertical (20) RDF dB = G for (dB) - G avg (dB) RDF dB = 1.0 – (-3.9) = 4.9 dB Dayton 2013

7 BACKGROUND Basic K9AY Loop 85 Triangular Loop 25 High, 30 Wide Resistive Termination Directional Antenna -Easily switched in 2 directions -4 directions with an orthogonal pair of loops 9:1 Matching Transformer to Coax Gary Breed, The K9AY terminated loop – A compact, directional receiving antenna, QST, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 43-46, September 1997. Signal Arrival RDF dB = G for (dB) - G avg (dB) RDF = (-24.7) - (-32.1) = 7.4 dB Dayton 2013

8 LOOP ARRAYS Multi-Element Endfire Arrays Lossy Antennas Resistive termination Little or no mutual coupling Loops are Broadband – Usable over a Wide Frequency Range Array Output Decreases as Number of Elements Increases (-24 dBi) (-40 dBi) Luis, IV3PRK: K9AY Loops Always Seem to Work Dayton 2013

9 TWO-ELEMENT END-FIRE ARRAY 80 Spacing – 200 o phasing Element 2 Phasing (-200 o ) Two-Element Array -Equal amplitudes -Single phasing line -Rear element lags front element by > 180 o Gain: -25.6 dBi RDF: 10.5 dB (+3 dB) Beam Width: 96 o W/C F/B: 16.6 dB Take Off Angle: 25 o Dayton 2013

10 TWO-ELEMENT END-FIRE ARRAY Simulation Results - 160 M RDF 10.7 dB Gain -26.4 dBi F/B 15.2 dB Note: RDF Falls as Gain Drops RDF = 7.5 dB at 45 o points Dayton 2013

11 LOOP ARRAYS 3 & 4 Element Endfire Arrays Binomial Endfire Array Nominal Amplitudes 3 EL (1-2-1) 4 EL (1-3-3-1) RDF Optimization (1-2-1) (1-1.84-1) (1-3-3-1) (1-2.4-2.4-1) Dayton 2013

12 LOOP ARRAYS 3 & 4 Element Endfire Arrays 3 Element Array 80 Spacing Gain: -29.5 dBi (20 o ) Beamwidth: 66 o RDF: 12.5 dB 4 Element Array 100 Spacing (Sensitivity) Gain: -35.6 dBi (16 o ) Beamwidth: 49 o RDF: 15.1 dB Dayton 2013

13 K9AY ARRAYS RDF Comparisons (1-2.4-2.4-1) (0.42-1-1-0.42) Dayton 2013

14 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Cross-Fire Feed (W8JI) Dayton 2013 From Low Band DXing [3] Dayton 2013

15 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION 0 o Hybrid Combiners Z Z From Low Band DXing [3] Dayton 2013

16 4 EL ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Amplifiergs & Coax Phasing Lines Desired Gains (Hi-Z Plus-6 Amplifiers) Elements 1 and 4: 0.42 or -7.5 dB Adjust Output Resistance Elements 2 and 3: 1.00 or 0 dB Output Resistance at 75 Desired Phase Delays on 160 M Element 1: 0 o Element 2: 190 o = 180 o + 10 o Element 3: 380 o = 360 o + 20 o 20 o Element 4: 570 o = 540 o + 30 o 180 o + 30 o Dayton 2013

17 4 EL ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Amplifier & Coax Phasing Lines Desired Phase Delays on 160 M Element 1: 0 o Element 2: 190 o = 180 o + 10 o Element 3: 380 o = 360 o + 20 o 20 o Element 4: 570 o = 540 o + 30 o 360 o + 180 o + 30 o Combiner: DX Engineering 4 Square Controller Uses Three Separate Delay Lines Two Inputs Go Through 180 o Phase Inversion Transformer Two Inputs Have 0 o Shift Within the Controller Antennas Reversed With External Switching Dayton 2013

18 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Coax Phasing Lines Network or Antenna Analyzer Measure The Resonant Frequency Or Fault Of Open-circuited Line Calculate Phase By Frequency Scaling Dayton 2013

19 FOUR-ELEMENT ARRAY Simulation Results – 160 M Dayton 2013 Spacing: 100 Ft Amplitudes: 0.42-1-1-0.42 Crossfire Phasing: 0, -190 o, -380 o, -570 o

20 FOUR-ELEMENT ARRAY Simulation Results (Cont.) Dayton 2013

21 FOUR-ELEMENT ARRAY Simulation Results - 80 M Dayton 2013 Spacing: 100 Feet Between Loops Amplitudes: 0.42-1-1-0.42 Crossfire Phasing: 0, -200 o, -400 o, -600 o

22 FOUR-ELEMENT ARRAY Simulation Results - 80 M Dayton 2013

23 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Loop Termination and Switching DPDT Relay Dayton 2013 560 Termination

24 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Loop Design and Array Control Loop Support, Direction Control Box, Hi-Z Amplifier Loops as Identical as Possible High Impedance Amplifiers -(Hi-Z Plus 6) ac Coupled (loop dc short) Single 510- Termination Flooded RG-6 Coax DPDT Relay Switching A 3 Ground Stake at Loop Center Four 20 Radials Under Each Loop (45 o relative to loop) Fiberglass Poles (MaxGain Systems) Aluminum Can Also be Used Hi-Z Amplifier Direction Control Dayton 2013

25 4 EL ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Loop & Controller Individual Loop Controller During Installation Dayton 2013

26 4 EL ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION Loop Alignment! N/S Array E/W Array Fiberglass Support Poles (Max-Gain Systems) Control Cables and Coax in PVC on Ground Array Looking NE Array Looking SW Dayton 2013

27 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION System Design Combiner – Spare DXE 4 Square Controller Hi-Z Plus 6 Amplifiers 500 antennas connected directly to amplifier inputs Must Switch Loop Terminations with Controller Direction Simple Switching of Inputs to Controller to Reverse Array Common-mode Chokes (The Wireman) Dayton 2013

28 ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION System Design Delay 3 Delay 2 Delay 1 Dayton 2013

29 Verticals are Easier to Install No Direction switching Vertical Footprint Somewhat Smaller Extra 30-40 ft Needed for Loops Loops Appear More Independent of Ground Conditions Simulation Gives Loops a Slight Advantage in RDF (0.5-0.6 dB) Simulation Gives Verticals a Large Output Advantage (Not realized!) MULTIELEMENT ARRAY COMPARISONS Dayton 2013

30 K9AY LOOPS & SHORT VERTICALS Comparison of Simulation Results Comparison - K9AY Loops (85) and Verticals (26.5) # of Elements RDF (dB)Output (dBi) LoopsVerticalsLoopsVerticals 17.44.9-23.65.8 210.59.8-25.65.8 313.112.4-29.27.9 415.114.7-35.69.6 *Note: The actual output of the verticals is much lower when connected to high impedance amplifiers Dayton 2013

31 K9AY LOOPS & SHORT VERTICALS Experiment Underway Interlaced 3- Element Arrays NE/SW Array K9AY Loops and 26.5 Verticals Aluminum Loop Supports form Vertical Array Single Switch between Arrays In Operation for 6 Months Through this Years 160 M Season Dayton 2013

32 Simulation Aluminum Supports Do Not Disturb K9AY Loops Loops Must be Floated to Avoid Vertical Array Pattern Distortion Hearing of Both Arrays is Similar Loop Array Almost Always has a Small but Perceptibly Better SNR (Ears can hear the 0.5 dB difference). F/B of Loop Array is Better Output of Loop Array is Actually Higher than that of Vertical Array K9AY LOOPS & SHORT VERTICALS Qualitative Results Thus Far Dayton 2013

33 SUMMARY I Hear Well on the Low Bands Big Advantage in NAQP and DX Contests The Arrays Act Similar to Yagis Often Hear Signals Well that are Unreadable on My Transmit Verticals Signals Pop Out of the Noise Gain and F/B are Apparent Unfortunately Not Rotatable Frequently Usable on All Bands (Although with Unknown Patterns) Dayton 2013

34 REFERENCES 1.Gary Breed, The K9AY terminated loop – A compact, directional receiving antenna, QST, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 43-46, September 1997. 2.Gary Breed, K9AY, "Arrays of K9AY Loops: "Medium-sized" low band RX antenna solutions," Sept. 15, 2007. http://www.aytechnologies.com 3.John Devoldere, ON4UN's Low-Band DXing, Fourth & Fifth Editions, ARRL, Newington, CT: 2005 & 2011. 4.Dallas Lankford, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/thedallasfiles 5.http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/m3/index.html 6.Hi-Z Antennas 4-Square, http://www.hizantennas.com 7.DX Engineering 4-Square, http://www.dxengineering.com 8.Max-Gain Systems, http://www.mgs4u.com 9.The Wireman, http://www.thewireman.com 10.Richard C. Jaeger, K4IQJ Multi-Element End-fire Arrays of K9AY Loops, expanded version of 2011 Dayton presentation, May 15, 2011, available at http://www.k4iqj.com_. Also 2012 Presentation on 2 Element Arrays. 11.Richard C. Jaeger, Multi-Element End-fire Arrays of K9AY Loops, QEX, pp. 22-31, Jan./Feb. 2013. Dayton 2013

35 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION QUESTIONS? k4iqj@mindspring.com www.k4iqj.com Dayton 2013


Download ppt "K9AY Loop Arrays for Low Band Contesting Richard C. Jaeger, K4IQJ May 16, 2013."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google