Presentation on theme: "THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH & THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES THE HOLY QURAN THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH & THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES BASED ON THE WORKS OF."— Presentation transcript:
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH & THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES THE HOLY QURAN THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH & THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES BASED ON THE WORKS OF HARUN YAHYA WWW.HARUNYAHAY.COM and others WWW.HARUNYAHAY.COM PREPARED BY email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Dr F.Dejahang, BSc CEng, BSc (Hons) Construction Mgmt, MSc, MCIOB,.MCMI, PhD
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH One item of information about the Earth given in the Holy Qur'an is its similarity to the seven-layered sky:
Surat Aţ-Ţalāq (The Divorce) - سورة الطلاق It is Allah Who created the seven heavens and of the earth the same number, the Command descending down through all of them, so that you might know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in His knowledge. (Qur'an, 65:12)
(Qur'an, 65:12) Sahih International It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them. [His] command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge.
(Qur'an, 65:12) Dr. Ghali Allah is He Who created seven heavens, and of the earth their like. Between them the Command keeps coming down, that you may know that Allah is Ever- Determiner over everything and that Allah has already encompassed everything in knowledge. Farsi خداوند همان کسی است که هفت آسمان را آفرید، و از زمین نیز همانند آنها را؛ فرمان او در میان آنها پیوسته فرود میآید تا بدانید خداوند بر هر چیز تواناست و اینکه علم او به همه چیز احاطه دارد !
Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) - سورة البقرة It is He Who created everything on the earth for you and then directed His attention up to heaven and arranged it into seven regular heavens. He has knowledge of all things. (Qur'an, 2:29)
Surat Al-'A`rāf (The Heights) - سورة الأعراف Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then settled Himself firmly on the Throne... (Qur'an, 7:54)
(Qur'an, 2:29) Sahih International It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven, [His being above all creation], and made them seven heavens, and He is Knowing of all things. Dr. Ghali He is (The One) Who created for you whatever is in the earth altogether. Thereafter He leveled Himself (How He did so is beyond human understanding stauling) to the heaven; so He leveled them seven heavens, and He is Ever-Knowing of everything. Farsi او خدایی است که همه آنچه را ( از نعمتها ) در زمین وجود دارد، برای شما آفرید؛ سپس به آسمان پرداخت؛ و آنها را به صورت هفت آسمان مرتب نمود؛ و او به هر چیز آگاه است.
The height of the tropopause The height of the tropopause depends on the location, notably the latitude, as shown in the figure on the right (which shows annual mean conditions). It also depends on the season (1, 2). Thus, it is about 16 km high over Australia at year- end, and between 12 - 16 km at midyear, being lower at the higher latitudes. At latitudes above 60
The height of the tropopause The tropopause is less than 9 -10 km above sea level; the lowest is less than 8 km high, above Antarctica and above Siberia and northern Canada in winter. The highest average tropopause is over the oceanic warm pool of the western equatorial Pacific, about 17.5 km high, and over Southeast Asia,
The height of the tropopause During the summer monsoon, the tropopause occasionally peaks above 18 km. In other words, cold conditions lead to a lower tropopause, obviously because of less convection.
The height of the tropopause Deep convection (thunderstorms) in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, or over mid-latitude continents in summer, continuously push the tropopause upwards and as such deepen the troposphere. This is because thunderstorms mix the tropospheric air at a moist adiabatic lapse rate.
The height of the tropopause In the upper troposphere, this lapse rate is essentially the same as the dry adiabatic rate of 10K/km. So a deepening by 1 km reduces the tropopause temperature by 10K. Therefore, in areas where (or at times when) the tropopause is exceptionally high, the tropopause temperature is also very low, sometimes below -80 C.
The height of the tropopause Such low temperatures are not found anywhere else in the Earth's atmosphere, at any level, except in the winter stratosphere over Antarctica.
(Qur'an, 41:11-12) Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke. In two days He determined them as seven heavens and revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate. (Qur'an, 41:11-12)
Surat Al-Ĥaj (The Pilgrimage) - سورة الحج A day with your Lord is equivalent to a thousand years in the way you count. (Qur'an, 22:47)
Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration) - سورة السجدة He directs the whole affair from heaven to earth. Then it will again ascend to Him on a Day whose length is a thousand years by the way you measure. (Qur'an, 32:5)
Surat Al-Ĥāqqah (The Reality) - سورة الحاقة The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day whose length is fifty thousand years. (Qur'an, 70:4)
Sahih International Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion." They said, "We have come willingly." Dr. Ghali Thereafter He leveled Himself (How He did so is beyond human understanding) to the heaven (while) it was smoke, then said to it and to the earth, "Come up (you two) willingly (Or: in obedience ) or unwillingly!" They (both) said, "We come up willingly." Farsi سپس به آفرینش آسمان پرداخت، در حالی که بصورت دود بود؛ به آن و به زمین دستور داد : « به وجود آیید ( و شکل گیرید ) ، خواه از روی اطاعت و خواه اکراه !» آنها گفتند : « ما از روی طاعت میآییم ( و شکل میگیریم )!»
Sahih International And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing. Dr. Ghali So He decreed them as seven heavens in two days, and He revealed in every heaven its Command. And We have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and (set Angels) preserving them. That is the determining of The Ever-Mighty, The Ever-Knowing. Farsi در این هنگام آنها را بصورت هفت آسمان در دو روز آفرید، و در هر آسمانی کار آن ( آسمان ) را وحی ( و مقرّر ) فرمود، و آسمان پایین را با چراغهایی [= ستارگان ] زینت بخشیدیم، و ( با شهابها از رخنه شیاطین ) حفظ کردیم، این است تقدیر خداوند توانا و دانا !
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH The information in the above verse is confirmed in scientific sources, wherein it is explained that the Earth consists of seven strata. These, as scientists have identified, are:
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH 1 st layer: Lithosphere (water) 2 nd layer: Lithosphere (land) 3 rd layer: Asthenosphere 4 th layer: Upper Mantle
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH 5 th layer: Inner Mantle 6 th layer: Outer Core 7 th layer: Inner Core
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH The lithosphere under the oceans is still thinner, and is a region with volcanic activity. Its average thickness is 80 km. It is colder and harder than the other strata, and therefore, forms the earth's shell. The word lithosphere is derived from the Greek word lithos, meaning stone, which is a hard stratum forming the Earth's top layer. It is quite thin in comparison to the other strata.
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH It was formed of hot, semi-solid substances capable of melting when exposed to high temperatures and pressure over geological time. It is thought that the hard lithosphere floats or moves over the slowly moving asthenosphere.23 23 Below the lithosphere is the stratum known as the asthenosphere, from the Greek word for "weak," asthenes. This layer is thinner than the lithosphere and shifts.
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH At the centre of the Earth is the core, approximately twice as dense as the mantle. The reason for that density is that it contains a higher proportion of metals (iron-nickel alloy) than rock. Under these layers is a high-temperature layer some 2,900 km thick, made up of semi-solid rock known as the mantle. This contains more iron, magnesium and calcium than the crust, and is also hotter and denser, because temperature and density in the Earth increase with depth.
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH The Earth's core consists of two parts. One is the 2,200 km thick liquid outer core, the other a 1,250 km thick solid inner core.
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH The liquid outer core provides the Earth's magnetic field as the planet rotates. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH The truth of this similarity between the sky and the layers of the Earth, only identified by 20th century technology, is without doubt another of the Qur'an's scientific miracles.
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH 23. Inside the Earth, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ publications/text/insid e.html.
(Qur'an, 99:1-4) When the earth is convulsed with its quaking and the earth then disgorges its charges and man asks, "What is wrong with it?", on that Day it will impart all its news. (Qur'an, 99:1-4)
(Qur'an, 99:1-4) When the earth is convulsed with its quaking
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES The word " zilzal " in Arabic means earthquake, or tremors, and the word "athqalaha" means "charges, heavy burdens." THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES When one considers the above verses in the light of the first meaning, it can be seen that reference is being made to an important scientific fact about earthquakes.
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES Surat az-Zilzal 2 mentions the earth disgorging its charges.
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES Indeed, as a result of research in recent years, it has been realised that there are heavy metals at the centre of the Earth, and that these appear as a result of movements on the Earth's surface.
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES According to geologists' calculations, as the Earth cooled, heavy and dense substances sank to its centre, while lighter ones rose to the surface.
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES For that reason, the Earth's crust consists of the least heaviest substances (basalt and granite rocks), while heavy metals (nickel and iron) are found in the core.
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES During earthquakes, the heavy substances below the surface have an opportunity to rise, and the Earth thus disgorges its charges, as revealed in the Qur'an. As a result, the subsurface, which consists of molten metals, is made of a material that is much heavier and denser than the surface.
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES Moreover, those regions where metal reserves are most concentrated are also those with the greatest volcanic activity. These scientific findings, which emerged only recently, and as a result of wide-ranging research, are just some of the scientific facts indicated by Allah in the Qur'an.