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Introduction to Biomes. What is a biome? A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of communities.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Biomes. What is a biome? A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of communities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Biomes

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3 What is a biome? A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of communities.

4 Terrestrial Biomes Terrestrial Biomes On landOn land Aquatic biomes Aquatic biomes MarineMarine Oceans Oceans Fresh waterFresh water Most Lakes Most Lakes Streams Streams Ponds Ponds Rivers Rivers

5 Latitude Latitude degrees north and south of the equatordegrees north and south of the equator sun strikes Earth differentlysun strikes Earth differently As a result, climates (abiotic factors)are different As a result, climates (abiotic factors)are different Altitude also affects climate Altitude also affects climate O North pole South pole Suns rays Equator 66.5 o 23.5 o o 0 Terrestrial Biomes

6 Annual precipitation (cm) Tundra Taiga Temperate forest Woodland Savanna Desert Tropical seasonal forest Tropical rain forest Temperate rain forest Average temperature ( o C) Annual Precipitation vs. Temperature for Various Biomes Grassland Shrubland Terrestrial Biomes

7 What is a climatogram? A graph that shows the climate of a region A graph that shows the climate of a region Average Monthly PrecipitationAverage Monthly Precipitation Average Monthly TemperatureAverage Monthly Temperature

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9 a. Tundra a. Taiga b. nothing c. Temperate forest d. Grassland Temperate forest e. Desert Temperate forest f. Tropical Rainforest Temperate forest

10 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra No trees No trees Long summer days Long summer days Short periods of winter sunlight Short periods of winter sunlight

11 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the tundra Due to its latitude, temperatures never rise above freezing for long Due to its latitude, temperatures never rise above freezing for long Only the topmost layer of soil thaws during the summer Only the topmost layer of soil thaws during the summer Underneath this top layer is a layer of permanently frozen ground called permafrost Underneath this top layer is a layer of permanently frozen ground called permafrost The soil is lacking in nutrients The soil is lacking in nutrients

12 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life on the taiga Just south of the tundra lies another biome that circles the north pole Just south of the tundra lies another biome that circles the north pole The taiga (TI guh) also is called the boreal or northern coniferous forest The taiga (TI guh) also is called the boreal or northern coniferous forest

13 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Warmer and wetter than tundra Warmer and wetter than tundra Short, mild summers Short, mild summers Long, harsh winters Long, harsh winters Life on the taiga

14 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Topsoil is acidic Topsoil is acidic Organic material decays slowly Organic material decays slowly Few minerals Few minerals Life on the taiga

15 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in the desert The driest biome is the desert biome. A desert is an arid region with sparse to almost nonexistent plant life. The driest biome is the desert biome. A desert is an arid region with sparse to almost nonexistent plant life.

16 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Deserts usually get less than 25 cm of precipitation annually. Deserts usually get less than 25 cm of precipitation annually. Life in the desert

17 Section 3.2 Summary – pages With rainfall as the major limiting factor, vegetation in deserts varies greatly. With rainfall as the major limiting factor, vegetation in deserts varies greatly. The driest deserts are drifting sand dunes. The driest deserts are drifting sand dunes. Life in the desert

18 Section 3.2 Summary – pages The leaves of some desert plants curl up, or even drop off altogether, thus reducing water loss during extremely dry spells. The leaves of some desert plants curl up, or even drop off altogether, thus reducing water loss during extremely dry spells. Many desert plants are annuals that germinate from seed and grow to maturity quickly after sporadic rainfall. Many desert plants are annuals that germinate from seed and grow to maturity quickly after sporadic rainfall. Many desert mammals are small herbivores that remain under cover during the heat of the day, emerging at night to forage on plants. Many desert mammals are small herbivores that remain under cover during the heat of the day, emerging at night to forage on plants. Life in the desert

19 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in the grassland Grasslands are large communities covered with rich soil, grasses, and similar plants. Grasslands are large communities covered with rich soil, grasses, and similar plants.

20 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Grasslands, occur principally in climates that experience a dry season, where insufficient water exists to support forests. Grasslands, occur principally in climates that experience a dry season, where insufficient water exists to support forests. Grasslands contain few trees per hectare. Grasslands contain few trees per hectare. Life in the grassland

21 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in the temperate forest When precipitation ranges from about 70 to 150 cm annually in the temperate zone, temperate deciduous forests develop. When precipitation ranges from about 70 to 150 cm annually in the temperate zone, temperate deciduous forests develop.

22 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Temperate or deciduous forests are dominated by broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their foliage annually. Temperate or deciduous forests are dominated by broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their foliage annually. The soil of temperate forests usually consists of a top layer that is rich in humus and a deeper layer of clay. The soil of temperate forests usually consists of a top layer that is rich in humus and a deeper layer of clay. Life in the temperate forest

23 Section 3.2 Summary – pages The average temperature is about 25 0 C. The average temperature is about 25 0 C. Life in rain forests

24 Section 3.2 Summary – pages Life in rain forests Temperate rain forests are found on the Olympic peninsula in Washington state and in other places throughout the world, such as South America, New Zealand, and Australia. Temperate rain forests are found on the Olympic peninsula in Washington state and in other places throughout the world, such as South America, New Zealand, and Australia. There are two types of rain forests in the worldthe temperate rain forest and the more widely known tropical rain forest. There are two types of rain forests in the worldthe temperate rain forest and the more widely known tropical rain forest.

25 Section 3.2 Summary – pages As their name implies, tropical rain forests have warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth. As their name implies, tropical rain forests have warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth. Life in rain forests

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