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MakesSenseStrategies.com P.O. Box 147 Northport, AL 35476 (205) 394-5514 TM Edwin Ellis, Ph.D.

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1 MakesSenseStrategies.com P.O. Box 147 Northport, AL (205) TM Edwin Ellis, Ph.D. (205) Professor, Education, The University of Alabama TM differentiated visual tools SUMMARIZING KEY IDEAS MESSAGES & THEMES

2 Standards are organized around CATEGORIES of developmentally sequenced critical thinking & literacy skills Forming & Expressing Conclusions & Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas & Details, Messages & Themes LITERATURE © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved INFORMATION TEXT WRITING Expository / descriptive Opinion (persuasion) Narrative (sequence) Analyzing Text Features & Structures VOCABULARY Asking & Answering Questions Drawing Inferences

3 Forming & Expressing Conclusions & Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas & Details, Messages & Themes Analyzing Text Features & Structures Asking & Answering Questions Drawing Inferences Webs can be excellent visual tools for teaching basic summarization skills …but are webs the best tools for addressing complex CC Standards? RI.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. Reading INFORMATION standards RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RL.5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. Reading LITERATURE standards © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

4 Web from a 5 th grade guided reading lesson… © 2013 Edwin S.

5 Identical info, but different visual tool…

6 Which would you rather have? Idea is to make it easier (not harder) to process information © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

7 Webs usually depict whole-to-part structures WHOLE PARTS © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

8 Is about… whole-to-part TOPIC Main Idea Details So what? Whats important to understand about this? Main Idea Details WHOLE PARTS WHOLE -back-to-whole TM Heres one of the … Heres one of the differentiated visual tools… © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

9 What was the message about life in the story? STORY Mufaros Beautiful Daughters by John Steptoe I think the message was that being kind and good to people makes you happier and leads to a better life. Reason why I think this is the message… Details Nyasha was kind to everyone. She did not try to hurt her sister who was mean to her. She was chosen to be queen because of her kindness. Another reason why I think it is the message… Details Manyara was mean to her sister and everyone. She was also mean to a little boy who was really the king. Manyara ended up being a servant to her sister. CONCLUSION: Is the message important? Why? The message is important because if you are mean to others, you will always be unhappy and just want to be even meaner.

10 RL.3.2 Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. RI.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. RL.5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. RI.5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. For example…. Reading LITERATURE standards Reading INFORMATION standards © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved Forming & Expressing Conclusions & Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas & Details, Messages & Themes Analyzing Text Features & Structures Asking & Answering Questions Drawing Inferences

11 Forming & Expressing Conclusions & Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas & Details, Messages & Themes Analyzing Text Features & Structures Asking & Answering Questions Drawing Inferences RL.3.2 Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. RI.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. RL.5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. RI.5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. For example…. Reading LITERATURE standards Reading INFORMATION standards © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

12 RL.3.2 Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. RI.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. RL.5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. RI.5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. Reading LITERATURE standards Reading INFORMATION standards © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved Forming & Expressing Conclusions & Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas & Details, Messages & Themes Analyzing Text Features & Structures Asking & Answering Questions Drawing Inferences

13 Literature select skill area WritingInformation Text to be added soon Common Core Standards – Language Arts TM differentiated visual tools v 1.0 MakesSenseStrategies.com P.O. Box 147 Northport, AL (205) TM literature & information text + writing K-3 Expository / Descriptive Persuasive Narrative

14 Literature select skill area WritingInformation Text Common Core Standards – Language Arts TM differentiated visual tools v 1.0 MakesSenseStrategies.com P.O. Box 147 Northport, AL (205) TM literature & information text + writing K-3 Expository / Descriptive Persuasive Narrative

15 Literature select skill area WritingInformation Text Common Core Standards – Language Arts TM differentiated visual tools v 1.0 MakesSenseStrategies.com P.O. Box 147 Northport, AL (205) TM literature & information text + writing K-3 Expository / Descriptive Persuasive Narrative

16 Writing EXPOSITORY / DESCRIPTIVE differentiated visual tools TM © MakesSenseStrategies.com. W.K.2 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. W.1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.3.2c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. W.3.2d Provide a concluding statement or section. opinion narrative main menu Related Words COLOR B/W. Cat in the Hat 4 Ideas-to-sentences COLOR B/W. Thanksgiving is My Favorite Holiday Explaining 2 Key Ideas (Intro & Conclusion) COLOR B/W. Mufaos Beautiful Daughters Explaining 4 Ideas (Intro & Ending) COLOR B/W. Recycling 2 Words 2 Sentences COLOR B/W. Zoe LINKS to additional resources related to expository / descriptive writing LITERATUREINFORMATION TEXTSummariesRelationships

17 TOPIC Words about this topic Draw a Picture TOPIC Tricky Mischievous Fun Magician Silly Cat (in The Cat in The Hat by Dr. Seuss ) Words about this topicDraw a Picture © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

18 Playing in the snow Make a snowman Throw snowballs Build a fort Need warm clothes Wear mittens related ideas 2 ideas = 2 sentences ideas-to- paragraph reason why 2 reasons why 2 reasons + details 2 reasons + details+ conclusion 3 reasons + details+ conclusion © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

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20 Writing EXPOSITORY / DESCRIPTIVE differentiated visual tools TM © MakesSenseStrategies.com. W.K.2 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. W.1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.3.2c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. W.3.2d Provide a concluding statement or section. opinion narrative main menu Related Words COLOR B/W. Cat in the Hat 4 Ideas-to-sentences COLOR B/W. Thanksgiving is My Favorite Holiday Explaining 2 Key Ideas (Intro & Conclusion) COLOR B/W. Mufaos Beautiful Daughters Explaining 4 Ideas (Intro & Ending) COLOR B/W. Recycling 2 Words 2 Sentences COLOR B/W. Zoe LINKS to additional resources related to expository / descriptive writing LITERATUREINFORMATION TEXTSummariesRelationships

21 Capitalization? Punctuation? Draw a picture Words about this topic Sentence Capitalization? Punctuation? TOPIC related ideas 2 ideas = 2 sentences ideas-to- paragraph reason why 2 reasons why 2 reasons + details 2 reasons + details+ conclusion 3 reasons + details+ conclusion My dog Zoe Zoe has lots of spots. She likes to dig holes. has spots digs holes 1 2 © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

22 Writing EXPOSITORY / DESCRIPTIVE differentiated visual tools TM © MakesSenseStrategies.com. W.K.2 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. W.1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.3.2c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. W.3.2d Provide a concluding statement or section. opinion narrative main menu Related Words COLOR B/W. Cat in the Hat 4 Ideas-to-sentences COLOR B/W. Thanksgiving is My Favorite Holiday Explaining 2 Key Ideas (Intro & Conclusion) COLOR B/W. Mufaos Beautiful Daughters Explaining 4 Ideas (Intro & Ending) COLOR B/W. Recycling 2 Words 2 Sentences COLOR B/W. Zoe LINKS to additional resources related to expository / descriptive writing LITERATUREINFORMATION TEXTSummariesRelationships

23 © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

24 TOPIC ORDERIDEASENTENCE

25 Thanksgiving is my favorite holiday! TOPIC ORDERIDEASENTENCE 2 At school we dress up like Pilgrims or Native Americans. That is really fun. Wearing costumes 1 We visit Moundville and climb the mounds where the Native Americans lived. We see ceremonies and get our faces painted. Native Americans 3 We have a Thanksgiving feast at school just like the Pilgrims and Native Americans had. The feast! 4 I also like to be out of school for a week, and I get to do things with my family. Out of school

26 Writing EXPOSITORY / DESCRIPTIVE differentiated visual tools TM © MakesSenseStrategies.com. W.K.2 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. W.1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.3.2c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. W.3.2d Provide a concluding statement or section. opinion narrative main menu Related Words COLOR B/W. Cat in the Hat 4 Ideas-to-sentences COLOR B/W. Thanksgiving is My Favorite Holiday Explaining 2 Key Ideas (Intro & Conclusion) COLOR B/W. Mufaos Beautiful Daughters Explaining 4 Ideas (Intro & Ending) COLOR B/W. Recycling 2 Words 2 Sentences COLOR B/W. Zoe LINKS to additional resources related to expository / descriptive writing LITERATUREINFORMATION TEXTSummariesRelationships

27 ENDING INTRODUCTION This is about… TOPIC

28 3 Recycling cuts down on the need for more landfills. No one wants to live near one. Reduces landfills… 2 Recycling protects wildlife habitats. Paper recycling alone saves millions of trees. Protects wildlife… 4 Recycling produces less carbon reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Helps our climate… 1 Recycling helps us reuse things we have instead of making new things. Can save money… ENDING When we recycle it helps our climate, the earth, and protects wildlife. Also it is the right thing to do! INTRODUCTION This is about… TOPIC Recycling why everyone should recycle the things they use in their homes.

29 Writing EXPOSITORY / DESCRIPTIVE differentiated visual tools TM © MakesSenseStrategies.com. W.K.2 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. W.1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.3.2c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. W.3.2d Provide a concluding statement or section. opinion narrative main menu Related Words COLOR B/W. Cat in the Hat 4 Ideas-to-sentences COLOR B/W. Thanksgiving is My Favorite Holiday Explaining 2 Key Ideas (Intro & Conclusion) COLOR B/W. Mufaos Beautiful Daughters Explaining 4 Ideas (Intro & Ending) COLOR B/W. Recycling 2 Words 2 Sentences COLOR B/W. Zoe LINKS to additional resources related to expository / descriptive writing LITERATUREINFORMATION TEXTSummariesRelationships

30 TOPIC INTRODUCTION: This topic (story) is about… You could use some of these words when explaining the Key Ideas and Supporting Points ALSO ANOTHER BUT AND MORE KEY IDEA #1KEY IDEA #2 Supporting points, facts, or details CONCLUSION: What is important about this topic?

31 TOPIC Miss Rumphius Story and pictures by Barbara Cooney INTRODUCTION: This topic (story) is about… You could use some of these words when explaining the Key Ideas and Supporting Points ALSO ANOTHER BUT AND MORE KEY IDEA #1KEY IDEA #2 Supporting points, facts, or details CONCLUSION: What is important about this topic? A young girl that dreamed of going to far away places, and how her dreams came true. Miss Rumphius traveled all over to islands, mountains, and deserts. Also she bought a cottage by the sea, and planted flowers all over. He told her stories of far away places that he visited. Also they lived by the sea and watched large ships sail by. Miss Rumphius grandfather planted big dreams in her heart. Miss Rumphius had 3 goals and she reached all of them. It is important to dream, and if you work hard you can make many of your dreams come true.

32 © 2002 Edwin S. Ellis Masterminds Publishing graphicorganizers.com © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

33 © 2002 Edwin S. Ellis Masterminds Publishing graphicorganizers.com © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved Bald Eagles Interesting things about our National Bird Eagles in dangerBaby Bald EaglesWhat they eat Takes 6-8 weeks for eggs to hatch Lay only 2-3 eggs White w/blue spots If baby falls out of nest, it dies Babies have brown heads, not white Farmers put DDT on crops to kill bugs Fish eat bugs that washed into water Eagle eats fish & DDT gets into them DDT makes egg shells thin, so they break Mostly eat fish & dead animals Steal food from other birds Poor hunters Next time you see a picture of a Bald Eagle, think about how they are in danger

34 So how does scaffolding the complexity of visual tools apply to LITERATURE standards? TM differentiated visual tools Forming & Expressing Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Drawing & Explaining Inferences & Conclusions Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas, Messages & Themes Asking & Answering Questions Analyzing Text Features & Structures

35 TITLE CHARACTERS BEGINNING SETTING MIDDLE There's an Alligator Under My Bed The little boys bedroom The Little Boy The Alligator The boys parents Boy was afraid to go to bed because he thought there was an alligator under his bed. He wanted to prove it was an alligator. He made a trail of food to the garage. ENDING Alligator went into the garage. The boy slammed door.

36 This was like a family reunion. Sometimes families like each other and sometimes they dont. gg We Had a Picnic This Sunday Past by Jacqueline Woodson BOOK What is important to understand about this? Draw a picture of something that happenedExplain what happened Teeka and her Grandma went to the park for a picnic. Teekas aunts, uncles, and cousins came. Everyone brought lots of food. They played games. gg

37 STORY Rapunzel retold and illustrated by Paul Zelinsky What was this story about? What was the message about life in the story? Reason WHY I think this was the message…Another reason WHY I think this was the message… A witch steals a little girl and puts her in a tower. Its like a prison. Rapunzel lets her long hair down so the witch can climb up. A young prince finds her one day and they fall in love. He helps her escape. Good wins over evil. If you are on the good side and try real hard and not give up, you will beat whatever is evil. The witch is evil. Rapunzel and the prince are good. They beat the witch.. They go back to the princes family and live in his kingdom. They are happy and the witch is mad..

38 STORY Mufaros Beautiful Daughters by John Steptoe What was the message about life in the story? Another reason why I think it is the message… Details Reason why I think this is the message… Mufaros two daughters were very different. One was bad tempered and mean. The other was kind to everyone. I think the message is that being kind and good to people makes you happier and leads to a better life. Nyasha was kind to everyone.Manyara was mean to her sister and everyone. She was also mean to a little boy who was really the king. Manyara ended up being a servant to her sister. She was chosen to be queen because of her kindness. She did not try to hurt her sister who was mean to her.

39 What was the message about life in the story? STORY Mufaros Beautiful Daughters by John Steptoe I think the message was that being kind and good to people makes you happier and leads to a better life. Reason why I think this is the message… Details Nyasha was kind to everyone. She did not try to hurt her sister who was mean to her. She was chosen to be queen because of her kindness. Another reason why I think it is the message… Details Manyara was mean to her sister and everyone. She was also mean to a little boy who was really the king. Manyara ended up being a servant to her sister. CONCLUSION: Is the message important? Why? The message is important because if you are mean to others, you will always be unhappy and just want to be even meaner.

40 So how does scaffolding the complexity of visual tools apply to LITERATURE standards? TM differentiated visual tools Forming & Expressing Conclusions & Opinions Recognizing, Analyzing & Explaining Point-of-View Making & Explaining Relationship Connections Making & Explaining Comparisons Summarizing & Explaining Key Ideas & Details, Messages & Themes Analyzing Text Features & Structures Asking & Answering Questions Drawing Inferences

41 Features of events, characters and/or setting in the literacy work that seem to connect with the theme GENRES Both literary works are… (select one) Novels Novelettes Short-stories Poetry Songs Movies TV-shows Documentaries Theme / Message About Life Family and family bonds help individuals survive adversity Title of Literacy Work A Gathering of Days by Joan W. Blos Title of Literacy Work Code Talker by Joseph Bruchac How they connect with the theme Ned as well as most of the Navajo children during the 1940s were taken from their families and sent to a boarding school. At the school they were not allowed to speak their language. Their hair was cut short, and their jewelry and native clothes were taken. They were stripped of all of their culture and family ways. Their families were not allowed to visit. Catherines family endured many hardships including the death of her mother. Catherine was only a young girl, but she was in charge of running the household. She fixed meals for the family, took care of the house and her younger sister. Her father later remarried and she had a difficult time adjusting to a stepmother and new brother. Later her best friend died. After Ned graduated the Marines recruited him for a special job. He asked his familys blessing to become a Marine. His family had a special ceremony of protection for him called the Blessingway. After his 1 st action at Bougainville, he sent his clothes home for his family to pray over. Through his times of uncertainty he was comforted to know his family was praying for him. Through all of this she clung to her family and was obedient to her new mother. She became friends with her mother after a period of time. Her family helped her get through her sorrow over losing her best friend. CONCLUSION: What is important to understand about this theme? Families are important in every culture. They help each of us get through adversity. X

42 GENRE: Movie Title of Literary Work: The Hunger Games GENRE: Novel Title of Literary Work: The Hunger Games Ways Topic or Theme is treated in this work… Similarities between how these literary works treat the theme or topic Ways Topic or Theme is treated in this work… In the book, the Capitol is a giant city that tries to control its young people by making them fight in The Hunger Games. This event is shown on television and has one boy and one girl from each district all try to kill each other and survive. After Katniss stands up for herself, she receives a gift from District 11. In the movie, all of District 11 starts to protest against the Capitol, which shows how much one individuals actions can change peoples views on society. In both the book and the movie, Katniss stays true to herself when she refuses to kill Peetna instead of just accepting the system. She does not conform to the pressure from the society. GENRES : Novel Novelette Short-story Poetry Song Movie TV-show THEME (authors opinion or message about topic of story) Even though society wants you to conform, you should be true to yourself CONCLUSION: What is important to understand about this theme? In every society, there are tremendous pressures to conform, but conforming is not always the right thing to do.

43 To identify the TOPIC of the story, ask yourself…What is this story about? Answer your question in 1-3 words. (see the COMMON STORY TOPICS list for ideas) To identify the THEME of the story, ask yourself…What is authors unstated message or opinion about the topic? (see COMMON LITERATURE THEMES list for ideas) So what? What is important to understand about the theme of the story? Everyone experiences the same basic circles of life, although they happen in different times and ways LITERARY WORK (title of story, chapter, poem, etc.) The Case of the Missing Marquess by Nancy Springer Evidence of the theme may be an event, how characters reacted to the event, a characters personality, how a character acts, what happened to characters, a quote, etc. that seems to convey the authors message or opinion about the topic of the story. THEME of the story is (authors unstated opinion or message about the storys topic)TOPIC of the story Being independentSelf-reliance rules! (never give in to pressures or expectations to be dependent) Description of an EVENT, CHARACTER, or SETTING CONNECTIONS TO THE THEME Enolas mother raised her to believe that she could live on her own. She also allowed her to wear clothes (i.e. no corset) and go places that other young girls were not allowed to go on their own. Pg.5 You will do very well on your own, Enola, she would tell me nearly every day as I was growing up. Pg. 16,17 I knew my mother was criticized for failing properly to drape vulgar surfaces and me. Pg 34 The Case of the Missing Marquess shows how important it is to raise your children to have confidence in themselves and to strive for independence. Rather than relying on her brothers, Enola went off on her own to find her mother who disappeared. She wore a disguise, and went out at night through the slums of London. She went against what a proper lady would do. Pg. 1 It was unthinkable for a female to venture out at night without the escort of a husband, father, or brother. But she will do whatever she must in order to search for the one who is lost. Enola shows that an important part of believing in you is to put yourself out there or take risks.

44 To identify the TOPIC of the story, ask yourself…What is this story about? Answer your question in 1-3 words. (see the COMMON STORY TOPICS list for ideas) To identify the THEME of the story, ask yourself…What is authors unstated message or opinion about the topic? (see COMMON LITERATURE THEMES list for ideas) So what? What is important to understand about the theme of the story? Everyone experiences the same basic circles of life, although they happen in different times and ways LITERARY WORK (title of story, chapter, poem, etc.) A Gathering of Days by Joan W. Blos Evidence of the theme may be an event, how characters reacted to the event, a characters personality, how a character acts, what happened to characters, a quote, etc. that seems to convey the authors message or opinion about the topic of the story. THEME of the story is (authors unstated opinion or message about the storys topic)TOPIC of the story Circle of lifeThere are many circles of life that overlap. Description of an EVENT, CHARACTER, or SETTING CONNECTIONS TO THE THEME One of the life circles is about dealing with challenges or problems. Catherine wrote a journal when she was 14, and then gave it to her great-granddaughter when she was 14. The journal is about challenges Catherine had, and how she coped with them, and then moved on with her life until she faced a new challenge, and so on. Catherine lost her mother and little brother when she was 9 years old. With the help of a neighbor, Mrs. Shipman and her little sister, she took care of running the household. She learned how to cope with the challenges. Later, her father re-married and she had a new mother and brother. Then she had to deal with adjusting to a new mother and having a brother. The whole journal seemed to say, Got a problem? Deal with it! Move on. One of the life circles is about the seasons of life. Catherines journal is about the seasons of life on a farm. Each season brings new promises, different jobs on a farm, new challenges and joys and then starts all over again the next year. Page 51 - At mid-day today the storm let up; by dusk a few pale shadows appeared on the hillockd snow. Father expects that tomorrow with be the day of the breaking out. Page 121 The sap, they say, is running in the better sheltered trees./ Haying, mowing, gathering in!

45 To identify the TOPIC of the story, ask yourself…What is this story about? Answer your question in 1-3 words. (see the COMMON STORY TOPICS list for ideas) To identify the THEME of the story, ask yourself…What is authors unstated message or opinion about the topic? (see COMMON LITERATURE THEMES list for ideas) LITERARY WORK (title of story, chapter, poem, etc.) Evidence of the theme may be an event, how characters reacted to the event, a characters personality, how a character acts, what happened to characters, a quote, etc. that seems to convey the authors message or opinion about the topic if the story. THEME of the story is (authors unstated opinion or message about the storys topic)TOPIC of the story Description of an EVENT, CHARACTER, or SETTING CONNECTIONS TO THE THEME Explanation… Literary device used in the connection Irony Satire Parody Motivation Personification Symbolism Other Explanation… Literary device used in the connection Irony Satire Parody Motivation Personification Symbolism Other Explanation… Literary device used in the connection Irony Satire Parody Motivation Personification Symbolism Other LoyaltyBetraying your friends will lead to your own downfall. Because they have all gotten drunk together they say they are loyal to each other when theyre not. (False friends often turn on each other.) CHARACTER- The three rioters have been in a bar all night long and are very drunk. Ironic because it seems like they are really good friends, so you would expect them to help each other out and share stuff, but the reality is, they end up doing the opposite. When the three rioters find the gold under the tree, each starts thinking about getting rich – selfishness quickly replaces loyalty SETTING - The gold under the tree The gold symbolizes greed and show how it can make people turn on each other. Because they all turned their backs on each other to try and keep more of the gold, they all ended up dead. EVENT - The three robbers end up killing each other Author uses motivation (to get rich) to drive home the theme that betraying your friends will lead to you downfall – in this case, your death The Pardoners Tale by Geoffrey Chaucer X X X


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