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Civics Core 100, Goal 1 Goal 1: The learner will investigate the foundations of the American political system and explore basic values and principles of.

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Presentation on theme: "Civics Core 100, Goal 1 Goal 1: The learner will investigate the foundations of the American political system and explore basic values and principles of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civics Core 100, Goal 1 Goal 1: The learner will investigate the foundations of the American political system and explore basic values and principles of American democracy.




5 New England Colonies Religious freedom sought Hilly, rocky soil Shipbuilding and trade Puritans, pilgrims New England Colonies = Blue


7 Middle Colonies Bread basket colonies Farmers: wheat and other cash crops Busy ports (New York and Philadelphia) because of foreign trade Industries: sawmills, mines, ironworks Quakers(peace loving peoples) in Philadelphia Middle Colonies = Yellow


9 Southern Colonies Warm climate and long growing season = large- scale agriculture (tobacco) Rice, indigo, and grain -Cash crops Dependent on slave labor Southern Colonies = Pink


11 Mercantilism Great Britains policy toward the American Colonies under George III around 1760. Theory that a countrys power depends on its wealth: –Sell more goods to other countries than it buys –Favorable balance of trade: more exports, fewer imports –EXPORTS >IMPORTS


13 Triangular Trade Brought African Slaves to America through three part process From molasses to rum to slaves From southern America, from New England, from Africa

14 Triangular Trade Trip from Africa to Americas known as Middle Passage


16 Mayflower Compact Precedent for Direct Democracy and Self- Government: Every citizen is involved – town meetings to discuss and vote on issues of the town Created by Pilgrims on arrival from England Begins New World tradition of self-rule


18 House of Burgesses In 1619 in Jamestown, Va. 1st representative assembly –beginning of self- government in the colonies


20 Long-Term Causes of the American Revolution 1.Taxation without Representation 1.The colonies had no representatives to Parliament. 2. Stamp Act of 1765: colonists must attach expensive stamps to all newspapers and legal documents 2.Mercantilism 1.Policy of Britain wanting to export more than import 2.Requires colonies to trade solely with Britain and provide resources. 3.Salutary Neglect 1.Colonies had gotten use to governing themselves with little interference from England. 2.This changes after the French-Indian War. 4.Tradition of Self-government 1.Stamp Act Congress: Oct 1765, 9 of 13 colonies sent representatives to the Stamp Act Congress in NYC 1 st time majority of colonies join together to oppose British rule British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act


22 Short-Term Causes of the American Revolution 1.Declaratory Act of 1766: Parliament had right to tax and make decisions for the American colonies in all cases 2.Townshend Acts: legalize the use of writs of assistance to assist customs officers in arresting smugglers General search warrants Enter any location to look for evidence of smuggling 3.March 5, 1770: Boston Massacre: British soldiers fired into a crowd, killing 5 4.Thomas Paines Common Sense 5.Protests and Boycotts of British Policy 1.Sons of Liberty 2.Committees of Correspondence

23 Short Term Causes of the American Revolution continued… No taxation without representation! 6. Tea Act: British East India Company gets the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the taxes usually placed on tea –Their tea is cheaper than any other tea in the colonies –Boston Tea Party: Dec. 1773, group of angry colonists dressed as Native Americans dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor 7. Coercive Acts or Intolerable Acts: response of Britain to the Boston Tea Party restricted the colonists civil rights, including right to a trial by jury Closed Boston Harbor Placed Soldiers within Boston to control the port




27 Representative Democracy Citizens choose smaller group to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf What Form of Govt do we have? Representative Democracy –U.S. is the oldest Representative Democracy in the world


29 Purpose of Government PEPP: Provide Laws Enforce Laws Provide Services Plan for the Future


31 Declaration of Independence AUTHORE: Thomas Jefferson INFLUENCES: –Enlightenment ideas –Social Contract Theory of John Locke –John Lockes Natural Rights-Life, liberty and property –Jean Jacques Rousseaus All Men are created equal Approved by the 2nd Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 Included –long list of abuses by King George III and called him a tyrant –Also included the purpose of government (to protect the rights of the people)


33 Social Contract Theory Agreement between the government and the governed: the government and the people Contract states that the people will follow the rules of the government so long as the government looks out for their best interest. When the government stops looking out for the people, the people have a right to abolish the government. People agree to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights

34 Social Contract within Declaration of Independence That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government,


36 Constitutional Convention 1787 in Philadelphia Purpose: To Revise the Articles of Confederation which werent working 12 of 13 states attended: Rhode Island didnt Federalists vs. Anti-federalists –Federalists wanted to strengthen the national government –Anti-Federalists wanted states and people to maintain the power


38 The Great Compromise The two plans –Virginia Plan: representation based on states population –New Jersey Plan: Equal representation The Great Compromise(Connecticut Compromise) –2 house legislature-bicameral –Senate based on equal representation(2 per state) –House of Representatives based based on states population as determined by census every 10 years

39 The Three-Fifths Compromise Delegates agreed that every 5 enslaved persons would count as 3 free people –3/5 of the slave population in each state would be used in determining representation in Congress and for taxing purposes as well


41 Articles of Confederation Our first national government in the United States It DID NOT WORK WEAKNESSRESULT No executiveCouldnt enforce laws No judiciaryCouldnt settle disputes 9 of 13 to pass laws Difficult to pass legislation


43 First Political Parties Democratic-RepublicansFederalists Thomas Jefferson Strong support in the South and West People and states should retain as many rights as possible Strict construction of the Constitution to limit the powers of the federal government Members were made up of farmers, frontier settlers, small shopkeepers, and laborers. Todays Democratic party is a descendant of this party Alexander Hamilton Strong support in New England Fearful of placing too much power in the hands of the people;tyrannical majority Favored a strong national government and believed in a loose construction of the Constitution to broaden the powers of the federal government Believed that Americans future depended upon the development of a balanced and diversified economy Well-to-do merchants, bankers, and manufacturers

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