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The ESA Science Programme: Status of Solar and Solar Terrestrial Missions and other initiatives of interest for Space Weather.

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Presentation on theme: "The ESA Science Programme: Status of Solar and Solar Terrestrial Missions and other initiatives of interest for Space Weather."— Presentation transcript:

1 The ESA Science Programme: Status of Solar and Solar Terrestrial Missions and other initiatives of interest for Space Weather Hermann J. Opgenoorth ESA – ESTEC Solar and Solar Terrestrial Missions Division (SCI-SH) Research and Scientific Support Department (RSSD)


3 Ulysses n Joint ESA-NASA Mission The Heliosphere in 4-D : Spatial 3-D and Time n Earlier anticipated end of Mission: 30. Sept. 2004 n Recent ESA-SPC decision to extend the scientific operations by 3.5 years - March 2008: allowing third polar pass n Now discussed in NASA Advisory Structure Senior Review in 2005 - (under threat from recent NASA MO&DA cuts…) Key Scientific Goals in the Context of Extension: - Energetic particle and dust dynamics: effect of reversed field polarity on latitude dependence reversed field polarity on latitude dependence - Reconfirm the north-south heliospheric asymmetry - 3-D structure of CMEs and heliospheric current sheet in conjunction with ecliptic S/C like STEREO sheet in conjunction with ecliptic S/C like STEREO

4 SOHO: Solar Cornerstone Mission Presently THE Solar Observatory: ESA / NASA Collaboration since 1995 Currently 4 year mission extension 2003-2007 Future extension(2007-2009) proposal in 2006 Also s c SOHO Bonus Mission discussed to provide Coronagraph to International Living With a Star - ILWS

5 Cluster : ESAs Magnetospheric Cornerstone Mission Earlier ESA-SPC decision : 100 % orbital data coverage and 3 yr mission extension: 2003 - 2005 Second extension for 2+2 years until December 2009 decided in Febr. 2005 SPC Now at largest separation First 3-D satellite mission ever ESA - NASA Collaboration - since 2000

6 Solar wind Cluster new regions: subsolar point and auroral acceleration 2001 2009 Magnetopause: Subsolar point Cluster Extension

7 Double Star – Cluster: Evolution of Reconnection Strong flow of plasma observed first at Double Star and 5 min later at Cluster DSP Cluster From Pitout et al., 2005 Cluster Extension

8 Solar wind Crossing of tail at 8-10 Earth radii Current Disruption: key process for substorms Cluster at new region: Near-Earth Current Disruption Near-Earth tail: Current Disruption 2001 2009 Cluster Extension

9 Complementarity of Themis and Cluster THEMIS will be launched in 2006 with 1 st tail season in February 2007 THEMISs tail science benefits from Clusters Solar Wind and ionospheric monitoring and half a year later Cluster tail science benefits from THEMISs upstream, sheath and magnetopause monitoring. In addition: vaste ground based network in Canada and Europe for Cluster / Themis From V. Angelopoulos, Berkeley, USA Cluster Themis Cluster Extension

10 DOUBLE STAR China / ESA Collaboration Two satellites equipped mainly with Cluster Spare Instruments in Magnetospheric Polar and Equatorial orbits DSP-E: 550 km x 9 Re & DSP-P: 350 km x 4 R Commissioning Phase completed - ok, except attitude control Excellent science results - in particular in coord. with Cluster 1.5 yrs mission extension recently decided (May 2005 SPC)

11 Double Star Extension summer 2005: Tail Cluster: 14-16 Re sep.1000-10000 km DSP TC-1: 9 Re apog. above equator DSP TC-2: 7 Re apogee in tail 09 Sept. 2005, 16:00 UT 5 Re <== Observe NENL and/or Bursty Bulk Flow at Cluster and then monitor Current Disruption and BBF breaking at DSP ==> Observe Current Disruption at DSP and then outgoing rarefaction-wave at Cluster. XY XZ

12 Double Star Extension summer 2006: Tail Cluster: 14-16 Re sep 1000-10000km DSP TC-1: 9 Re gradual sep. in Y DSP TC-2: apogee in southern hemisphere XZ plane XY plane TC-1 11 Sept 2006 00:00 => Observe the azimuthal extent and dynamics of current disruption

13 Double Star Cluster DSP TC-1 DSP TC-2 Cluster at northern magnetopause/cusp 10000 km separation TC-1 near the cusp TC-2 at southern cusp and in inner magneto- sphere on dayside Extended mission spring 2006: Cusp XZ XY

14 Double Star DSP TC-2 and IMAGE both in the southern hemisphere Stereo ENA images of the ring current from the southern hemisphere Observations require geomagnetic storms 22 Dec 2005, 00 UT TC-2 IMAGE Extended mission : winter 2005

15 Solar Orbiter ESA-ILWS Flagship in the long term Selected as ESA Flexi-mission launched within 10 yrs - lifetime 5 + 2 yrs confirmed as part of COSMIC VISION Formal negotiations about a potential NASA contribution ( or collaboration with Solar Sentinels ) in progress… - Inner Heliosphere In-Situ observations and simultaneous Solar Remote Sensing - Orbit up to 35 deg out of the ecliptic, i.e. topside view of polar regions and CMEs - observe the far-side of the Sun from a co-rotating vantage point at 0.22 AU, equivalent to 48 Solar radii…

16 Solar Orbiter Status (Confirmed as part of Cosmic Vision by SPC, June 2004) Mission profile: Launch by Soyuz-Fregat 2-1b (either Oct 2013 or March 2015) Cruise phase (SEP / Chemical Propulsion): 1.8 / 3.3 yrs Nominal science mission duration: 2.8 yrs Extended mission (high-latitude phase): 2.4 yrs Minimum perihelion distance: 48 solar radii (0.222 AU) Maximum solar latitude:35° (in extended phase) SPACECRAFT – two industrial studies completed (Sci-A) – 6 month delta-study (chem. prop.) completed PAYLOAD – definition completed Particles and Fields Package Remote-sensing Package PLAN : Science Management Plan to SPC in February 2006 - coordinated AO with NASA (Solar Sentinels) Summer 2006

17 S-O Mission duration and solar cycle

18 The Solar-B satellite JAXA successor to Yohkoh (Solar A) Japan/US/UK mission (Norway, ESA) Launch in Aug. 2006 aboard M-V rocket from Uchinoura Space Centre (USC) Polar sun-synchronous orbit. 600 km altitude –Nearly continuous solar view (with no day/night cycling for nine months each year) A coordinated set of optical, UV, and X-ray instruments to understand the dynamic Sun. Mass: 900 kg Power: 1000W Telemetry: 4Mbps Data Recorder: 8Gbit Attitude: Solar pointed Stability: 0.7 arcsec/1s Launch: Summer 2006

19 Solar-B Science Goals - Understanding the Dynamic Sun To understand the creation and destruction of the Sun's magnetic field. To understand the modulation of the Sun's Luminosity. To understand the generation of UV and X-ray radiation. To understand solar wind and eruptions. Provide the first accurate measurements of magnetic fields and electric currents that will reveal the causes of eruptions in the solar atmosphere

20 Solar-B The 3 Instrument Suite 0.5m Optical Telescope +FPP (Focal Plane Package) –Spectro-Polarimeter –Broadband Filtergraph –Narrowband Filtergraph XRT (X-Ray Telescope) –9 filters: hot-very hot corona EIS (EUV Imaging Spectrograph) –2x40 Å wide wavelength –region in EUV covering transition region - corona

21 ESA Support to Solar-B ESA, in sub-contractual collaboration with the Norwegian Space Centre, will provide one additional downlink contact to Solar-B for each of the 15 orbits per day This will considerably improve the overall scientific data return and the cadence of observations from the Solar-B mission The European scientific community will be catered with processed data through a dedicated Solar B data centre at the University of Oslo

22 Reasons: Antenna redundancy, possibilityto track all 15 orbits every day and Norwegian interest in the mission. Svalbard Ground Station for Solar-B

23 International Living with a Star - ILWS (presently involving more than 25 space agencies SC: CNSA, CSA, ESA, (R)FSA, JAXA, NASA ) Stimulate, strengthen and coordinate space research to understand the governing processes of the connected Sun-Earth system as an integrated entity. (governing processes = which affect life and society => SpaceWeather) simultaneous and coordinated observations at strategic locations in the entire system (supported by advanced analysis and model tools) MISSION:

24 Earths Interior - Baseline mission Earths Environment One mans noise is another mans data SWARM Mission Living Planet ESA - EOP Selected by Earth Observation Program Board - Launch 2009 Electric Field Instrument (Ion Drift Meter) provided by CSA in collaboration with ESA Science Programme Optimisation of GEOSPACE science - additional electron instrument Conducto-meter discussed…

25 L1 polar trip-star project New KuaFu - selected for Phase B Solar Storm, Aurora and Space Weather Exploration Launch Date: 2012 Pre-study supported by the National NSF of China

26 KuaFu-A at L1 Solar EUV emission White light CME Radio wave measurement local plasma and magnetic field High energy particles KuaFu-B1+B2 polar orbit 24 hours Aurora Image Apogee + Perig. Magnetic field High energy particles

27 Solar Wind, Aurora and Storms exploration (SWASE) - recently de-selected Near-Earth Solar Wind Monitor Aurora Monitor Magnetosphere Monitor Ionosphere & Thermosphere Monitor Proposed by: Professor Z.X.Liu of CSSAR, Chinese Academy of Sciences (elements of SWASE will be added to New KuaFu )

28 ESAs Cosmic Vision, 2015-2025 Themes: 1.What are the conditions for life and planetary formation? 2.How does the Solar System work? 1.From the Sun to the edge of the Solar System First, the hierarchy of scales in the magnetosphere (e.g. M3, Magnetospheric SWARM) 2.Gaseous Giants and their Moons 3.The Building Blocks of the Solar System: Asteroids and Small Bodies 3.What are the fundamental laws of the Universe? 4.How did the Universe originate and what is it made of? Giovanni Bignami, chairman SSAC, 10 May 2005

29 Three scales of plasmas – shocks as an example Orientation, motion, curvature, foreshock Shock Ion reflection, reformation, thermalisation, downstream waves Electron reflection, acceleration, electric fields

30 Cross-Scale – key concepts Spacecraft on a hierarchy of scales Electron group Electron instruments 3 axis electric and magnetic fields Ion group Fast ion instruments Magnetic field instruments Fluid group Bulk plasma and field instruments Energetic particles Note Need different instrumentation at each scale Other agencies could provide one or more scales

31 Cross-Scale - The ESA context Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Relative to other CV mission concepts, Cross-Scale is: –Cheap: <300M, baseline of single Soyuz-Fregat launch –Quick: early in programme - by 2015? –Easy: no technological show-stoppers Potential for international collaboration: JAXA –SCOPE: 5-s/c mission for cross-scale plasma dynamics –Led by M. Fujimoto ISAS First inter-agency discussions at two ESA /JAXA Bilaterals

32 European ILWS Strategy in an Overview Major ESA Support or ESA – led Modest ESA Support Strong ESA/SCI endorsement 1 Sun and Solar Wind Energy Source Soho & Ulysses ext. Solar Orbiter BC–MMO SolarSent. Solar – B grnd. stat. Coronagraph Stereo grnd. stat L1 mission(s)> KuaFu Solar - ISS Proba - 2 2a Ionosphere - Thermosphere Energy deposition Swarm To be identified Demeter Ravens -> KuaFu 2b Magnetosphere Energy conversion Cluster / DSP extension M 3 development NLMs candidates tbi Orbitals Frisbee National Multi-Sats 3 Sun and Climate End-to-End Observ. _ TSI M of Opp / C-Ph Picard & Earthshine _ 4 Data Exploitation, Analysis & Models Cluster Active Archive (CAA) SDO DB or EN-SVO Stereo / Solar–B GrSt Model and Theory Space Weather / GB

33 SCOPE – the Japanese connection Proposed ISAS five-spacecraft mission Focus on electron dynamics at shocks and reconnection sites Potential for incorporating SCOPE as the inner scale of Cross-Scale This is only one possible scenario!

34 Double Star From Cornilleau et al., 2005 Cluster DSP-TC-1 Magnetopause EXAMPLE : M-Pause crossing on Febr. 22, 2004 TC1: 19:30 UT sub-solar Cluster: 20:10 UT high lat. => Delta t = 40 min [Crossings so far: 21 within 1 hour and only 4 within 15 mins]

35 Double Star From Cornilleau et al., 2005 10 times higher wave power at subsolar MP as compared to high latitude MP ==> Reconnection more likely at subsolar MP ?

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