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Community Education for Pesticide Risk Reduction in Greater Mekong Subregion: An Overview By: Jan Ketelaar & Alma Linda Abubakar, FAO-IPM Programme in.

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Presentation on theme: "Community Education for Pesticide Risk Reduction in Greater Mekong Subregion: An Overview By: Jan Ketelaar & Alma Linda Abubakar, FAO-IPM Programme in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Education for Pesticide Risk Reduction in Greater Mekong Subregion: An Overview By: Jan Ketelaar & Alma Linda Abubakar, FAO-IPM Programme in Asia Presentation for Fruit Fly Inception Workshop, AIT, Bangkok, Thailand, 02 September 2010

2 Outline Presentation 1.Background: Agricultural Scenario (2010-2050) 2.Overview: FAO-IPM/Pesticide Risk Reduction Programme (goal, scope, components, partners, focus, IPM-FFS, action research) 3.Pesticide Risk Reduction: Concepts & Equation 4.Vietnam: Case study Community Education and Mobilization for Pesticide Risk Reduction 5.Expected outcomes PRR project

3 Agricultural Scenario (2010-50) By 2050: 9.2 billion people and twice as much food needed By 2050: 9.2 billion people and twice as much food needed Declining water & land per caput (4.3 ha (1961) to 1.6 ha (2050), lower productivity growth & production stress from climate change Declining water & land per caput (4.3 ha (1961) to 1.6 ha (2050), lower productivity growth & production stress from climate change Rapid urbanization & new consumer demands Rapid urbanization & new consumer demands Need to Intensify Production and challenge to do so sustainably! Need to Intensify Production and challenge to do so sustainably!

4 Crop Intensification Risks Increased use of agro-chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) and potential environmental pollution & food safety concerns Increased use of agro-chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) and potential environmental pollution & food safety concerns Agricultural intensification brings risks from plant pests and from the pesticides often used to control them (e.g. rice BPH and virus outbreaks in GMS). Agricultural intensification brings risks from plant pests and from the pesticides often used to control them (e.g. rice BPH and virus outbreaks in GMS). Rapidly growing human traffic and plant trade (for food security and global markets) increases risks of transboundary movement of pests and diseases (e.g. coconut hispid beetle, cassava pink mealybug). Rapidly growing human traffic and plant trade (for food security and global markets) increases risks of transboundary movement of pests and diseases (e.g. coconut hispid beetle, cassava pink mealybug).

5 Rice BPH, Hopper Burn, Ecosystem Services and IPM Farmer Education

6 KASAKALIKASAN The Philippine National IPM Programme Trends in Insecticide Use and Frequency of Application in Major Rice Producing Provinces in Central & Southern Luzon, Philippines, 1996 - 2007 (Rola & Pingali, 1993; Mataia, Jamora, Maya & Dawe, 2009; Warburton, Palis & Pingali, 1995; Dawe, 2006; IRRI, 2007) Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production

7 Sustainable Conservation and Utilization of Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production KASAKALIKASAN The Philippine National IPM Programme Increase Yield/ha >12% Increase Yield/ha >12% Reduction variability of yields across seasons <15% Reduction variability of yields across seasons <15% National Increase rice production: >60% 10.5 MMT (1994) to 16.8 MMT (2007) National Increase rice production: >60% 10.5 MMT (1994) to 16.8 MMT (2007) (Rola & Pingali, 1993; Mataia, Jamora, Maya & Dawe, 2009; Warburton, Palis & Pingali, 1995; Dawe, 2006; IRRI, 2007)

8 Back to rice, hoppers and sustaining vital ecosystem services for sustainable rice intensification…….

9 Problems Associated with Distribution & Use of Pesticides Unregulated trade, distribution, re-packaging and use of toxic –and often adulterated- pesticides negatively impacts on farmer health and environment in Cambodia and Laos. Unregulated trade, distribution, re-packaging and use of toxic –and often adulterated- pesticides negatively impacts on farmer health and environment in Cambodia and Laos. Pesticides labels often insufficient; frequently in foreign languages (e.g. Thai, Vietnamese & Chinese). Pesticides labels often insufficient; frequently in foreign languages (e.g. Thai, Vietnamese & Chinese). Farm produce with high residue levels=> food safety concerns and trade barriers Farm produce with high residue levels=> food safety concerns and trade barriers www.ToxicTrail.org

10 Misuse and overuse of chemical pesticides in fresh fruit & vegetable production Farmers generally lack knowledge to identify pest and disease problems and assess risk. Farmers generally lack knowledge to identify pest and disease problems and assess risk. Often no Personal Protective Equipment. Safe use of pesticides a myth in tropical Asia! Safe use of pesticides a myth in tropical Asia! Problems Associated With Misuse & Overuse of Chemical Pesticides

11 FAO Asia Regional Vegetable IPM /Pesticide Risk Reduction Programme (1996-2013) www.vegetableipmasia.org www.vegetableipmasia.org

12 FAO-IPM Asian Member Countries

13 Context & FAO Intervention in Asia Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Production, Food Safety and Trade Facilitation major driving forces for government commitment towards pesticide risk reduction. Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Production, Food Safety and Trade Facilitation major driving forces for government commitment towards pesticide risk reduction. FAO assists member countries to: FAO assists member countries to: - strengthen pesticide policies and regulatory/enforcement systems; - strengthen pesticide policies and regulatory/enforcement systems; - step-up National IPM Farmer Field School programmes to enable farmers to adopt IPM, reduce pesticide use and grow better yielding, safer and more profitable rice, fruits & vegetables.

14 Background Pesticide Risk Reduction Pesticide abuse and overuse is still rampant in the Greater Mekong Sub-regionPesticide abuse and overuse is still rampant in the Greater Mekong Sub-region Intensive use of extremely and highly hazardous chemicals (e.g., WHO Class I agro-pesticides) by small-holder farmers is causing high incidence of farmer poisoningIntensive use of extremely and highly hazardous chemicals (e.g., WHO Class I agro-pesticides) by small-holder farmers is causing high incidence of farmer poisoning Concerns for pesticide risk reduction related to food safety, international trade facilitation and the environmentConcerns for pesticide risk reduction related to food safety, international trade facilitation and the environment Weak pest and pesticide management policies and associated regulatory systems and their enforcementWeak pest and pesticide management policies and associated regulatory systems and their enforcement Need for a multi-sectoral approach and regional cooperation to address problems associated with pesticidesNeed for a multi-sectoral approach and regional cooperation to address problems associated with pesticides Initiated by SENSA – the Swedish Environment Secretariat for Asia based on the following findings in the region (Kishi et al, 2004):

15 The Pesticide Risk Reduction Programme – and FAO project GCP/RAS/229/SWE- aims to… … reduce health and environmental risk through capacity building for the sustainable management of agricultural and industrial chemicals.

16 Programme Component: Advocacy Activities Implementing Agency Broad awareness raising about issues related to agricultural and industrial chemicals PANAP, The Field Alliance (in partnership with local CSOs)

17 Programme Component: IPM Activities Implementing Agency Stepping-up field programmes to help farmers adopt Integrated Pest Management and eliminate the use of highly hazardous pesticides & reduce exposure risk FAO (through National Programmes)

18 Programme Component: Policy Activities Implementing Agency Strengthening pesticide regulatory framework and policy reform FAO-AGPP, HQ KemI and government partners in Laos and Cambodia

19 IPM Component: Project Profile Project Title: Pesticide Risk Reduction in South East Asia Project Symbol: GCP/RAS/229/SWE Donor: Government of Sweden through Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI) Geographical Focus: Greater Mekong Sub-region (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Yunnan & Guangxi Provinces, China) Implementing Unit: FAO/AGP Regional (Vegetable) IPM Programme in collaboration with National IPM Programmes Duration of Initial First Phase: 6 years (Jan 2007-June 2013) Overall Budget: USD 6.5 M

20 Goal: Community education for pesticide risk reduction

21 Project Focus Community education & mobilization for pesticide risk reductionCommunity education & mobilization for pesticide risk reduction Training farmers and trainers using participatory learning approaches, including FFSTraining farmers and trainers using participatory learning approaches, including FFS Intensive pesticide use areasIntensive pesticide use areas Initiate new -& building on existing- training networks, supported by government & CSOsInitiate new -& building on existing- training networks, supported by government & CSOs No strict commodity focus; Rice, Vegetables but also other crops (e.g., fruits) where pesticides are used heavily, negatively affecting farmers, consumers and the environmentNo strict commodity focus; Rice, Vegetables but also other crops (e.g., fruits) where pesticides are used heavily, negatively affecting farmers, consumers and the environment

22 China National IPM Program Lowland and highland rice, vegetable & fruit production; intensive production for domestic and increasingly export markets Lowland and highland rice, vegetable & fruit production; intensive production for domestic and increasingly export markets High use of pesticides, food safety concerns & trade barriers High use of pesticides, food safety concerns & trade barriers Training of extension workers and farmers in IPM and pesticide risk reduction in Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces Training of extension workers and farmers in IPM and pesticide risk reduction in Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces

23 What is a Farmers Field School ? The primary learning approach used in educating farmers about IPM. School without walls, farmers learn about crop ecology and pest management in the field. Season-long, from seed to harvest, 25-30 farmers. Aim to help farmers adopt IPM and produce safe food with less inputs of pesticides.

24 Principles of IPM FFS Grow a healthy crop Grow a healthy crop Regular field monitoring Regular field monitoring Optimal use and conservation of natural biocontrol Optimal use and conservation of natural biocontrol Farmers as IPM experts Farmers as IPM experts FFS-training is: Discovery-based, learning by doing Discovery-based, learning by doing Farmer Empowerment Farmer Empowerment

25 Action Research Conducted within context of field study work by networks of IPM-FFS graduates Conducted within context of field study work by networks of IPM-FFS graduates Farmers participate in design, implementation, analysis and application of field study results Farmers participate in design, implementation, analysis and application of field study results Examples: Exploring area-wide fruit fly management Examples: Exploring area-wide fruit fly management

26 Outcome of FFS =>Empowerment FFS graduates: Learn & Apply ecological principals to manage biodiversity crops & agro-ecosystems; Learn & Apply ecological principals to manage biodiversity crops & agro-ecosystems; Master & Apply critical thinking skills at farm and community levels; Master & Apply critical thinking skills at farm and community levels; Master applied discovery approaches for continued knowledge development; Master applied discovery approaches for continued knowledge development; Acquire leadership skills for community mobilization. Acquire leadership skills for community mobilization.

27 Food Safety & Trade Facilitation IPM-FFS integration in GAP/Safe Vegetable Programmes IPM-FFS integration in GAP/Safe Vegetable Programmes Better market access and trade facilitation Better market access and trade facilitation

28 Pesticide Risk Reduction No Hazard = No Risk No Hazard = No Risk No Exposure = No Risk Risk = Hazard x Exposure Probability to cause harm as determined by hazard (chemical property) and exposure (environmental conditions and preventive action) equation

29 Hazard Reduction Elimination of use of WHO Class I pesticides and adoption of novel options for pest management

30 Novel options for Pest Management Novel seeds, lures, pheromones, entomopathogens, classical biocontrol, biopesticides (e.g. Bt) Novel seeds, lures, pheromones, entomopathogens, classical biocontrol, biopesticides (e.g. Bt) Thailand: 350 Community Bio-Agent production Labs in 25 provinces, with stock and quality control provided by 9 DoAE Pest Management Centers Thailand: 350 Community Bio-Agent production Labs in 25 provinces, with stock and quality control provided by 9 DoAE Pest Management Centers

31 Exposure Reduction: Limiting exposure through better handling, use, storage, disposal of pesticides Limiting exposure through better handling, use, storage, disposal of pesticides

32 Pesticide Risk Reduction Community education and mobilization Community education and mobilization Policy development and strengthening legislation and enforcement systems Policy development and strengthening legislation and enforcement systems

33 Vietnam: Pilot Community Education Programmes on Pesticide Risk Reduction Objective: to strengthen community ownership in pilot rural communities for planning, management and implementation of the pesticide risk reduction activities Objective: to strengthen community ownership in pilot rural communities for planning, management and implementation of the pesticide risk reduction activities Scope: training and advocacy (leading to policy development) Scope: training and advocacy (leading to policy development) Stakeholders: local leaders, farmers, pesticide sellers, representatives from the public agriculture and health sector and social organizations Stakeholders: local leaders, farmers, pesticide sellers, representatives from the public agriculture and health sector and social organizations

34 Pilot Community Education Programmes on Pesticide Risk Reduction Baseline surveys (inventory and flow of pesticides in the communities as well as health and environment related information) Training activities for local leaders, pesticide sellers, health workers and farmers Community action: Closure of pesticide shops that do not conform to local pesticide policies (e.g. selling banned pesticides) Community action: Posters on pesticide risk reduction have been developed and displayed in public places Community action: Cement tanks have been established by the local government for disposal of pesticide containers Developing core groups IPM FFS alumni who can coach other farmers in the community particularly on improved production practices and alternative pest management strategies Example: Pilot activity on producing potato seed tubers on rice straw using minimum tillage and reduce pesticides in potato seed production Community action: Development of local policies on pesticide management

35 Summary of Country Strategies Curriculum review and development particularly on pesticide risk reductionCurriculum review and development particularly on pesticide risk reduction Development of curricula and training materials especially on new crops prone to pesticide misuse, e.g., fresh fruits & vegetablesDevelopment of curricula and training materials especially on new crops prone to pesticide misuse, e.g., fresh fruits & vegetables Implementation of quality community education activities, e.g., farmer field schools andImplementation of quality community education activities, e.g., farmer field schools and Community mobilization for implementation of pesticide risk reduction action plansCommunity mobilization for implementation of pesticide risk reduction action plans Development of M&E systems and impact assessmentDevelopment of M&E systems and impact assessment

36 End of project situation Demonstrated effective models on community education for pesticide risk reduction for up-scaling by national IPM programmesDemonstrated effective models on community education for pesticide risk reduction for up-scaling by national IPM programmes Curricula developed for field training on pesticide risk reduction & IPM for new cropsCurricula developed for field training on pesticide risk reduction & IPM for new crops Reduced use of pesticides and elimination of WHO Class I products in pilot project areasReduced use of pesticides and elimination of WHO Class I products in pilot project areas Farmers making use of novel options for pest managementFarmers making use of novel options for pest management Improved incomes and better livelihoods for farmers and communities involved in the projectImproved incomes and better livelihoods for farmers and communities involved in the project

37 For more Information on FAOs Involvement in IPM/Pesticide Risk Redution Farmer Training in South and Southeast Asia: Email: vegetable-IPM@fao.org Website: http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/ For more Information on FAOs Involvement in IPM/Pesticide Risk Redution Farmer Training in South and Southeast Asia: Email: vegetable-IPM@fao.org Website: http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/ vegetable-IPM@fao.org http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/vegetable-IPM@fao.org http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/


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