Presentation on theme: "By: Jan Ketelaar & Alma Linda Abubakar, FAO-IPM Programme in Asia"— Presentation transcript:
1Community Education for Pesticide Risk Reduction in Greater Mekong Subregion: An Overview By: Jan Ketelaar & Alma Linda Abubakar, FAO-IPM Programme in AsiaPresentation for Fruit Fly Inception Workshop, AIT, Bangkok, Thailand,02 September 2010
2Outline Presentation Background: Agricultural Scenario (2010-2050) Overview: FAO-IPM/Pesticide Risk Reduction Programme (goal, scope, components, partners, focus, IPM-FFS, action research)Pesticide Risk Reduction: Concepts & EquationVietnam: Case study Community Education and Mobilization for Pesticide Risk ReductionExpected outcomes PRR project
3Agricultural Scenario (2010-50) By 2050: 9.2 billion people and twice as much food neededDeclining water & land per caput (4.3 ha (1961) to 1.6 ha (2050), lower productivity growth & production stress from climate changeRapid urbanization & new consumer demandsNeed to Intensify Production and challenge to do so sustainably!
4Crop Intensification Risks Increased use of agro-chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) and potential environmental pollution & food safety concernsAgricultural intensification brings risks from plant pests and from the pesticides often used to control them (e.g. rice BPH and virus outbreaks in GMS).Rapidly growing human traffic and plant trade (for food security and global markets) increases risks of transboundary movement of pests and diseases (e.g. coconut hispid beetle, cassava pink mealybug).
5Rice BPH, “Hopper Burn”, Ecosystem Services and IPM Farmer Education
6KASAKALIKASAN The Philippine National IPM Programme Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Intensification of Crop ProductionTrends in Insecticide Use and Frequency of Application in Major Rice Producing Provinces in Central & Southern Luzon, Philippines,(Rola & Pingali, 1993; Mataia, Jamora, Maya & Dawe, 2009; Warburton, Palis & Pingali, 1995; Dawe, 2006; IRRI, 2007)
7Increase Yield/ha >12% KASAKALIKASAN The Philippine National IPM ProgrammeSustainable Conservation and Utilization of Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Intensification of Crop ProductionIncrease Yield/ha >12%Reduction variability of yields across seasons <15%National Increase rice production: >60% 10.5 MMT (1994) to 16.8 MMT (2007)(Rola & Pingali, 1993; Mataia, Jamora, Maya & Dawe, 2009; Warburton, Palis & Pingali, 1995; Dawe, 2006; IRRI, 2007)
8Back to rice, hoppers and sustaining vital ecosystem services for sustainable rice intensification…….
9Problems Associated with Distribution & Use of Pesticides Unregulated trade, distribution, re-packaging and use of toxic –and often adulterated- pesticides negatively impacts on farmer health and environment in Cambodia and Laos.Pesticides labels often insufficient; frequently in foreign languages (e.g. Thai, Vietnamese & Chinese).Farm produce with high residue levels=> food safety concerns and trade barriers
10Problems Associated With Misuse & Overuse of Chemical Pesticides Misuse and overuse of chemical pesticides in fresh fruit & vegetable productionFarmers generally lack knowledge to identify pest and disease problems and assess risk.Often no Personal Protective Equipment.‘Safe use’ of pesticides a myth in tropical Asia!
13Context & FAO Intervention in Asia Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Production, Food Safety and Trade Facilitation major driving forces for government commitment towards pesticide risk reduction.FAO assists member countries to:- strengthen pesticide policies and regulatory/enforcement systems;- step-up National IPM Farmer Field School programmes to enable farmers to adopt IPM, reduce pesticide use and grow better yielding, safer and more profitable rice, fruits & vegetables.
14Background Pesticide Risk Reduction Initiated by SENSA – the Swedish Environment Secretariat for Asia based on the following findings in the region (Kishi et al, 2004):Pesticide abuse and overuse is still rampant in the Greater Mekong Sub-regionIntensive use of extremely and highly hazardous chemicals (e.g., WHO Class I agro-pesticides) by small-holder farmers is causing high incidence of farmer poisoningConcerns for pesticide risk reduction related to food safety, international trade facilitation and the environmentWeak pest and pesticide management policies and associated regulatory systems and their enforcementNeed for a multi-sectoral approach and regional cooperation to address problems associated with pesticides
15The Pesticide Risk Reduction Programme – and FAO project GCP/RAS/229/SWE- aims to… … reduce health and environmental risk through capacity building for the sustainable management of agricultural and industrial chemicals.
16Programme Component: Advocacy ActivitiesImplementing AgencyBroad awareness raising about issues related to agricultural and industrial chemicalsPANAP,The Field Alliance(in partnership with local CSOs)
17Programme Component: IPM ActivitiesImplementing AgencyStepping-up field programmes to help farmers adopt Integrated Pest Management and eliminate the use of highly hazardous pesticides & reduce exposure riskFAO (through National Programmes)
18Programme Component: Policy ActivitiesImplementing AgencyStrengthening pesticide regulatory framework and policy reformFAO-AGPP, HQKemI and government partners in Laos and Cambodia
19IPM Component: Project Profile Project Title: Pesticide Risk Reduction in South East AsiaProject Symbol: GCP/RAS/229/SWEDonor: Government of Sweden through Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI)Geographical Focus: Greater Mekong Sub-region (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Yunnan & Guangxi Provinces, China)Implementing Unit: FAO/AGP Regional (Vegetable) IPM Programme in collaboration with National IPM ProgrammesDuration of Initial First Phase: 6 years (Jan 2007-June 2013)Overall Budget: USD 6.5 M
20Goal: Community education for pesticide risk reduction
21Project FocusCommunity education & mobilization for pesticide risk reductionTraining farmers and trainers using participatory learning approaches, including FFSIntensive pesticide use areasInitiate new -& building on existing- training networks, supported by government & CSOsNo strict commodity focus; Rice, Vegetables but also other crops (e.g., fruits) where pesticides are used heavily, negatively affecting farmers, consumers and the environment
22China National IPM Program Lowland and highland rice, vegetable & fruit production; intensive production for domestic and increasingly export marketsHigh use of pesticides, food safety concerns & trade barriersTraining of extension workers and farmers in IPM and pesticide risk reduction in Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces
23What is a Farmers Field School ? The primary learning approach used in educating farmers about IPM.“School without walls”, farmers learn about crop ecology and pest management in the field.Season-long, from seed to harvest, farmers.Aim to help farmers adopt IPM and produce safe food with less inputs of pesticides.
24Principles of IPM FFS Grow a healthy crop Regular field monitoring Optimal use and conservation of natural biocontrolFarmers as IPM expertsFFS-training is:Discovery-based, learning by doingFarmer Empowerment
25Action ResearchConducted within context of field study work by networks of IPM-FFS graduatesFarmers participate in design, implementation, analysis and application of field study resultsExamples: Exploring area-wide fruit fly management
26Outcome of FFS =>Empowerment FFS graduates:Learn & Apply ecological principals to manage biodiversity crops & agro-ecosystems;Master & Apply critical thinking skills at farm and community levels;Master applied discovery approaches for continued knowledge development;Acquire leadership skills for community mobilization.
27Food Safety & Trade Facilitation IPM-FFS integration in GAP/Safe Vegetable ProgrammesBetter market access and trade facilitation
28Risk = Hazard x Exposure Pesticide Risk ReductionRisk = Hazard x ExposureProbability to cause harm as determined by hazard (chemical property) and exposure (environmental conditions and preventive action) equationNo Hazard = No RiskNo Exposure = No Risk
29Hazard ReductionElimination of use of WHO Class I pesticides and adoption of novel options for pest management
30Novel options for Pest Management Novel seeds, lures, pheromones, entomopathogens, classical biocontrol, biopesticides (e.g. Bt)Thailand: 350 Community Bio-Agent production Labs in 25 provinces, with stock and quality control provided by 9 DoAE Pest Management Centers
31Exposure Reduction:Limiting exposure through better handling, use, storage, disposal of pesticides
32Pesticide Risk Reduction Community education and mobilizationPolicy development and strengthening legislation and enforcement systems
33Scope: training and advocacy (leading to policy development) Vietnam: Pilot Community Education Programmes on Pesticide Risk ReductionObjective: to strengthen community ownership in pilot rural communities for planning, management and implementation of the pesticide risk reduction activitiesScope: training and advocacy (leading to policy development)Stakeholders: local leaders, farmers, pesticide sellers, representatives from the public agriculture and health sector and social organizations
34Pilot Community Education Programmes on Pesticide Risk Reduction Baseline surveys (inventory and flow of pesticides in the communities as well as health and environment related information)Training activities for local leaders, pesticide sellers, health workers and farmersCommunity action: Closure of pesticide shops that do not conform to local pesticide policies (e.g. selling banned pesticides)Community action: Posters on pesticide risk reduction have been developed and displayed in public placesCommunity action: Cement tanks have been established by the local government for disposal of pesticide containersDeveloping core groups IPM FFS alumni who can coach other farmers in the community particularly on improved production practices and alternative pest management strategiesExample: Pilot activity on producing potato seed tubers on rice straw using minimum tillage and reduce pesticides in potato seed productionCommunity action: Development of local policies on pesticide managementPilot Community Education Programmes on Pesticide Risk Reduction
35Summary of Country Strategies Curriculum review and development particularly on pesticide risk reductionDevelopment of curricula and training materials especially on new crops prone to pesticide misuse, e.g., fresh fruits & vegetablesImplementation of quality community education activities, e.g., farmer field schools andCommunity mobilization for implementation of pesticide risk reduction action plansDevelopment of M&E systems and impact assessment
36End of project situation Demonstrated effective models on community education for pesticide risk reduction for up-scaling by national IPM programmesCurricula developed for field training on pesticide risk reduction & IPM for new cropsReduced use of pesticides and elimination of WHO Class I products in pilot project areasFarmers making use of novel options for pest managementImproved incomes and better livelihoods for farmers and communities involved in the project
37For more Information on FAO’s Involvement in IPM/Pesticide Risk Redution Farmer Training in South and Southeast Asia: Website: