Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

2009 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "2009 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:

1 2009 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman karenlancour@charter.net

2 EVENT COMPONENTS Ecology Content – 2009 Ecology Content – 2009 Principles of Ecology (about 50 %) Deserts and Grasslands of North America (about 50%) Process skills Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysis Event parameters Event parameters Non-programmable calculators No reference materials

3 ECOLOGY AND ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT ECOLOGY ECOLOGY – how organisms interact with one another and with their environment ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT – living and non-living components ABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures ABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures BIOTIC – living component are other organisms BIOTIC – living component are other organisms.

4 ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL – individual organisms POPULATION POPULATION – organisms of same species in same area (biotic factors) COMMUNITY COMMUNITY – several populations in same area (biotic factors) ECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEM – community plus abiotic factors BIOSPHERE BIOSPHERE – all ecosystems on earth

5 ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUALS Homeostasis – delicate balance Homeostasis – delicate balance Components Components Physiological Ecology Physiological Ecology Temperature and Water Balance Temperature and Water Balance Light and Biological Cycles Light and Biological Cycles Physiological Ecology and Conservation Physiological Ecology and Conservation

6 ECOLOGY OF POPULATIONS Properties of populations Properties of populations Patterns of distribution and density Patterns of distribution and density Intraspecific competition Intraspecific competition Population dynamics Population dynamics Growth and regulation Growth and regulation Altering population growth Altering population growth Human impact Human impact

7 Growth Curves

8 Human Population

9 Survival Curves Survivorship is the percentage of remaining survivors of a population over time; usually shown graphically. Type I survivorship curve: most individuals live out their life span and die of old age (e.g., humans). Type II survivorship curve: individuals die at a constant rate (e.g., birds, rodents, and perennial plants). Type III survivorship curve: most individuals die early in life (e.g., fishes, invertebrates, and plants). Survivorship is the percentage of remaining survivors of a population over time; usually shown graphically. Type I survivorship curve: most individuals live out their life span and die of old age (e.g., humans). Type II survivorship curve: individuals die at a constant rate (e.g., birds, rodents, and perennial plants). Type III survivorship curve: most individuals die early in life (e.g., fishes, invertebrates, and plants).

10 ECOLOGY OF COMMUNITIES Closed vs. Open communities Closed vs. Open communities Closed – sharp boundaries Closed – sharp boundaries Open – Lack boundaries Open – Lack boundaries Species abundance and diversity Species abundance and diversity Trophic Structure of Communities Trophic Structure of Communities Food chains Food chains Food web Food web Trophic pyramid Trophic pyramid

11 INTERACTIONS AMONG SPECIES Interactions Interactions Interspecific competition Interspecific competition Predation Predation Exploitation Exploitation Symbiosis Symbiosis

12 Types of Species Interactions Neutral – two species do not interact Neutral – two species do not interact Mutualism – both benefit Mutualism – both benefit Commensalism – one benefits, other neutral Commensalism – one benefits, other neutral Parasitism – one benefits, one harmed Parasitism – one benefits, one harmed but not killed Predation – one benefits, other killed Predation – one benefits, other killed

13 Predator - Prey Relationship

14 Food Chain rose plant aphids beetle chameleon hawk rose plant aphids beetle chameleon hawk Producer 1 st order Consumer or Herbivore 2 nd order Consumer or 1 st order Carnivore 3 rd order Consumer or 2 nd order Carnivore 4 th order Consumer or 3 rd order Carnivore Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter

15 Food Web

16 ECOLOGY OF ECOSYSTEMS Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow Pyramids Energy Flow Pyramids Bio-mass Pyramids Bio-mass Pyramids Community Succession and Stability Community Succession and Stability Nutrient Recycling – nutrient cycles Nutrient Recycling – nutrient cycles

17 Energy vs Nutrient Nutrients – cyclic (Biogeochemical Cycles) Energy flow – one way

18 Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories.

19 Numbers Pyramid

20 Biomass & Energy Flow Pyramids

21 Biogeochemical Cycles Hydrologic Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle

22 Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

23 Phosphorus Cycle

24 Nitrogen Cycle

25 Carbon Cycle

26 Biosphere Types of Ecological Spheres Types of Ecological Spheres Biosphere Biosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Biogeochemical Cycles Biogeochemical Cycles Disruption of Biosphere Disruption of Biosphere Specie Extinction & Biosphere Destruction Specie Extinction & Biosphere Destruction

27 ECOLOGY OF BIOMES Weather and Climate Weather and Climate Types of Biomes Types of Biomes Aquatic biomes Aquatic biomes Terrestrial biomes Terrestrial biomes 09 – Biomes of North America 09 – Biomes of North America Deserts Deserts Grasslands Grasslands

28 Adaptations of Plants & Animals Not intended to be a taxonomic event Not intended to be a taxonomic event Emphasis on adaptations of common plants and animals to each biome Emphasis on adaptations of common plants and animals to each biome Common members of food chains and food webs of each biome Common members of food chains and food webs of each biome Limiting factors for each biome Limiting factors for each biome

29 Deserts Regions of low, sparse vegetation with minimal precipitation and humidity Regions of low, sparse vegetation with minimal precipitation and humidity Food web Food web Special adaptations Special adaptations Plant and animals Plant and animals Temperature variations Temperature variations Special environmental issues Special environmental issues Effect of human populations Effect of human populations

30 Deserts – Abiotic Features Regions of low, sparse vegetation with minimal precipitation and humidity high temperatures during some of the year and great daily temperature fluctuations Regions of low, sparse vegetation with minimal precipitation and humidity high temperatures during some of the year and great daily temperature fluctuations Cover 1/5 of earths land surface Cover 1/5 of earths land surface Scarcity of water – less than 25 cm (10 inches) of precipitation per year Scarcity of water – less than 25 cm (10 inches) of precipitation per year Water loss – tendency for water loss may exceed annual rainfall Water loss – tendency for water loss may exceed annual rainfall

31 Deserts – Abiotic factors Relatively poor soil qualityhigh mineral content but little organic matter Relatively poor soil quality – high mineral content but little organic matter Intense solar radiation – strong tendency to lose water by evaporation Intense solar radiation – strong tendency to lose water by evaporation Temperature variation – daytime over 120 degrees and drop as sunsets Temperature variation – daytime over 120 degrees and drop as sunsets Winters – may be cold Winters – may be cold

32 Deserts – Plants Succulent plants – juicy plants as cacti store water, spines are remnants of leaves Succulent plants – juicy plants as cacti store water, spines are remnants of leaves Annuals – dormant during dry season, germinate and grow rapidly to seed after rains Annuals – dormant during dry season, germinate and grow rapidly to seed after rains Desert shrubs– have small thick leaves with sunken stomates Desert shrubs – have small thick leaves with sunken stomates

33 Desert – Plant Adaptations Succulents store water in stems – no stomates to lose water – green stems functions of leaves – spines thought to be remnant leaves Succulents store water in stems – no stomates to lose water – green stems functions of leaves – spines thought to be remnant leaves Annuals have short life cycle of flower to seed after rain – seeds during dry times Annuals have short life cycle of flower to seed after rain – seeds during dry times Shrubs have small thick leaves with sunken stomates with widely branching roots which rapidly collect moisture or deep tap roots to underground moisture as mesquite. Shrubs have small thick leaves with sunken stomates with widely branching roots which rapidly collect moisture or deep tap roots to underground moisture as mesquite. Some depend upon animals digestion for dispersal of seeds Some depend upon animals digestion for dispersal of seeds

34 Deserts – Animals Insects and scorpions Insects and scorpions Lizards and Snakes Lizards and Snakes Birds – from hummingbirds to roadrunners Birds – from hummingbirds to roadrunners Bats Bats Small mammals as rodents Small mammals as rodents Larger mammals as coyotes Larger mammals as coyotes

35 Deserts – Animal Adaptations Burrow for protection from heat Burrow for protection from heat Conserve water loss from evaporation, Conserve water loss from evaporation, exhalation, elimination of body waste exhalation, elimination of body waste Nocturnal activity when cooler or hide/burrow during day to protect from heat Nocturnal activity when cooler or hide/burrow during day to protect from heat Many cold blooded insects and reptiles Many cold blooded insects and reptiles Exoskeletons or scales Exoskeletons or scales

36 Deserts - Animal Adaptations Lizards & scorpions – no glands in skin so do not sweat Lizards & scorpions – no glands in skin so do not sweat Mammals – panting & large ears – nocturnal hungers – hearing - many lack sweat glands Mammals – panting & large ears – nocturnal hungers – hearing - many lack sweat glands Concentrate waste as urea or crystallized uric acid Concentrate waste as urea or crystallized uric acid Become sluggish during intense heat Become sluggish during intense heat

37 Types of Deserts Hot - Arid regions with little or no annual precipitation, usually rain, no snow or frost Hot - Arid regions with little or no annual precipitation, usually rain, no snow or frost Warm - Arid regions where precipitation falls seasonally principally as rain, some snow and frost each year Warm - Arid regions where precipitation falls seasonally principally as rain, some snow and frost each year Cold - Arid regions where precipitation falls sparingly principally as snow and permafrost is not a factor Cold - Arid regions where precipitation falls sparingly principally as snow and permafrost is not a factor

38 Deserts of North America Warm Desert – Mojave Desert Warm Desert – Mojave Desert Warm Desert – Sonoran Desert Warm Desert – Sonoran Desert Warm Desert – Chihuahuan Desert Warm Desert – Chihuahuan Desert Cold Desert – Intermountain West or Great Basin Cold Desert – Intermountain West or Great Basin

39 Environmental Concerns – Deserts Many endangered, rare and unusual plants and animals live in the desert. Many endangered, rare and unusual plants and animals live in the desert. Slow to recover from habitat damage Slow to recover from habitat damage Desert expansiongrowth of deserts in parts of the world Desert expansion – growth of deserts in parts of the world Flooding problems during rains Flooding problems during rains Competition of man for limited water supply Competition of man for limited water supply

40 Grasslands of North America

41 Grasslands – Abiotic factors Moderate temperature with notable extremes: -20° F to 110° F common, and even colder temperatures in the north Moderate temperature with notable extremes: -20° F to 110° F common, and even colder temperatures in the north Precipitation is too low to support trees but too great for deserts to form Precipitation is too low to support trees but too great for deserts to form Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm) Variable precipitation: 6-40 in (15-100 cm) Scattered rain and lightening common in summer months ("convection storms") with more general rains and snows in winter months Scattered rain and lightening common in summer months ("convection storms") with more general rains and snows in winter months Fire a major factor in maintaining biome Fire a major factor in maintaining biome Droughts may be severe Droughts may be severe

42 Grasslands – Plants Grasses are major producer with several genera and species common but usually with one or two dominate Grasses are major producer with several genera and species common but usually with one or two dominate Herbs and legumes (nitrogen fixing) among the grasses Herbs and legumes (nitrogen fixing) among the grasses Many plants possess rhizomes (underground stems) and are wind pollinated Many plants possess rhizomes (underground stems) and are wind pollinated Soils generally fertile, deep and rich in nutrients (Bread baskets of the world) Soils generally fertile, deep and rich in nutrients (Bread baskets of the world) Growing season of 120-200 days Growing season of 120-200 days Generally flat to rolling topography Generally flat to rolling topography

43 North American Grassland (Prairie) types

44 Grasslands (Prairies) of North America Tall-grass Prairie: eastern unit – nearest to Eastern Deciduous Forests Tall grasses (3-4 ft or 1-1.5 m tall) with roots up to 6 feet deep Tall grasses (3-4 ft or 1-1.5 m tall) with roots up to 6 feet deep 24-40 in (65-100 cm) precipitation annually 24-40 in (65-100 cm) precipitation annually Mid-grass Prairie: between Tall Grass and Short Grass – gradual change Grasses to 4 ft (1.5 m) tall, mixture of sod and "bunch" grasses. Grasses to 4 ft (1.5 m) tall, mixture of sod and "bunch" grasses. 14-25 in (35-65 cm) precipitation annually 14-25 in (35-65 cm) precipitation annually Short-grass Prairie: western element, largest. Nearest to deserts of west US Short grasses (less than 20 in or 50 cm tall) Short grasses (less than 20 in or 50 cm tall) About 10 in precipitation annually. About 10 in precipitation annually. Conservation Concerns: Majority of tall- and mid-grass prairie are now farmland. Short-grass prairie is grazed, some areas are now overgrazed

45 Grasslands (Prairie) in North America

46 Grassland (Prairie) Plant Adaptations Native plants are perennials while crop grains are annuals Native plants are perennials while crop grains are annuals Grasses have three strata – roots, growth at ground level, and taller foliage Grasses have three strata – roots, growth at ground level, and taller foliage Half of growth may be below ground Half of growth may be below ground Grazed taller foliage will grow back Grazed taller foliage will grow back Taller foliage above ground adapted to withstand strong winds, fires, extreme temperature changes Taller foliage above ground adapted to withstand strong winds, fires, extreme temperature changes

47 Grasslands – Animal Dominated by grazing animals (deer, antelope, buffalo - once common but now rarely native to the range) Dominated by grazing animals (deer, antelope, buffalo - once common but now rarely native to the range) Herds (safety in numbers) Herds (safety in numbers) Burrowing small animals (colonies as prairie dogs) Burrowing small animals (colonies as prairie dogs) Rodents and Jack Rabbits Rodents and Jack Rabbits Flight song birds – strong fliers Flight song birds – strong fliers Insects esp. grasshoppers Insects esp. grasshoppers

48 Grassland (Prairie) Animal adaptations Long distance vision for predator & prey Long distance vision for predator & prey Eyes of grazing animals well above snout Eyes of grazing animals well above snout Many are built for speed – live in herds or colonies Many are built for speed – live in herds or colonies Small creatures can stand on haunches Small creatures can stand on haunches Some hop up and down or hop long distances Some hop up and down or hop long distances Camouflage coloration Camouflage coloration Underground burrows Underground burrows Birds – strong fliers (strong winds), flight song birds to attract mates in air, nest in tall grass Birds – strong fliers (strong winds), flight song birds to attract mates in air, nest in tall grass

49 Grassland (Prairie) Environmental Concerns Most disturbed biome – farming & domestic grazing with fences Most disturbed biome – farming & domestic grazing with fences Annuals replace perennials with annual soil disturbance by the plow Annuals replace perennials with annual soil disturbance by the plow Overgrazing problems – dust bowl Overgrazing problems – dust bowl Biodiversity disturbed – extinct & endangered species Biodiversity disturbed – extinct & endangered species Fire allowed vs fire control Fire allowed vs fire control Native grasslands being reintroduced Native grasslands being reintroduced


Download ppt "2009 ECOLOGY (B&C) KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google