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How do cultural practices impact wine aroma and flavor? Nick Dokoozlian E&J Gallo Winery Nick Dokoozlian E&J Gallo Winery.

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Presentation on theme: "How do cultural practices impact wine aroma and flavor? Nick Dokoozlian E&J Gallo Winery Nick Dokoozlian E&J Gallo Winery."— Presentation transcript:

1 How do cultural practices impact wine aroma and flavor? Nick Dokoozlian E&J Gallo Winery Nick Dokoozlian E&J Gallo Winery

2 How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? Outline Measuring quality and flavor development Practices influencing flavor development Harvest date Crop load Late season water status Trellis Clonal selection Summary Outline Measuring quality and flavor development Practices influencing flavor development Harvest date Crop load Late season water status Trellis Clonal selection Summary

3 Measuring grape quality ColorMouthfeel Aroma Taste Flavor = aroma x taste

4 How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? Harvest Date

5 Mean soluble solids of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at harvest in California

6 ?

7 Berry maturity metrics

8 Berry Sensory

9 Berry sensory trends Trained tasters can consistently distinguish several different flavor or aroma buckets during ripening Significant sensory trends are apparent during the later stages of ripening (>20 o Brix) Berry sensory trends Trained tasters can consistently distinguish several different flavor or aroma buckets during ripening Significant sensory trends are apparent during the later stages of ripening (>20 o Brix)

10 Sensory flavor buckets in grape berries near harvest Category Sensory buckets Responsible compounds Negative Positive Veggie Green fruit Fresh fruit Cooked or jammy fruit Methoxypyrazine C6 compounds Glycosylated bound precursors, acid esters and thiols Ex: norisoprenoids

11 ?

12 ?

13 ? Sugar-based harvest

14 ? Sugar-based harvest Sensory-based harvest

15 Berry to Wine Sensory

16 Linking berry and wine sensory Berry sensory is subjective and not high- throughput Can we use chemistry to describe our major aromas buckets? Vegetable Green fruit Fresh fruit Jammy fruit Are chemical finger prints for each bucket possible ? Berry sensory is subjective and not high- throughput Can we use chemistry to describe our major aromas buckets? Vegetable Green fruit Fresh fruit Jammy fruit Are chemical finger prints for each bucket possible ?

17 Grape aromas & aroma precursors Methoxypyrazine Veggie aroma Free volatile aromas Alcohols, aldehydes, terpenoids, norisoprenoids Glucose glycosides Flavor precursors bound to sugars Fatty acid esters Acid esters (fresh fruity notes in all cultivars) Thiols Sulfur based precursors in grapes ( ex. cysteine) - tropical notes in Sauvignon blanc, other cultivars

18 Sensory flavor buckets in grape berries near harvest Category Sensory buckets Responsible compounds Negative Positive Veggie Green fruit Fresh fruit Cooked or jammy fruit Methoxypyrazine C6 compounds Glycosylated bound precursors, acid esters and thiols Ex: norisoprenoids

19 Jammy fruit aromas Compound Aroma Benzyl alcohol(ppb) Phenethyl alcohol (ppb) Geraniol(ppb) B-ionone(ppb) Terpinene(ppb) Linalool(ppb) Eucalyptol(ppb) B-damasecenone (ppb) Benzyl alcohol(ppb) Phenethyl alcohol (ppb) Geraniol(ppb) B-ionone(ppb) Terpinene(ppb) Linalool(ppb) Eucalyptol(ppb) B-damasecenone (ppb) Red berry Roses Citric Prune Citrus Flowery, lavender Eucalyptus Rose wood Red berry Roses Citric Prune Citrus Flowery, lavender Eucalyptus Rose wood

20 The Odor Activity Value (OAV) OAV= Concentration of target compound in grape Known sensory detection threshold in water OAV= Example: = ppt 4000 ppt

21 Cabernet Sauvignon Veggie Aroma activity value Chemistry

22 Cabernet Sauvignon Green fruit Cabernet Sauvignon Green fruit Aroma activity value

23 Cabernet Sauvignon Jammy fruit Aroma activity value

24 How do we synchronize berry sugar and flavor accumulation ? Managing wine flavor & alcohol in the vineyard Managing wine flavor & alcohol in the vineyard

25 Changes in berry sensory over time Changes in berry sensory over time 2004 Rapid sugar accumulation due to low crop load Delayed flavor development due to environment, ripening rate

26 Changes in berry sensory over time Changes in berry sensory over time 2005 Slow sugar accumulation due to large crop load

27 How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? Crop Load or Vine Balance

28 Canopy size Fruit yield Crop Load Yield to pruning weight ratio integrates vine capacity and yield Accounts for differences in vineyard design, plant density, vine vigor and site capacity

29 Vine yield Pruning weight Expected ripening rate < 4 5 – 8 > 10 Too little crop = rapid Balanced = optimum Too much crop = slow Vine balance and ripening rate

30 Under-cropped vines Yield = 4 tons per hectare Yield pruning weight ratio = 3 Balance - cropped vines Yield = 15 tons per hectare Yield pruning weight ratio = 8 Over - cropped vines Yield = 30 tons per hectare Yield pruning weight ratio = 14 Cabernet Sauvignon

31 Under-cropped vines Yield = 4 tons per hectare Yield pruning weight ratio = 3 Balance - cropped vines Yield = 15 tons per hectare Yield pruning weight ratio = 8 Over - cropped vines Yield = 30 tons per hectare Yield pruning weight ratio = 14 Cabernet Sauvignon

32 Balanced Cropped = 8:1 Under Cropped = 3:1 Over Cropped = 14:1

33 TT Threshold Ratio of dark fruit to green aromas Balanced-cropped 8:1 Over-cropped 14:1 Under-cropped 3:1

34 Under cropped Over cropped

35 Sugar accumulation rate ( o Brix) Berry ripening (time) VeraisonHarvest High LA:FW (Under cropped) Low LA:FA (Over cropped) sugar time How important is to: How does ripening rate affect berry aroma at maturity ? How does ripening rate affect berry aroma at maturity ? Fruit aroma accumulation? Green aroma degradation? Flavor accumulation Rate?

36 How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? Late Season Water Stress

37 Ramp-up Begin ramp-up Control Ramp-up irrigation = 100% ETc Control irrigation = 70% ETc Begin treatment at 21 Brix

38 Vine response to irrigation levels during the final stages of ripening Cabernet Sauvignon - Lodi Treatment Soluble solids at harvest (Brix) Berry Color (mg/g) IBMP (ppt) Bound aroma precursors (ppt) Standard26.7a1.2 a2.1 a50,560 b Ramp-up24.5 b1.1 a1.4 a59,860 a From: Prichard et al 2005

39 How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? Trellis Design and Canopy Efficiency

40 45% Exposed LA 35% Exposed LA 75% Exposed LA 65% Exposed LA

41 From Kliewer and Dokoozlian

42 IndicesMeasure Production efficiency Canopy efficiency Fruit microclimate Fruit yield Pruning weight Exposed leaf area Total leaf area Exposed clusters Total clusters Back to basics - performance metrics

43 How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? How do we manage grape and wine flavor in the vineyard? Clonal Selection

44 Merlot Clones – 2009 Vintage All clones adjusted to similar crop loads (~7:1) following berry set

45 Summary Maturity measures are changing from sugar- based metrics to flavor-based metrics Berry sensory and analytical tools can monitor berry flavor profiles Vine balance (ratio of yield to pruning weight) is critical to fruit ripening rate and flavor development Synchronizing sugar and flavor accumulation Greater focus on the impact of other vineyard practices on flavor development is needed Maturity measures are changing from sugar- based metrics to flavor-based metrics Berry sensory and analytical tools can monitor berry flavor profiles Vine balance (ratio of yield to pruning weight) is critical to fruit ripening rate and flavor development Synchronizing sugar and flavor accumulation Greater focus on the impact of other vineyard practices on flavor development is needed

46 Acknowledgements David Vasquez, Luis Sanchez, Marin Mendez, Jim ODonnell and Nona Ebisuda Mike Cleary, Beth Wilson and Lee Raley Laure David, Jim Kolsky and Lyndsay Noble Cyd Yonker and Tom Pugh Alan Reynolds and Jim Collins David Vasquez, Luis Sanchez, Marin Mendez, Jim ODonnell and Nona Ebisuda Mike Cleary, Beth Wilson and Lee Raley Laure David, Jim Kolsky and Lyndsay Noble Cyd Yonker and Tom Pugh Alan Reynolds and Jim Collins


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