Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 How to write a scientific article Constantinos (Dinos) Mylonas Hellenic Center for Marine Research Institute of Aquaculture Crete, Greece.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 How to write a scientific article Constantinos (Dinos) Mylonas Hellenic Center for Marine Research Institute of Aquaculture Crete, Greece."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 How to write a scientific article Constantinos (Dinos) Mylonas Hellenic Center for Marine Research Institute of Aquaculture Crete, Greece

2 2 Components ReportThesisArticle Formatflexiblestrict (**)very strict Lengthunlimited limited Contentspecificextensivespecific Illustrations (Tables/Figures) fewmany very few

3 3 Structure - Report Title page Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion References (Tables and Figures embedded in text)

4 4 Structure - Thesis Title page Acknowledgements Summary Table of contents List of Figures (optional) General Introduction Chapter 1-n –Introduction –Materials and methods –Results –Discussion (Tables and Figures embedded in text) General Discussion References

5 5 Table of Contents -Can be done automatically!

6 6 Table of Contents

7 7

8 8

9 9 Structure - Article Title page Abstract Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Tables List of Figures Figures

10 10 Format Margins –Left, right, top, bottom Spacing –Single or double space –Line numbering Font type and size –Base type ( Arial vs Times ) Levels of organization –Not more than three 1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods –2.1. Experimental animals –2.2. Experimental design » Effect of season on reproduction Paragraphs –With or without indentation, separated by a double space, etc.

11 11 Format-margins

12 12 Format Spacing –Single or double space Font type and size –( Arial vs Times )

13 13 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Tables Figures legends Figures

14 14 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Tables Figures legends Figures

15 15 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Tables Figures legends Figures - Presentation of the problem - Current knowledge or situation - Relevant knowledge from other species - Objectives of the study

16 16 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Tables Figures legends Figures Content - Experimental animals or site - Experimental design - Data collection - Analytical methods (hormone assays, molecular methods, measurements, etc. - Statistical analysis Objectives - Understand the study - Evaluate the results - Repeat if required

17 17 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion Acknowledgements References Tables Figures legends Figures - Presentation of results in a historical order - Reference to Tables and Figures - Absolutely NO discussion (no opinions or conclusions)

18 18 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion (3-n pages) Acknowledgements References Tables Figures legends Figures - Interpretation of results - Comparison with other studies - Avoid referring to Tables and Figures - Significance of the study, contribution to the field - Suggestions for further work - Conclusions - NO mentioning of results (numbers), except for comparison purposes

19 19 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion (3-n pages) Acknowledgements (1 paragraph) References Tables Figures legends Figures - Funding agencies and organizations - Technicians and collaborators who worked on the study -Scientist giving advice on study or reviewed the manuscript - Reviewers that improved the manuscript -NOT your parents or girlfriend/boyfriend

20 20 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion (3-n pages) Acknowledgements (1 paragraph) References (1-n pages, ~50 citations) Tables Figures legends Figures -Provide proof of knowledge of the field -Suggest studies to interested readers -Reviews to avoid many original articles -Original articles to demonstrate knowledge of the field -Journals, Books, Chapters, Conferences, Thesis, Reports - Every journal has its own style ! (alphabetical, numerical)

21 21 Structure - References

22 22 Structure - References

23 23 Reproductive behaviour of fish - bluefin tuna

24 24 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion (3-n pages) Acknowledgements (1 paragraph) References (1-n pages, ~50 citations) Tables (0-7?) Figures legends Figures -Each Table in a separate page -Self-explanatory (no reference to main text)

25 25 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion (3-n pages) Acknowledgements (1 paragraph) References (1-n pages, ~50 citations) Tables (0-7?) Figure legends (0-n) Figures -Separate Word file or at the end of the main text -NOT next to the Figure -Self-explanatory (no reference to main text)

26 26 Structure - Article Title page (1 page) Abstract (1 page) Introduction (2-3 pages) Materials and methods (1-n pages) Results (1-n pages) Discussion (3-n pages) Acknowledgements (1 paragraph) References (1-n pages, ~50 citations) Tables (0-7?) Figure legends (0-n) Figures (0-7?) -Each Figure in a separate page, preferably in TIFF or JPEG format -For review also possible as MS PPT (one Figure per slide) -NO titles (legends)

27 27 Language Write in past tense for the results of an experiment or of another study. Use present tense for well- accepted theories or facts. For example: (Past) The study indicated that fish spawned well in captivity. (Present) It is known that most temperate zone fishes spawn once a year in nature

28 28 Language Write in passive voice and not in the first person. For example: (Yes) Blood samples were collected and analyzed using ELISA. (No) We collected blood samples and analyzed them using ELISA.

29 29 Language Avoid using author names out of parentheses. These are better placed in parentheses, unless there is really a need to emphasize the name of the author. For example: (Yes) The gilthead seabream reproduces annually for a period of 3-5 months (Zohar et al., 1995). (No) Zohar and coworkers (1995) demonstrated that the gilthead seabream reproduces annually for a period of 3-5 months. (Yes) Contrary to what has been know until now (Johnson et al., 1990; Stevens & Brown, 1991; Holland et al, 1993), Zohar and coworkers suggested recently that not all stocks of gilthead seabream reproduce annually for a period of 3-5 months.

30 30 Language Never start a sentence with an abbreviation or an Arabic number. Spell them out. For example: (Yes) Luteinizing hormone is the main gonadotrophin in mammals, controlling gametogenesis. (No) GnRH is the main brain hormone in mammals, controlling reproduction. (Yes) Twenty-fine percent of the population in Greece own a second house. (No) 15 fish were sampled at each monthly sampling.

31 31 Language Spell out numbers from one to nine if they are not followed by units, and use Arabic numbers for those above 10. For example: (Yes) In the present study 9 fish were used in each of the five therapies used for the study. (Yes) The experiments were repeated at 12 different times during the period of 3 years.

32 32 Language Always spell out abbreviations at the first time cited in the Title, Abstract and main text of the manuscript. First the full name and then the abbreviation, never the other way around. For example: (Yes) Giving an exogenous dose of testosterone (T) is considered a reasonable method for increasing maleness. (No) In the blood, E2 (17b-estradiol) can be elevated during the reproductive season.

33 33 Language After parentheses a comma is placed only if it would be necessary without the parenthesis. For example: (Yes, with comma) Even though reports exist to support the existence of GnRHa in marine fishes (Jonhson et al., 2007), this has not been demonstrated in all fish studied to date. (Yes, without comma) The study of reproductive functions in marine fishes (Brown et al., 2006) has led to the discovery of multiple forms of GnRHa in the brain.

34 34 Language In a list of terms, the last one is connected with "and" with or without a comma. Be consisted in the use or not of the comma. For example: (Yes) It has been found that fish have three steroids in their plasma during reproduction: testosterone, estradiol(,) and dihydroxyprogesterone. (No) It has been found that fish have three steroids in their plasma during reproduction: testosterone, estradiol, dihydroxyprogesterone.

35 35 Language Citation to a figure, table or another study should be done at the end of the sentence, unless this citation refers to only part of the sentence. For example: (Yes) It has been found in both marine and freshwater fish that plasma testosterone increases after a meal and this increase is correlated to increased swimming activity (Stevens, 1978). (No) It has been found in both marine and freshwater fish that plasma testosterone increases after a meal (Stevens, 1978) and this increase is correlated to increased swimming activity. (Yes) It has been found in both marine and freshwater fish that plasma testosterone increases after a meal (Fig. 2) and this increase is correlated to increased swimming activity (Manabu et al., 2008).

36 36 Language "Which" can be used for the same objective as "that". However, "which" is more formal and much stronger and it must be preceded by a comma. For example: (Yes) Fish did not respond to the treatment, which means that they were not mature yet. (Yes) Fish did not accept the second type of food that was prepared with marine oils. (No) All treated individuals were larger than the controls which means that the added nutrients were important in accelerating growth.

37 37 Language Do not start a sentence with "This", That", "They" etc., unless it is very clear to what this term refers. Restate clearly if there is a doubt. For example: (Yes). From the different species studied, the African elephant is the only one that builds a nest for reproduction. This is usually made at the top of a tree, using feather and grass. (No) From the five species of birds found in the Aegean islands, the two found in Crete feed exclusively on marine fish while the other three consume also fruits. These include mariets, alpikas and bassols. (Yes) From the five species of birds found in the Aegean islands, the two found in Crete feed exclusively on marine fish while the other three consume also fruits. These fish include mariets, alpikas and bassols.

38 38 Language The plural of fish is fish. Fishes indicates many fish species. For example: Each treatment consisted of 12 fish. Each experiment considered at least three fishes from a total of 25 species available in the region. Same holds for people vs peoples, bread vs breads, money vs moneys The common names of animals are always written in small letters, with the exception of main names such as Atlantic, Japanese, Pacific, Australian, etc.

39 39 Language A single sentence cannot constitute a paragraph. Either expand further or consolidate with another paragraph. Use units with the IU standards (mg l -1 not ml/l). Always leave a space between the number and unit (for example, 10 Kg, 4 min, 9 h) except in the case of temperature degrees and percentage (34°C and 20%) Be consistent with the format of scientific names (in or outside parentheses), citations (Name, 1990 or Name 1990; et al. or et al.), range of numbers with hyphens ( or 20-30), etc.

40 40 Graphs

41 41 Graphs

42 42 Graphs

43 43 Preparation sequence 1. Prepare Graphs and Tables (This will create the frame of the paper) 2. Prepare the Title page (This will form the theme of the paper) 3. Start writing the manuscript - Materials & methods - Results - Introduction (based on the Results you will build the background, justification of the study and its objectives) - Discussion (interpret the results, relate to the current knowledge, suggest and justify further research, draw conclusions) - References 4. Read again, and again, and again

44 44 Words of wisdom If you prepare an article badly, it will take you 3-times as long to complete than you planned.

45 45 Words of wisdom If you prepare an article well, it will take you only 2-times as long to complete than you planned.

46 46 Words of wisdom It always takes longer than you think!!! Καλή επιτυχία!

47 47 The HCMR-Institute of Aquaculture Five research institutes –Institute of Aquaculture –Institute of Marine Biology and Genetics –Institute of Oceanography –Institute of Marine Biological Resources (Fisheries) –Institute of Inland Waters Two public aquaria - Rhodes Hydrobiological Station - Creta Aquarium In Crete Hellenic Center for Marine Research Reproduction and Broodstock management Institute of Aquaculture Cretaquarium Institute of Marine Biology and Genetics


Download ppt "1 How to write a scientific article Constantinos (Dinos) Mylonas Hellenic Center for Marine Research Institute of Aquaculture Crete, Greece."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google