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Monoxide of hydrogen Feebly dissociates to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions pH pure water is 7 Maximum density at 3.98 0 C The viscosity and surface tension.

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Presentation on theme: "Monoxide of hydrogen Feebly dissociates to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions pH pure water is 7 Maximum density at 3.98 0 C The viscosity and surface tension."— Presentation transcript:


2 Monoxide of hydrogen Feebly dissociates to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions pH pure water is 7 Maximum density at 3.98 0 C The viscosity and surface tension slightly changes due to change in temperature 100 0 C. Water has the molecular mass 18.0151 H 2 O molecules are bent molecules with a bond angle of 104.50 0. It is polar in nature

3 Pancha Bhutas origin of life is mainly in water Without water, life is impossible. So water is an inevitable factor in all forms and states of life According to Neethisaram Yathra Nasthi Sajalanadi Mithra Thathra Vasthavyam About two third of our body weight is due to water. 89% of blood, about 80% of Brain, muscles etc and even 10% of bone contain water

4 USES OF WATER Water is essential for both internal and external body cleansing. Usage of water can be classified mainly into five :- 1. Domestic uses :- For drinking, washing, cooking, bathing etc. 2. Public uses :- Cleaning of surroundings, Fire fighting, watering of garden and for ponds. 3. Industrial uses :- As solvent, cleaning material and so on. 4. Agricultural uses :- water is a main eventuality in Agriculture 5. Therapeutic uses :- Water is used in Naturopathy, Hydrotherapy for water therapy and mud therapy Approximately a human needs 150 to 200 liter water per day.

5 SOURCES OF WATER 1.Atmospheric water 2.Terrestrial water Main forms of Atmospheric water are Rain water, Hailstone, snow and ice. According to Susrutha acharya they are Dharam, Karam, Thousharam and Haimi (a)Rain water - Dharam This is also known as Aindra jalam. The pure form of natural water. It is clear, shining, chemically soft and with small amount of dissolved materials.

6 Rain water is of two types namely Gangam and Samudram. Rain water collected at the end of rainy season i.e in the September – October is gangam; Water collected at the beginning and middle of rainy season is Samudram. Water testing – Ganga Samudra Pareekshanam. Rice of freshly harvested paddy is made into bolus and kept in the rain in a silver plate for 48 min i.e One muhoortam. If there is no change in the rice the water is gangam.




10 BELIEFS OF NATURE CURE More dishes, more diseases More medicines, more miseries More comforts, more complaints More relief, more grief More drugs, more doubts More nourishment, more punishment Common sense plus will power equals health Health is the very foundation of your life Hunger is not only a good cook, but a physician too We should eat what we require, not what we desire

11 SEVEN DEADLY SINS Wealth without work Pleasure without conscience Knowledge without character Business without ethics Science without humanity Religion without sacrifice Politics without principle - Mahatma Gandhi.


13 Hydrotherapy Treating the disorders by the rational use of water. Neutral - 98.6 F (or) 36.4 celsius Hot - > 37 c to 40 c Very hot - > 40 c Cold - 24 c to 36 c Very Cold - 0 c < 24 c Freezing - < 0 c

14 WATER – HYDROTHERAPY It uses the therapeutic properties of water. Water has great healing properties and exhibits different properties at different temperatures. The temperature of the water for any treatment depends on the effect desired. Water is used internally and externally in all its forms- steam, liquid or ice, to cleanse and restore health. It is used in the form of Baths, Jets/Douches, Packs, Compresses and Immersions.


16 therapeutic effects of Drinking water: – Helps maintain hydration of the body. – Helps in proper secretion of body fluids. – Aids digestion and prevents constipation. – Improves skin condition. – Helps in detoxification


18 Wet Packs wrap the body in a sheet wetted in cold water. The head with a wet towel placed on it is kept outside the sheet and two blankets are also placed. After half an hour, the pack is removed

19 Compress Packs A compress is a fold of cloth / soft material, applied firmly to a part for the relief of inflammation / prevention of hemorrhage.

20 Cold Compress

21 A cold compress is a local application of cold cloth wrung from cold water. Hand towels / ordinary cotton cloths may be used. It may be applied on head, neck, chest, abdomen, spine etc., The compress must be frequently renewed, before it is warmed. Duration:- 3 to 5 min Temperature: - 45. To 60. F

22 Heating Compress - A heating compress consists of an application of heat to the body by means of ¾ thickness of cotton cloth. - It should be covered with dry cloth to prevent circulation of air. - On removal of the compress, the part should be rubbed with cold water and dried with towel. - Duration:- 3 to 5 min - Temperature: - 100. To 102. F

23 Benefits Helps in detoxification of areas which are swollen, blocked or sensitive. Excellent for tight sore muscles, edema. Stimulates the blood circulation. Gives soothing, refreshing, calming and decongesting qualities.

24 Foot Bath The foot bath is one of the most useful measures in hydrotherapy, where the foot is immersed in the tub of water. Tubs used are about 16inches long, 8 to 10 inches deep. When the feet taken out of the water, dry them thoroughly

25 Cold foot bath:- The feet should be immersed in a tub of cold water. During the bath, feet are rubbed with hands / one foot by the others. Duration: - 3 to 5 min Temperature:- 45. to 60. F

26 Hot foot bath:- The feet should be immersed in a tub of Hot water. When the feet taken out from the water, it should be given cold pour and then dried thoroughly. Cold compress to head is given Duration: - 3 to 5 min Temperature:- 102. to 105. F

27 Benefits Relieves localized pain and inflammations Relieves congestive headaches Relieves the spasms of the bronchioles and facilitates easy breathing as in asthma and bronchitis Excellent for relieving the numbness and tingling in the extremities as in diabetes mellitus

28 Full Immersion Bath:- Full immersion bath should be long enough 6 feet, 2 1/2 feet wide and 1 1/2 feet depth, so that the body may be completely immersed. The head should rest on an air pillow.

29 Hot Immersion Bath:- The patient should be immersed in a tub of hot water. Head is covered with cold compress. Cold water should be given taken before the bath. After the immersion bath, cold bath to be given. Duration ;- 2 to 20 min Temperature: - 100. To 102. F

30 Cold Immersion Bath:- The patient should be immersed in a tub of cold water. The body should be rubbed at frequent intervals. Duration ;- 5 to 7 min Temperature: - 55. To 90. F

31 Neutral Immersion Bath:- The patient should be immersed in a tub of warm water. Head is covered with cold compress. Cold water should be given taken before the bath. After the immersion bath, dry the body immediately. Duration ;- 15 to 30 min Temperature: - 92. To 96. F

32 Graduated Bath:- The patient should be immersed in a tub of warm water then the temperature should be gradually by 2. F at every 5 min to about 90. F The skin must be warm to begin with the bath. Head is covered with cold compress. The body should be rubbed at frequent intervals. After the immersion bath, dry the body immediately. Duration ;- 10 to 30 min Temperature: - 80. To 98. F

33 Benefits Helps improve the circulation to the part immersed and also the peripheral circulation Helps relieve edema Useful in treating skin disorders Helps to relieve congestion of the reflex regions thereby relieving symptoms of asthma, migraine, insomnia, etc

34 Hip Bath A common tub may be used or specialized tub - a back support elevate it 5 / 6 inches, sides sloping gradually to support the arms, bottom elevated 2 / 3 inches. Depth should be as common wash tub so that the patient can comfortably sit inside with legs outside. Water in a tub should be sufficient enough to cover the hip, reaches navel when patient sits inside it.

35 Cold Hip Bath The patient should in a Hip bath tub filled with cold water. The abdomen should be rubbed at frequent intervals. Others parts should not cooled. Duration ;- 5 to 7 min Temperature: - 55. To 75. F

36 Hot Hip Bath The patient should in a Hip bath tub filled with hot water. Cold pack to head. Duration ;- 5 to 10 min Temperature: - 100. To 102. F

37 Spinal Bath It is given in a specially designed spinal tub with its back raised so as to provide proper support to the head. The bath can be administered at cold, neutral and hot temperatures. The water level in the tub should be an inch and a half to two inches and the patient should lie in it. Duration:- 3 to 10 min.

38 Benefits It bath provides a soothing effect to the spinal column and thereby influences the central nervous system. Stimulates, Relaxes the spinal nerves & spinal muscles. Helps maintain the blood pressure Helps in regulating the moods like anxiety or depression. Insomnia, Spondylitis, sciatic pain

39 Steam Bath Patient sit in a steam cabin designed for treatment. Exposing the entire body to steam with the exception of the head. Drink cold water before steam bath. Cold Pack to head. Duration :- 5 to 10 min

40 Benefits Steam inhalation helps decongest the respiratory tract. Herbal steam helps rejuvenate the body Helps open up the skin pores Helps remove the toxins of the skin through sweating Helps the skin to maintain its natural moisture and softness.


42 Full Wet Sheet Pack A full wet sheet pack is a procedure in with body is wrapped in a wet sheet, outside is covered with dry blanket. Duration :- 45 min to 1 hour.

43 This treatment allows an in-depth detoxification of the areas which are swollen, blocked or sensitive and helps to restore the vitality of the skin and the body. There are several packs like abdomen, knee, trunk, shoulder, ankle and neck packs. Relieves inflammation and swellings Improves circulation Relieves the stiffness and spasms of muscles and joints Benefits

44 Sun Bath It is the application of Natural Sunlight directly to the exposed to body surface. Sunlight is the greatest of all promoters of health and greatest enemy of disease. Sunlight not only kills germs, but at the same time vitalizes energizes the body Increase its immune power. Cool bath given after sun bath.



47 Color therapy




51 Hydrotherapy according to…………. Age Disease condition Tolerability Climate Physiological effect being desired

52 Indications General foxemia All accute disease (disorders) All chronic Febrile conditions. Contraindications Very cold Very hot Very young children (below 5 yrs) Very old age people (above 50 yrs) Hypertension & cardiovascular - hot

53 Physiological effects : Cold - General tornic, to nifies the body Hot - causes exhaustion - depressor, sedative Neurral - Sedative induce sleep

54 Effect of Cold Water Dilation of blood vessels of the skin Redness of skin Feeling of warmth Fed pulse rate Fed respiratory rate Fed blood pressure

55 Steam Bath Steps 1. Before going in for a steam bath, you should drink one glass of water and wet your head with cold water. 2. While taking a steam bath, place a cloth soaked in cold water on your head. 3. You should take a steam bath in the morning and on an empty stomach. 4. You should take a steam bath for 5-10 minutes depending on your needs. 5. If a patient feels weak after a steam bath, she / he should immediately wipe their entire body with a wet cloth. 6. Thereafter, take a bath or shower with cold water. 7. Depending on the condition of the patient, health or diseases and the weather, a warm shower should be taken after a cold shower. Benefits of Steam Bath: Arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, urine acidity, nephritis, toxemia, migraines, overweight, muscle pains and back pain. Precautions: People with high blood pressure, who are very weak, who have serious skin diseases, those suffering from TB and heart problems should not take steam bath.

56 Effects of hot water : Temporily blood pressure Increase superficial circulation Increase blood supply to muscular. General & relaxation Relief muscular spain Increase heart rate Increase blood volume promotion of sweating elimination of metabolic waste. respiratory rate stimulate immune system antibody production sedation of sensory motor neurons spain relief.

57 Indications : Back pain Arthritis Neuralgia Muscle Pain & (muscle) tension Sprains & strains Stiffness Bruises & contusion

58 Contraindications : - Too young or elder Acute fever Severe cardiac complications Seizures Acute bleeding, open wounds, pressure bones Acute skin infection, contagious skin rashes Vascular disease Incontinence of bladder /bowel Severe hydrophobia Malignancy or active T.B.

59 Sages of ancient India discovered how the unique vibration of each color could help heal ailments, and this knowledge was later codified in the Atharva Veda, ancient Indian scripture, as Surya Kiran Chikitsahealing with the sun`s rays. In the Egypt of yore, temples had special healing rooms where the sun dispersed the seven colors of the rainbow. Today, this ancient healing technique is making a popular comeback under the quasi- scientific label of chromotherapy.healing

60 Naturopathy believes that the natural method of living and of treatment are : Return to Nature by the regulation of eating, drinking, breathing, talking, standing, sitting, bathing, dressing, working, resting, thinking the moral life, sexual and social activities etc., on a normal and natural basis. Eliminatory Remedies such as water, air, light, earth, magnetism, electricity etc. Bio-chemical Remedies such as scientific live food, selection and combination of natural food, juices. Mechanical Remedies such as corrective physical culture, yogic practices, massage, magnetic treatment, accupressure, water treatment. Mental and spiritual remedies such as scientific relaxation, normal suggestions, constructive thought, the prayer of faith etc.

61 …In Naturopathy Electrotherapy…

62 Physiotherapy Physiotherapy is concerned with the welfare of the whole person and aim to relieve pain, restore movement,prevent injury, rehabilitate and maintain function and quality of life. Broad Classification of Physiotherapy : Electrotherapy Exercise Therapy

63 relaxing body-muscles answer to all your complaints of backache, joint-pain, strains, sprains….. safe & effective alternative healing method for eliminating pain ELECTROTHERAPY

64 Commonly used electrotherapy Equipments Infra-red Rays Interferential Therapy Ultra-violet Rays Ultrasonic Therapy Diathermy Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) LASER(Light Amplification Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

65 INFRA-RED RAYS Electromagnetic spectrum

66 INFRA-RED RAYS Transforms from light energy into heat energy. Penetrates Skin Subcutaneous tissue Dilates Blood Vessels & Capillaries Enhances the circulatory Sweating Elimination of toxins & Metabolic Waste


68 Hot Yoga or Bikram Method Yoga Infrared Saunas

69 Benefits Of IR Radiations Better Circulation and Increased Energy Weight Loss Cardiovascular Health Speed Recovery from Injuries Detoxification Stress Reduction & Relaxation Skin Beautification Improved Immune System

70 Disadvantages: Burns Electric shock Overdose Headache Injury to Eyes Faintness Areas to be avoided Eyes Defective blood supply Open Wounds Defective Skin Sensation

71 Electromagnetic wave different from sound waves. The frequencies of waves employed for medical purposes are between 5,00,000 & 30,00,000 cycles/sec. Ultrasound Therapy

72 Uses of ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Left, in gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis

73 Ultrasonic therapy generator, the "Medi-Sonar" in the 1950s.

74 A British ultrasonic apparatus in the late 1950s.

75 Inflammation of Elbow Joint (Tennis elbow) Plantar fascitis (Heel pain) Shortening of Muscle or Ligament Inflammation of tendons (For eg Supraspinatus tendnitis) Ligament sprain(For eg Lateral Ligament sprain of ankle) Unhealed scars

76 AVOID….. specialised structures such as eyes, ears,ovaries or testes. Growing ends of bones Uterus of pregnant women Areas with poor blood supply (In case of Diabetes) Cancer. Disadvantages Burns Cavitation (Damage to bones) Overdose

77 Interferential Therapy

78 the Beat Frequency

79 Indications Pain Muscle Spasm Swelling Muscle Strain AVOID… Localised Wounds Unhealed Scars Recent Cuts Skin Infections

80 IFT contraindications Cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac pacemaker or implantable defibrillator Pregnancy Epilepsy or convulsive disorders Breaks in the skin or lack of normal sensation

81 Electrohydrotherapy

82 Sebastian Kneipp Born in 1821, the son of a poor weaver in the Bavarian region of Germany, Sebastian Kneipps Sebastian Kneipp, believed to be the "father" of modern hydrotherapy, is famous the world over. Known as the "Waterdoctor


84 Jet Shower Massage Hydromassage uses the pressure of underwater jets to pump air and water into your sore muscles just a masseuse uses their hands

85 Jet Shower Massage used by Father Kniepp

86 Jet Bath

87 Therapy Jets Swirl Jets Whirlpool Jets

88 Laser Jets Pulsating Jets Shoulder Jets Pillow Jets

89 Rejuvenating Effect

90 A specially made equipment directs multiple, small but powerful water streams from all directions on the patient

91 Whirlpool Jet Bath

92 Steam bath

93 Spinal spray

94 FOOT and ARM Bath

95 Spinal bath

96 Hip Bath

97 Water water cure in the therapeutic sense is a course of medical treatment by hydrotherapyhydrotherapy

98 Temperature HOT 37 °C (99 °F) - Normal body temperature (which varies between about 36.12–37.5 °C (97–100 °F)) 38 °C (100 °F) - Sweating, feeling very uncomfortable, slightly hungry. 39 °C (102 °F) - Severe sweating, flushed and very red. Fast heart rate and breathlessness. There may be exhaustion accompanying this. Children and people with epilepsy may be very likely to get convulsions at this point. 40 °C (104 °F) - Fainting, dehydration, weakness, vomiting, headache and dizziness may occur as well as profuse sweating. Starts to be life- threatening.

99 41 °C (106 °F) - (Medical emergency) - Fainting, vomiting, severe headache, dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, delirium and drowsiness can occur. There may also be palpitations and breathlessness.Medical emergency 42 °C (108 °F) - Subject may turn pale or remain flushed and red. They may become comatose, be in severe delirium, vomiting, and convulsions can occur. Blood pressure may be high or low and heart rate will be very fast. 43 °C (109 °F) - Normally death, or there may be serious brain damage, continuous convulsions and shock. Cardio-respiratory collapse will likely occur. 44 °C (111 °F) or more - Almost certainly death will occur; however, patients have been known to survive up to 46.5 °C (115.7 °F). [38

100 Pathophysiology Heat is primarily generated in muscle tissue, including the heart, and in the liver, while it is lost through the skin (90%) and lungs (10%).heartliver Heat production may be increased 2 to 4 fold through muscle contractions ( i.e. exercise and shivering. Rates of bodily heat loss are determined, as with any object, by convection, conduction, and radiation. [13] The rates of these can be affected by clothing and other environmental conditions.convectionconductionradiation [13] Many changes to physiology occur as body temperature decreases. These occur in the cardiovascular system leading to the Osborn J wave and other dysrhythmias, decreased CNS electrical activity,cold diuresis, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. [33]Osborn J waveCNScold diuresisnon-cardiogenic pulmonary edema [33]

101 Cold 37 °C (99 °F) - Normal body temperature (which varies between about 36–37.5 °C (97–100 °F)) 36 °C (97 °F) - Mild to moderate shivering (body temperature may drop this low during sleep). May be a normal body temperature. 35 °C (95 °F) - (Hypothermia) is less than 35 °C (95 °F) - Intense shivering, numbness and bluish/grayness of the skin. There is the possibility of heart irritability.Hypothermia 34 °C (93 °F) - Severe shivering, loss of movement of fingers, blueness and confusion. Some behavioural changes may take place. 33 °C (91 °F) - Moderate to severe confusion, sleepiness, depressed reflexes, progressive loss of shivering, slow heart beat, shallow breathing. Shivering may stop. Subject may be unresponsive to certain stimuli. 32 °C (90 °F) - (Medical emergency) Hallucinations, delirium, complete confusion, extreme sleepiness that is progressively becoming comatose. Shivering is absent (subject may even think they are hot). Reflex may be absent or very slight.Medical emergency 31 °C (88 °F) - Comatose, very rarely conscious. No or slight reflexes. Very shallow breathing and slow heart rate. Possibility of serious heart rhythm problems. 28 °C (82 °F) - Severe heart rhythm disturbances are likely and breathing may stop at any time. Patient may appear to be dead. 24–26 °C (75–79 °F) or less - Death usually occurs due to irregular heart beat or respiratory arrest; however, a woman named Anna Bågenholm was recorded to have survived with body temperatures as low as 13.7 °C (56.7 °F).Anna Bågenholm

102 Brain control Thermoregulation in both ectotherms and endotherms is controlled mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. [3] Such homeostatic control is separate from the sensation of temperature. [3]preoptic areaanterior hypothalamus [3]homeostaticsensation of temperature [3]

103 Osmoregulation Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis. The higher the osmotic pressure of a solution the more water wants to go into the solution.osmotic pressurewatersolutionosmosis

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