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Hanneke (J.C.A.M.) Pompe, Peter Groot Koerkamp, Anton Stokman Labour requirement and mechanisation costs of five strategies for zero-grazing of dairy cows.

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Presentation on theme: "Hanneke (J.C.A.M.) Pompe, Peter Groot Koerkamp, Anton Stokman Labour requirement and mechanisation costs of five strategies for zero-grazing of dairy cows."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hanneke (J.C.A.M.) Pompe, Peter Groot Koerkamp, Anton Stokman Labour requirement and mechanisation costs of five strategies for zero-grazing of dairy cows in the Netherlands

2 Overview of presentation Introduction Zero-grazing and its drawbacks Objectives Materials and methods Strategies for zero-grazing Labour requirement Costs Results & discussion Labour and costs for zero-grazing strategies Conclusions and concluding remarks

3 Grazed forage cheapest nutrient source To realize potential milk production: Pasture-based diets need supplemental energy Feedstuffs like maize must be mixed with grass Zero-grazing Feed mixture of fresh grass and other feedstuffs inside barn Introduction - Background for zero-grazing

4 Introduction - Drawbacks of zero-grazing Fresh grass Spoils rapidly Is voluminous Needs to be collected and distributed twice a day Rigid time schedule High labour requirement

5 Introduction - Objectives To explore innovative solutions for systems that can feed grass based diets supplemented with other feedstuffs and to evaluate the labour requirement and costs of these feeding systems

6 M&M – Explore innovative feeding systems 3 farmers and coach Brainstorm sessions Alternative working methods to mow/collect grass feed-out additional feedstuffs mix / distribute feedstuffs push feedstuffs towards the feeding fence

7 M&M – Current ration IngredientAmount, kg DM-cow -1 -day -1 Fresh grass14.0 Maize silage 3.0 Hay 1.5 Potatoes 2.0

8 M&M – Current working method Activity Mow/collect fresh grass Feed-out other feedstuffs Mix and distribute feedstuffs Push feedstuff towards fence Frequency of operation, #-day -1

9 Results – Innovative feeding systems Feedstuff shovel Overhead trolley Cooperative feeding Summer feeding Base situation Mow/collect fresh grass Feed-out other feedstuffs Mix and distribute feedstuffs Push feedstuff towards fence Front mower+ loader wagon w/ side discharge Tractor + front loader Front mower+ loader wagon w/ side discharge Tractor + front loader Tractor + front loader Loader wagon w/ side discharge Tractor + front loader Front mower+ loader wagon w/ side discharge Tractor + front loader Front mower+ loader wagon w/ side discharge Feedstuff shovel Front mower+ loader wagon Tractor + front loader Trolley on rails Front mower+ loader wagon w/ side discharge Tractor + front loader Front mower+ loader wagon w/ side discharge Tractor + front loader

10 Feedstuff shovel Overhead trolley Cooperative feeding Summer feeding Results – Innovative feeding systems Activity Mow/collect fresh grass Feed-out other feedstuffs Mix and distribute feedstuffs Push feedstuff towards fence Frequency of operation, #-day -1 Base situation 22(2) Many(2) Frequency of operation, #-day -1 Effect on flexibility in labour

11 M&M - Assessment of labour requirement Task times Standard software available Only for existing working methods MS-Excel Data of an existing farm 120 dairy cows 12 ha fresh grass

12 M&M - Assessment of costs Machinery costs incl. labour costs Change in construction costs Change in contractors costs Change in costs for feedstuffs Difference in milk revenues Per growing season

13 Results – Labour requirement, manmins-day -1 Task Base situation Feedstuff shovel Overhead trolley Cooperative feeding Summer feeding Mow/collect fresh grass Feed-out feedstuffs Remove feed leftovers22222 Mix and distribute feedstuffs Push feed towards fence90094 Transport between farms Total

14 Results – Costs, -growing season -1 Base situation Feedstuff shovel Overhead trolley Cooperative feeding Summer feeding Machinery costs, excl. labour5,1005,9008,8003,5004,500 Additional costs contractor00008,000 Additional construction costs Additional feeding costs00001,800 Reduction in milk revenues00003,000 Labour costs4,0003,5002,8005,0002,700 Total costs9,1009,40011,6008,50020,000

15 Conclusions – for the case farm Low labour strategies Overhead trolley Summer feeding Low cost strategies Base situation Feedstuff shovel Cooperative feeding Best strategy per farm depends on arguments such as Available labour and interest in flexible working schedule Willingness to cooperate with other farmers Travel distances between farms Available capital Quotum policy, etc.

16 Concluding remarks Changes in society and farmers attitudes Labour conditions Flexibility of labour Scale of farming New technology and working methods Sustainable farming, etc. Need for labour and cost data for alternative strategies Labour assessment requires lots of detailed data Most agricultural labour and cost data were collected in the previous century Lets keep labour and cost databases up-to-date and share them

17 Acknowledgements Jolmer de Vries – dairy farmer Wiebe Nauta – dairy farmer Bert Philipsen – WUR-Livestock Research

18 Questions? Comments? Suggestions? © Wageningen UR

19 M&M - Assessment of labour requirement Task time – general equation T=Task time, manmins-feeding -1 T m =Main working time, mins-feeding -1 T a =Ancillary time, mins-feeding -1 A r =Relaxation allowance, fraction A d =Disturbance allowance, fraction T t =Travel time, mins-feeding -1 T p =Preparation and finishing time, mins-feeding -1

20 M&M - Assessment of labour requirement Main working time to mow/collect grass N cows =Number of cows to be fed DMI G =Amount of fresh grass per cow, kgDM-cow -1 -day -1 N Feedings =Number of feedings of fresh grass, day -1 Y=Grass yield at mowing, kg DM-ha -1 Loss Mowing =Mowing losses, fraction of DM w=Effective mowing width, m s=Average mowing speed, kg-hr -1

21 M&M - Assessment of labour requirement Main working time to feed out feedstuffs

22 M&M – Excel sheets

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25 M&M - Characteristics of base farm Number of cows120 Milk production, kg milk/cow8,600 Milk quota, kg milk1,080,000 Fat quota, kg fat4.45 Grassland area, ha40 Target yield for mowing, kg DM/ha2500 ………..etc.

26 M&M - Assessment of costs C Feedingstrategy =Costs for feeding strategy C Machinery =Machinery costs for feeding ΔC Constructions =Additional constructions costs ΔC Contract =Additional costs for contract work ΔC Feedstuffs =Additional costs for feedstuffs ΔR Milk =Difference in milk revenues Costs – general equation, -summer season -1


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