Presentation on theme: "European-African Partnership in Satellite Applications for Sustainable Development A Comprehensive Mapping of European-African Actors and Activities Climate."— Presentation transcript:
European-African Partnership in Satellite Applications for Sustainable Development A Comprehensive Mapping of European-African Actors and Activities Climate Change and Variability: Experience in use of Space Technology over the Greater Horn of Africa in the framework of the conference Space for the African Citizen hosted by the Belgian EU Council Presidency on 16 September Omondi P. A. (PhD) ICPAC
Outline Brief on ICPAC Concept of Global Warming and climate change Implications of climate change and variability Use of Space technology: African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Mission: Mission: To assist and complement the efforts of the Member States to achieve, through increased cooperation: Food Security and environmental protection Promotion and maintenance of peace and security and humanitarian affairs, &, Economic cooperation and integration. Vision: Vision: IGAD will be the premier regional organization for achieving peace, prosperity and regional integration in the IGAD region.
IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATIONS CENTRE (ICPAC) a specialized Institution of the Intergovernmental Authority on development (IGAD) charged with the Responsibility of Coordinating all Regional Climate Risk Reduction related issues in the Greater Horn of Africa
ICPAC MISSION ICPAC MISSION: To provide climate information, prediction, timely early warning for applications in support of environmental management, disaster risk reduction and sustainable development in the IGAD Region Vision Vision: To become a viable regional centre of excellence in climate risk reduction including coping with present climate extremes as well as adaptation to future climate changes for environmental management, disaster risk reduction, poverty reduction and sustainable development.
9 June 2014
IRI-WMO Worksop Beijing China October 2009
GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE Global warming and overall climate change is now a scientific reality to be reckoned with in all countries of the world, and more particulary in Sub-Saharan Africa which has been shown to be the most vulnerable. In its Fourth Scientific Assessment brought out in 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the IPCC said global warming is unequivocal, as is evidenced by numerous observations around the world.
CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE Climate variability is what we see more clearly in terms of the higher temperatures we are experiencing,or changes in rainfall characteristics from season to season, and from year to year. We often realise we are dealing with change too late.
WHAT THE IPCC SAYS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE Global climate change will have a wide range of impacts, and overall negative health impacts will outweigh positive impacts. Changes in frequencies of heat and colds will be accompanied by an increase in morbidity and mortality; Other impacts will come from changes in the frequency of floods and droughts;
Perspectives The Problem Climate change and variability are real – Extreme climate events are more frequent and devastating Increasingly, there are evidence showing that climate, human and animal health are integrally linked in Africa through many different associations –(Zoonoses, malaria epidemics, RVF, Yellow fever,respiratory disorders & other emerging and re-emerging diseases) Many vector borne diseases are sensitive to changes in meteorological parameters such as- rainfall, temperature, and humidity There are other climate change impacts that have a negative direct bearing on human health – Droughts, floods, food deficiency, Climate change will continue to influence the distribution and occurrence of communicable diseases and other health conditions– complicating their prevention and control and negate current achievements.
9 June 2014 WHAT IS CAUSING CLIMATE CHANGE? Greenhouse gases such as CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O and CFCs help the atmosphere to act as a blanket by trapping heat energy and maintaining its temperature close to the earths surface. Global warming has been caused by excessive emission of these greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the environment through many anthropogenic activities. It is this warming that is altering the worlds climate!
For the next two decades, a warming of about 0.2°C per decade is projected for a range of possible emission scenarios. Even if the concentrations of all greenhouse gases and aerosols had been kept constant at year 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.1°C per decade would be expected. Temperature and precipitation extremes will be more frequent; Precipitation decreases likely in most marginal areas of the sub-tropical land regions, including Kenya. Projections of Future Changes in Climate
Healthimpacts and vulnerability Health impacts and vulnerability
African Monitoring of the Environment in the IGAD region : overview and status African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development
Land Degradation (LD)
Some products Land cover changeVegetation condition/biomassWater bodies and NDWI Fire Indicators (habitat etc)Alerts
Data access Installation of AMESD thematic stations in Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia – DRSRS (Department for Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources) – SWALIM: as a focal point for Somalia based in Kenya – ICPAC, KMFRI: Kenyan Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. – Ethiopian Mapping Agency, focal point, Ethiopia.
Data access cont… Upgrading of PUMA stations in Kenya – PUMA station at the Kenya Meteorological Department. – PUMA station at the ICPAC. Upgrading of PUMA stations in Ethiopia – PUMA station at Ethiopian Meterological Department
Remote Sensing as a Tool Remote sensing is increasingly being used in disaster management, Early Warning Systems (EWS)
In disaster / risk management RS data is needed for: Disaster preparedness Disaster mitigation Disaster monitoring: the current situation before, during and after occurrence of Disaster.
MajorDisasters Frequently Occurring in Africa Major Disasters Frequently Occurring in Africa Droughts Flooding Landslides Fire Volcanic hazards Epidemic Diseases
Satellite based rainfall estimation Actual Rainfall Performance Potential rainfall amounts (mm)
Use of NDVI in Biomass change monitoring 1st Dekad August rd Dekad August 2001
Identification of Hotspots
High resolution satellite data have been extensively used in the assessment of the impacts of floods on the local populace monitoring floods modeling/forecasting floods Examples: Mozambique, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nile flooding in Khartoum. Floods