Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Native Grass Seeding Santiago Misquez Rangeland Management Specialist NRCS-SW Area-Socorro,NM 575-835-1710 Recognition: Dave Dreesen,PMC.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Native Grass Seeding Santiago Misquez Rangeland Management Specialist NRCS-SW Area-Socorro,NM 575-835-1710 Recognition: Dave Dreesen,PMC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Grass Seeding Santiago Misquez Rangeland Management Specialist NRCS-SW Area-Socorro,NM Recognition: Dave Dreesen,PMC

2 Grass Types Based on Photosynthetic Pathways Cool-season grasses Stipeae tribe (needlegrasses and ricegrasses) Warm-season grasses Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

3 Cool-Season Grasses C-3 photosynthetic pathway Flowering requires vernalization and/or short days followed by long days Growth optimum near 70 ° F (can grow as low as 35 ° F) Lower water use efficiency (less DM production/unit water) than C-4 grasses Long coleoptiles and short mesocotyls (festucoid development) allow adventitious root development near seeding depth Seeded during summer monsoons or dormant fall planting (expectation of moist soil in early spring) Dominate in regions where most precipitation falls in cooler months, at higher elevations or latitudes Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Source: T. A. Jones, 1997

4 Stipeae Tribe (includes needlegrasses and ricegrasses) C-3 photosynthetic pathway Lacks mechanism to store carbohydrates at cool temperatures Many species do not require vernalization and are photoperiod insensitive Optimal growth temperatures greater than cool- season species Found in climates too warm for other cool- season grasses Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Source: T. A. Jones, 1997

5 Warm-Season Grasses C-4 photosynthetic pathway May require short days to flower but do not require vernalization Growth optimum near 90 ° F with little growth below 60 ° F Higher water use efficiencies than C-3 grasses Mesocotyl elongation (i.e., subcoleoptile internode) forces adventitious roots to develop near soil surface (panicoid development) Seeded during summer monsoons (late spring before monsoons), generally difficult to establish because of desiccating conditions in the arid SW Often principal grasses where summer precipitation predominates, at lower elevations and latitudes Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Source: T. A. Jones, 1997

6 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Seed Primary Root System Seminal Roots Coleoptile Adventitious Roots Mesocotyl (Subcoleoptile Internode ) Warm-Season Grass Panicoid Development Cool-Season Grass Festucoid Development Adventitious Root Development Warm- versus Cool-Season Grasses

7 Seeding Grasses Seed Depth – Emergence versus moisture Dormancy – An advantageous trait for seed to persist for later precipitation events or future years Soil Compaction – Survival is dependent on rapid root extension Seed to Soil Contact – To facilitate imbibition ( absorption of fluid by a solid results in swelling ) of soil moisture by seed Moisture Relations and Soil Texture – Infiltration depth versus water holding capacity Mulch – Essential step in arid regions to take full advantage of the limited amount of moisture received Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

8 Seeding Depth for Optimal Emergence under Ideal Moisture Conditions Recommended seeding depths for most native grasses are from ¼ to ½ inch deep Some extremely small seed such as many dropseeds (Sporobolus species) and some muhlys (Muhlenbergia species) should be surface broadcast; such small seed will be buried by raindrop impact or during mulch application and crimping A few species prefer deep burial including Indian ricegrass Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

9 Seeding Grasses and Weed Control Reduce the weed seed bank in the surface soil by controlling weeds for several years prior to seeding (herbicides, mowing, burning…) Application of broadleaf herbicides after seedlings are established Mow weeds in grass sward before annual weeds set viable seed Do not add nitrogen fertilizer at seeding because weed species will be favored Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

10 Mulch Application after Seeding Native grass hay (some residual seed OK) is the most desirable mulch for large seeding projects Apply in a layer of sufficient depth to shade soil and reduce wind desiccation, but thin enough to allow seedlings to emerge without restriction (porous hay layer with some soil visible) Hydromulch wood fiber applied as slurry Erosion control blankets Wood or bark chips applied in a thin layer Gravel mulch (1 deep aids emergence of galleta, 1.5 to 2 prevents emergence) Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

11 Mulch Effect on Seedling Establishment – Slender Wheatgrass Broadcast at 50 PLS/ft 2 and Sprinkler Irrigated TreatmentSeedlings per Square Foot Broadcast3 - 7 Broadcast and raked Broadcast and excelsior mat mulch Broadcast and hay mulch Broadcast and bark mulch Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Source: M. Majerus, Plant Materials Center, Bridger, MT

12 Precipitation - The Master Input Seeding success is dependent on sufficient soil moisture following germination to allow seedling establishment Species having both early and late germinating seed are favored in variable environments Consistent rainfall for a prolonged period is necessary for warm-season grasses to establish Survival of first dry period following a biologically significant rain requires seedlings to have sufficient vigor to survive the subsequent dry period or viable but un-germinated seed remaining after first wet period Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

13 Establishment Blue grama requires 21 days after germination for adventitious roots to reach a 4-inch depth and the seedling to have 6 leaves and 2 tillers Adventitious roots arise up to 9 days after germination and reach seminal root depth in approximately 21 days Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

14 Frequency Analysis of Size of Precipitation Individual Events or Storms (precipitation on successive days) in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert from Source: Reynolds et al Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

15 Soil Moisture Distribution in Arid Environments Upper 2 to 4 of soil dries out rapidly by evaporation following a precipitation event (little water available for plant uptake) Soil moisture in the top 4 to 12 can persist for several weeks Moisture under unsaturated conditions at depths below 12 is primarily lost by plant transpiration (no evaporation and no drainage) Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

16 Inverse Texture Effect The depth of wetting is proportional to the amount of infiltrating precipitation soil moisture storage capacity The storage capacity is 4 to 9% for sands, 11 to 15% for sandy loams, and 17 to 23% for fine-textured soils The depth of soil wetting will be greater for coarse- textured soil than for fine-textured soils. Coarse-textured soils hold less water per unit depth but much of the water is sufficiently deep to avoid evaporation, whereas in a fine-textured soil most of the water can be lost to evaporation Therefore, sandy soils often have more useable soil moisture in arid environments Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Source: Noy-Meir 1973

17 Influence of Soil Texture on Moisture Penetration – One Inch Infiltration Event and Dry Soil (Wilting Point) Soil TextureDepth of moisture penetration (inches) Coarse sand20 Sand12 Sandy loam8 Silt Loam5 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

18 Influence of Soil Texture and Surface Sealing on Average Water Infiltration Rates (inches/hour) Soil TextureMinimal Surface Sealing Moderate Surface Sealing Coarse sand Fine sand Fine sandy loam Silt loam Clay loam Source: Pair 1983 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

19 Variables Related to Drying Rate and Grass Seedling Establishment in a Sandy Loam Soil Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Drying RateSlowModerateFast Probability of grass seedling establishment highlowvery low Soil water content 0.4 to 1.2 inches24%22%17% 1.5 to 2.524%18%8% 3.0 to 4.025%17%5% 4.5 to 5.525%15%4% Total soil water in upper 6 inches of soil 1.4 in1.1 in0.5 in Number of days until drying front exceeds rooting depth Other variables related to drying rate – cumulative precipitation for prior 4 days, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit Source : Roundy et al. 1997

20 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Patterns of Soil Water Loss over Time Sandy Loam Surface Soil (0.4 to 1.2 inch depth) Soil Water Content (% vol.) Drying Time (hr) Source : Roundy et al. 1997

21 Irrigation from Mid-July through August to Enhance Establishment on Abandoned Farmland in the Sonoran Desert (Supplementing Precipitation of 2.8 inches) Species Amount of irrigation (inches) required to obtain high density establishment in 1992/1993 Amount of irrigation (inches) required to obtain some establishment in 1992/1993 Purple threeawn7.4/-0/- Cane bluestem5.3/4.70/1.5 Arizona cottontop5.3/4.71.2/1.5 Galleta7.4/NA5.3/4.7 Spike dropseed5.3/NA1.2/1.5 Catclaw acacia5.3/4.7 Creosotebush7.4/5.5 Velvet mesquite0/1.5 NA – high density not achievedSource: Roundy et al 2001 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

22 Seed Source Islands or Resource Islands Focus limited resources on small areas Rely on natural seed dispersal to allow expansion into outlying areas Apply intensive resources in a small area to enhance establishment –Weed control –Supplemental water (rainfall harvesting or minimal irrigation) –Exclosures to control grazers/browsers (rodents to elk) –Use transplants of grasses, forbs, and shrubs to assure establishment and provide immediate diversity Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

23 Seeding Rates and Mixes 20 to 60 PLS per lineal foot – drilled 20 to 60 PLS per square foot – broadcast (rates usually higher because fewer seeds are at optimum soil depth) Common usage - 40 PLS per square foot Total seeding rate for a mix should be 40 to 60 PLS – percentage of each species will depend on desired plant community, vigor of the seedling (competition between species), seed size, PLS seed cost Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

24 An Example of a Seed Mix Calculation for a Sandy Arid Site No. of PLS/ Common NameTypePound PLSMoisture UseAvail. Indian ricegrass ( IR )Stipeae 160kvery xericyes Black grama( BG )WS1,300kvery xericmaybe Sand dropseed ( SD )WS5,600k xericyes Spike dropseedWS2,800kxeric? Mesa dropseedWS3,300kvery xeric? Giant dropseedWS1,400kvery xeric? Mix percentages based on seed and seedling characteristics –IR 25% (large, dormant seed; vigorous seedling; moderate cost per pound) –BG 15% (small seed; low vigor seedling; high cost per pound) –SD 60% (very small seed; low survival; inexpensive) PLS rates per square foot – IR 10, BG 6, SD 24 PLS per acre – IR 435k, BG 260k, SD 1,050k PLS per pound – IR 160k, BG 1,300k, SD 5,600K Pounds PLS per acre – IR 2.7, BG 0.20, SD 0.19 Hypothetical PLS from seed testing – IR 0.70, BG 0.40, SD 0.85 Bulk pounds per acre – IR 3.9, BG 0.50, SD 0.22 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

25 Mean Annual Precipitation < Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

26 Annual Lake Evaporation (inches) > <30 Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

27 New Mexico Arid Ecoregions <10 inches Mean Annual Precipitation Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

28 Soil Texture Triangle Texture Classes Coarse Intermediate (Loam) Fine Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

29 Soil Texture Influences Species Used in Seed Mixes for Chihuahuan (ch) and Colorado Plateau (cp) Desert (<10 ppt.) Sites Coarse Texture - Sandy Intermediate Texture - Loam Fine Texture - Clayey Indian Ricegrass**Arizona Cottontop** (ch) >Bush Muhly (ch) Desert Needlegrass* > Mesa Dropseed (ch) Sandhill Muhly (cp) Los Lunas Plant Materials Center ** Likely available * Possibly available

30 New Mexico Semi-Arid Ecoregions inches Mean Annual Precipitation Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

31 Soil Texture Influences Species Used in Seed Mixes for Dry Plains, Sagebrush (sb), and Piñon/Juniper (10-14 ppt.) Sites Coarse Texture - Sandy Intermediate Texture - Loam Fine Texture - Clayey Muttongrass*>Bluebunch Wheatgrass*

32 New Mexico Prairie (High Plains) Ecoregions >14 inches Mean Annual Precipitation Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

33 Soil Texture Influences Species Used in Seed Mixes for Prairie (>14 ppt.) Sites Coarse Texture - Sandy Intermediate Texture - Loam Fine Texture - Clayey Letterman Needlegrass* >Switchgrass**>Some Plains and Montane Species Plains Lovegrass**>

34 New Mexico Montane Ecoregions > 16 inches Mean Annual Precipitation Los Lunas Plant Materials Center

35 Soil Texture Influences on Species Used in Seed Mixes for Montane Sites Coarse Texture - Sandy Intermediate Texture - Loam Fine Texture - Clayey Pine Dropseed*Mountain Brome**>Mat Muhly Nodding Brome*>Tufted Hairgrass** Deergrass Some PJ, Plains, and Prairie Species Los Lunas Plant Materials Center ** Likely available * Possibly available

36 Soil Texture Influences Species Used in Seed Mixes for Wet Meadow Sites Coarse Texture - Sandy Intermediate Texture - Loam Fine Texture - Clayey Common Reed **>Nuttal Alkaligrass**><(Beardless Wildrye)** Meadow Barley**> Los Lunas Plant Materials Center ** Likely available * Possibly available

37 Resources –Standards/Specs: Critical Area Planting & Range Planting Los Lunas Plant Materials Center


Download ppt "Native Grass Seeding Santiago Misquez Rangeland Management Specialist NRCS-SW Area-Socorro,NM 575-835-1710 Recognition: Dave Dreesen,PMC."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google