Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Open access – a critical perspective Information rights in the information age CMNS 435, SFU School of Communication October 22, 2012 Heather Morrison.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Open access – a critical perspective Information rights in the information age CMNS 435, SFU School of Communication October 22, 2012 Heather Morrison."— Presentation transcript:

1 Open access – a critical perspective Information rights in the information age CMNS 435, SFU School of Communication October 22, 2012 Heather Morrison This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2 This lecture draws from my dissertation, Freedom for scholarship in the internet age, in solidarity with the SFU Teaching Support Staff Union (TSSU). The defence draft of my dissertation is available for free download from:http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heat her- morrison/2012/10/04/dissertation- defence-draft/ Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

3 Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. - Peter Suber, Open Access Overview os/overview.htm Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

4 OA to scholarly literature is based largely on a partial gift economy. Scholars have traditionally given away their research articles and services as peer reviewers, part of the expectations of scholarly work based on the tenure system (full-time, permanent work with significant job security, including right to academic freedom). Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

5 In the September 2011 issue of the journal Action Research, Tara Leigh F. McHugh of the University of Alberta, and Kent C. Kowalski of the University of Saskatchewan, published an article called A new view of body image: A school-based participatory action research project with young Aboriginal women. Abstract – free. Full text PDF: This item requires a subscription to Action Research. … To view this item, select one of the options below: Subscribe, sign in or: Purchase ShortTerm Access Pay per Article You may access this article (from the computer you are currently using) for 1 day for US $ Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Why we need open access…

6 Action research – subscription options $91 US – individual subscription > $700 US – institutional subscription Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

7 Knowledge as… commodity ($ to Sage) public good Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

8 Why open access? CJHE Open Access Policy This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

9 What is open? Oxford English Dictionary (selected) – a gap, a space - in public, for all to see - an opportunity - to make public knowledge Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

10 the open movements open source open government open education open government Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

11 Is open good? Discussion: are the following examples of open good (thumbs up) or not so good (thumbs down) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

12 An open mind Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

13 An open wound Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

14 Duck hunting season is open… and youre a duck Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

15 An open door Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

16 An open door – in an airplane in flight Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

17 Statement: whether open is good or not so good depends on the context. Is this true? Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

18 Constructivism versus fatalism / determinism. Social relativism. Beware reality relativism! Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

19 Why open access? Medline (by subscription) to Pubmed (free for anyone)

20 PubMedCentral – worlds largest OA archive Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

21 Medical research funders open access policies Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. U.S. National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy (2004, 2008) Canadian Institutes of Health Research Policy on Access to Research Outputs Michael J. Smith Foundation Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance…

22 For discussion: With PubMed and PubMedCentral a very large portion of the worlds medical literature is preserved and made accessible thanks to the U.S. National Institutes of Health / National Library of Medicine, funded by the U.S. taxpayers. What could go wrong? Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

23 PubMedCentral International PMC – UK PMC - Canada Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

24

25 PubMedCentral is an Open Access Archive – for medical literature designed for: -preservation - access Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

26

27

28

29 Institutional open access archives (institutional repositories) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

30 SFU SUMMIT

31 British Columbia repositories… BCcampus SOL*R (learning objects) Royal Roads SFU SUMMIT UBC cIRcle UVicSpace VIUspace more to come Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

32 Internationally… OpenDOAR > 2,200 repositories Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) > 36 million documents Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

33 Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) - > 8,000 peer-reviewed journals (about 30% of total) journals in Media and Communication Studies - growth rate: 3-4 titles / day Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

34

35

36

37

38

39 Public Knowledge Project Open Journal Systems > 14,000 installations Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

40

41 What is open access? Budapest Open Access Initiative vision: An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge. Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

42 BBB definition of open access (2002): By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. ad Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

43 Two approaches to open access: Open access archives (green) Open access publishing (DOAJ, DOAB) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

44

45 Creative Commons Canada licenses Attribution (CC-BY) Attribution – Sharealike (CC-BY-SA) Attribution – NoDerivs (CC-BY-ND) Attribution – Noncommercial (CC-BY-NC) Attribution – Noncommercial – Sharelike (CC-BY-NC-SA) Attribution – Noncommercial – NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

46 Creative Commons licenses: a useful tool for OA, but does not map exactly CC licenses are not specific to free of charge CC-BY appears to match BOAI definition of open access, but not in legal terms & a problematic license for OA (does not protect OA downstream) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

47 The problem with CC-BY: coercion Funding agency mandates (Wellcome Trust, RCUK) force CC-BY deprecating Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

48 Deprecating: this is not a free culture license

49 CC-BY and research ethics Example Action Research article with young aboriginal women – quotes from participants, full page newspaper article (Word on the Street) well pay you If using other peoples work, need to ask permission before giving 3 rd parties rights to sell & change the work Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

50 CC-BY for data mining? Neither necessary (google) nor sufficient Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

51 Reasons for reserving commercial use Not always uses you want to see, e.g. research subjects picture in ad on a bus Publishers business model may depend on reserving some commercial rights Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

52 Reasons for noncommercial To say this isnt a commodity Reserve commercial rights just in case Poor author and rich publisher Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

53 Reasons for not allowing derivatives Changing wording a little can change the meaning Small changes can make a lot of difference (toxicology / pharmacology poison / drug) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

54 Reasons for not allowing derivatives Derivatives nice derivatives Goldwert, Lindsey. Breastfeeding video turned porn at centre of lawsuit. New York Times, Aug. 9, /news/ _1_video-release-educational-video-youtube Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

55 CC-BY for inclusion in Wikipedia? Academic attribution vs. Wikipedia attribution (anonymous authors) If you dont like your work mercilessly edited, dont participate in Wikipedia! Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

56 Creative Commons and open access – my perspective Inclusive – any CC license or free sharing without CC license Articulating the commons Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

57 Theory & scholarly communication Commodification Irrational rationalization Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

58 Commodification (Marx – Capital vol. 1) Use value Exchange value Example: participatory action research study with young aboriginal women Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

59 Commodity as fetish Seeing the commodity as thing-in- itself that completely masks the social relations behind the commodity form (coffee before fair trade) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

60 Ted Striphas – acknowledged goods – journal authors contract as moment of alienation Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

61 Marx and knowledge work: The only worker who is productive is one who produces surplus-value [profit] for the capitalist… If we may take an example from outside the sphere of material production, a schoolmaster is a productive worker when, in addition to belabouring the heads of his pupils, he works himself into the ground to enrich the owner of the school. Marx (Capital 1976, p. 644). Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

62 The intellectual proletariat the more higher education becomes a qualification for specific labour processes, the more intellectual labour becomes proletarianized, in other words transformed into a commodity…, and the more the price of this commodity tends to be forced down to its conditions of reproduction (Mandel 1980, p. 263). Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

63 TSSU strike The PhD now comes with food stamps. Stacey Patton, Chronicle of Higher Education May 6, 2012 Edu-factory factory.org/wp/http://www.edu- factory.org/wp/ Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

64 What can open access do? Support scholar-led non-commodified publishing Limit the impact of commodification: Change the commodity from the work to the service of publishing Limit the time when scholarly work sold as commodity (e.g. free after one year) Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

65 Irrational rationalization (my term) Weber: modern times tend to combine formal rationality with substantive irrationality E.g. a corporation that prioritizes short-term profits while destroying the planet Bureaucracy Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

66 Irrational rationalization & scholarship: example Impact factor journal monopoly high prices for journals in science, technology and medicine (STM) no more money for university presses universities pay lots of $$$ to commercial STM journal publishers but cut university presses to close to point of extinction Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

67 Conclusions Open access to scholarly knowledge is a good thing Lots of open access works out there; millions of articles, thousands of journals, books Critical reflection is needed Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

68 References Mandel, E. (1980). Late capitalism (J. De Bres Trans.). London: Verso. Marx, K. (1976). Capital: A critique of political economy. London: Penguin Books in association with New Left Review. Striphas, T. (2010). Acknowledged goods: Cultural studies and the politics of academic journal publishing. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 7(1), Retrieved August 19, 2010 from: https://www.scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022 /6939 Weber, M. (1968). Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology. New York: Bedminster Press. Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

69 Resources BC ELN Connect. Institutional Repositories in British Columbia Bielefeld Academic Search Engine search.net/about/en/index.phphttp://www.base- search.net/about/en/index.php Directory of Open Access Books Directory of Open Access Journals Medline Plus Open Access Week OpenDOAR PubMed PubMedCentral Heather Morrison – Open Access – a critical perspective. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.


Download ppt "Open access – a critical perspective Information rights in the information age CMNS 435, SFU School of Communication October 22, 2012 Heather Morrison."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google