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Athlete Training 1. Readings: NSCA text: Chapter 23 pp 579 – 589 Information, examples & details also drawn from NSCA Strength & Conditioning text Recommended.

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Presentation on theme: "Athlete Training 1. Readings: NSCA text: Chapter 23 pp 579 – 589 Information, examples & details also drawn from NSCA Strength & Conditioning text Recommended."— Presentation transcript:

1 Athlete Training 1

2 Readings: NSCA text: Chapter 23 pp 579 – 589 Information, examples & details also drawn from NSCA Strength & Conditioning text Recommended reading beyond the scope of this course: The Path to Athletic Power, by Boyd Epley, Human Kinetics, 2004, ISBN-13: Functional Training for Sports, by Mike Boyle, Human Kinetics, 2004, ISBN-13: Faster, Better, Stronger, by Heiden & Testa, Harper Collins, 2008, ISBN: Athlete Training 2

3 Athlete Training Principles… Overload & Specificity Both become more refined and specific to meet the special needs of the athlete Overload – periodization Specificity - Needs analysis becomes more detailed as the more similar the training activity is to the actual sport, the more positive transfer there will be between the training and the sport performance (but this does not mean you only train in movement in patterns identical to sport performance) 3 Athlete Training

4 Athlete Training Principles… Power Becomes a very important/most important parameter for high force & speed producing athletes 4 Athlete Training

5 Athlete Needs Analysis Determine for performance: Body parts involved Direction & angles of joint movement 5 Athlete Training

6 Athlete Needs Analysis Determine for performance: Body parts involved & body orientation if you perform on your feet, train on your feet train in position of play Little to none of sit or lay down to train 6 Athlete Training

7 Athlete Needs Analysis Determine for performance: Force, time/speed, power production Metabolic system producing most of the ATP 7 Athlete Training Muscular Strength Muscular PowerMuscular Endurance Cardiorespiratory Endurance ExampleWorlds strongest man competition Throw shot-put (1-2sec), jump up (1sec), 100 m sprint (10 sec) Ski Giant Slalom race (1min 30 sec) Marathon (2hr 15min) Duration to exhaustion One to few seconds duration One to 30 secs> 30 secs, up to few minutes >5 min Muscle contraction level Max contraction - speed is not important & likely slow Max contraction - As fast as possible Sub max contraction VERY low level contraction Anaerobic Aerobic

8 Athlete Needs Analysis Determine for performance: Force, time/speed, power production Metabolic system producing most of the ATP 8 Athlete Training

9 Athlete Needs Analysis Determine for performance: Work:Rest time cycles = metabolic demands Interval between repeated sprints, jumps, medium length runs, volleys Soccer, football, tennis, volleyball Directions of movement & change in direction = agility Only track runners move in a straight line? 9 Athlete Training

10 Periodization Involves shifting training priorities from non-sport-specific activities of high volume and low intensity to sport-specific activities of low volume and high intensity over a period of many weeks to prevent overtraining and optimize performance. Core exercises, primarily, but assistance exercises can also be periodized 10 Athlete Training

11 3 Cycles Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 1. Macrocycle (largest cycle) Year – for typical sports with yearly season 4-yr – for person training for Olympics Macrocycle is divided into Mesocycles 11 Athlete Training

12 3 Cycles Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 2. Mesocycles Several weeks or few months duration 5 sequential mesophases 1. Hypertrophy 2. Strength 3. Strength/power 4. Competition/peaking 5. Active rest Mesocycle is divided into Microcycles 12 Athlete Training

13 3 Cycles Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 3. Microcycles 1-4 weeks duration, with daily and weekly variation 13 Athlete Training

14 Periodization 14 Athlete Training Macrocycle Hypertrophy Mesocycle Strength Mesocycle Str/power Mesocycle Competition Mesocycle Rest Mesocycle Microcycles 3 Cycles (Red, Blue, Green) 5 Mesocycle Phases (Blue)

15 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases Resistance training program for strength & power sport based on 5 Mesocycles, each with a specific goal 1. Hypertrophy 2. Strength 3. Strength/power 4. Competition/peaking 5. Active rest 15 Athlete Training 1, 2, 3, = Preparatory Period

16 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 1. Hypertrophy (or called Hypertrophy / Endurance) To develop muscular and metabolic base for more intense subsequent phases Sport specific & non-sport specific exercises Very low to moderate intensity (50-75% of the 1RM and very high to moderate volume (three to five sets of 8-12 repetitions) 2-4 weeks 16 Athlete Training

17 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 2. Strength To increase maximum muscle force Sport specific exercises High intensity (80-90% of 1RM) and moderate volume (three to five sets of repetitions) 2-4 weeks 17 Athlete Training

18 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 3. Strength/power To increase speed of force development (power) Sport specific power / explosive exercises High intensity (75-95% of 1RM, depending on the exercise, lighter for high speed power lifts) and low volume (three to five sets of repetitions) (loading for power discussed further in KIN 410) 2-4 weeks 18 Athlete Training

19 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 4. Competition/peaking To attain peak strength and/or power, and performance Sport specific activities For peaking (e.g, for single competition) very high intensity (93% of the 1RM) and very low volume (one to three sets of 1 – 2 repetitions). For maintenance (e.g., 82 games in NHL regular season) moderate intensity (~80-85% of the 1RM) and moderate volume (about two to three sets of about 6-8 repetitions). 19 Athlete Training

20 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 5. Active rest To allow physical & mental recovery Recreational activity Possible low volume & intensity resistance training, or no resistance training 1-3 weeks 20 Athlete Training

21 5 Phases Periodization – 3 Cycles & 5 Phases 5 Mesocycles for strength & power sport 1. Hypertrophy 2. Strength 3. Strength/power 4. Competition/peaking 5. Active rest To maximize gains: 5 phases repeated 3+ times per year In this case macrocycle is 1/3 year long (see similar Linear Periodization example 2 later) Exercises for a particular muscle group are varied 21 Athlete Training

22 Periodization Linear: Traditional resistance training periodization model with gradually progressive mesocycle increases in intensity over time. Undulating or Nonlinear: A periodization model that involves large fluctuations in the load and volume assignments for core exercises 22 Athlete Training

23 Periodization Linear: Traditional resistance training periodization model with gradually progressive mesocycle increases in intensity, and decreases in volume, over time. 23 Athlete Training Matveyevs model of periodization Appropriate for novice athletes

24 Periodization Linear 24 Athlete Training Decreasing volume, as reps decrease Increasing intensity, as load increase

25 Periodization Linear (Bit more detailed from NSCA Strength and Conditioning text) 25 Athlete Training

26 Periodization Linear 26 Athlete Training Macrocycle (e.g. single competitive season) Mesocycle Microcycles Microcycles detailed on next slides

27 Periodization- Linear 3-5 sets, reps, approx 75% 1RM sets, 5-6 reps, approx 85% 1RM 3-5 sets, 3-4 reps, 90%- 93% 1RM 3-4 sets, 1-2 reps, 95% 1RM (peak) Decreasing volume Increasing intensity MICROCYCLES Across weeks Within Mesocycle Phases Across Phases Increasing volume Increasing intensity Increasing volume Increasing intensity Increasing volume Increasing intensity Decreasing volume Increasing intensity Zero volume Zero intensity Microcycles, Across weeks in one mesocycle

28 Periodization Linear 3-5 sets, reps, approx 75% 1RM sets, 5-6 reps, approx 85% 1RM 3-5 sets, 3-4 reps, 90%- 93% 1RM 3-4 sets, 1-2 reps, 95% 1RM (peak) Decreasing volume Increasing intensity Across weeks Within a phase Across Phases Increasing volume Increasing intensity Increasing volume Increasing intensity Increasing volume Increasing intensity Decreasing volume Increasing intensity Zero volume Zero intensity Within a week Within a phase Keep volume (sets & reps) same Modify %1RM to make: Heavy & Light days (2 days/wk) Heavy, Medium & Light days (3 days/wk) In a LINEAR periodization program: There is a sequence of training for hypertrophy then strength then power, each phase lasting a few weeks; there is a dramatic progressive decrease in volume and increase in intensity across the macrocycle. Microcycles, Across days in 1 week

29 Periodization Linear: Example 1 Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models Jesús García-Pallarés, Miguel García-Fernández, Luis Sánchez-Medina and Mikel Izquierdo European Journal of Applied Physiology © Springer-Verlag /s , Published online: 23 April 2010 Periodization applied to ENDURANCE training Only one of the two periodization programs in the study discussed in this example This study/training program also included resistance training, not discussed in this example 29 Athlete Training

30 Periodization Linear: Example 1 BP (12-week) cycles were divided into three phases (A BP, B BP, C BP ) A phase (5 weeks) focused on developing basic fitness components, such as second ventilatory threshold (VT2), muscle hypertrophy and general technical abilities. B phase (5 weeks) involved increasing event-specific fitness, such as maximal aerobic power (VO 2max ) and maximal muscle strength. C phase (2 weeks) was a tapering phase of gradually reduced training volume destined to facilitate the recovery processes, improve specific race- pace strategy and maximize performance for competition. 30 Athlete Training

31 Periodization Linear: Example 1 Contribution of each exercise intensity zone to the total endurance training time performed in each phase and cycle Data are expressed in hours as mean ± SD (% of total time) 31 Athlete Training Increase proportion of high intensity work Slight decreased volume (greatest in last 1 week of 2 in Phase C?)

32 Periodization Linear: Example 2, The Path to Athletic Power, Boyd Epley, pg Athlete Training 2 phases Rest 3 phases Rest Test 3 phases again 3 phases Again (Cont.) Rest Test Maintenance phase during football season Rest Year-round program for single season: Repeat first 2-4 phases, 3x, to prepare for season. Keeps each phase to 3-4 weeks.

33 Periodization Nonlinear (Undulating): A periodization model that involves large fluctuations in the load and volume assignments for core exercises 33 Athlete Training In a NONLINEAR periodization program: hypertrophy, strength & power workouts are all within the same week there is no dramatic progressive decrease in volume and increase in intensity across the macrocycle LISTEN to Dr. Bill Kramer, one of the originators of nonlinear (undulating) periodization, describe it. 620 Source: Strength & Power hour podcast, Strengthpowerhour.com Strengthpowerhour.com

34 Periodization Nonlinear: 34 Athlete Training Intensity & volume (sets & reps) VARIES within a week This weekly pattern continues (e.g., weeks) until competition or rest period The decision of which days of the week will be, heavy, light, power, moderate, is made as the week progresses

35 Periodization - Nonlinear: (continues next slide) 35

36 Periodization – Nonlinear: 36

37 Periodization Linear: Example 3a, Faster, Better, Stronger, Heiden, Testa, Musolf, pg Athlete Training

38 Periodization Linear: Example 3b, Faster, Better, Stronger, Heiden, Testa, Musolf, pg Athlete Training

39 Periodization Linear: Example 3c, Faster, Better, Stronger, Heiden, Testa, Musolf, pg Athlete Training

40 Periodization Linear: Example 3d, Faster, Better, Stronger, Heiden, Testa, Musolf, pg Athlete Training

41 How complex should training be? Viewpoints from experts Training Simplicity (1 min) (Source: Strength and Power Hour, )Strength and Power Hour 41

42 Functional training versus basic (core) lifting abilities. (this clip also used previously to introduce core capabilities) 42 LISTEN to Dr. Bill Kramer discuss this. 125 Source: Strength & Power hour podcast, Strengthpowerhour.com Strengthpowerhour.com

43 What to learn from this unit for a test? Terms, definitions & patterns for cycles and phases Not: specific details in examples of loads, reps, sets for a specific week 43


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