Presentation on theme: "Ken Andries Kentucky State University College of Agriculture, Food Science, and Sustainable Systems."— Presentation transcript:
Ken Andries Kentucky State University College of Agriculture, Food Science, and Sustainable Systems
Goats are Ruminant Animals Efficient at converting high fiber diets to high quality protein. Cost of production Grazing cost less per pound of gain than concentrate. Marketing opportunities Markets for grass or forage fed meat products on the increase.
Forage quality is the key to improved performance. Goats prefer a variety of forages in their diets. Goats do not readily graze some forages. Browse and forbs as a forage: Some have good nutritional value.
What will grow in your area? Cool season or warm season? Mixed forage stands tend to do well Warm season forages are needed Season of growth Mixed forages to meet nutritional needs and seasonal slumps
Cool Season Forages Fescue Orchard Grass Legumes Warm Season Forages Native Grasses Lespedeza Annuals Sorghum-Sudan Millet Brasicia Small grains Browse
Forage harvested by the animal is the most cost effective nutrition. Forage, in vegetative state, can meet the nutritional needs of the animal. Mature forage looses its nutritional value rapidly. Stocking density, carrying capacity, can be increased with proper management.
Carrying capacity is the stocking rate that is economically and environmentally sustainable for a particular grazing unit throughout the grazing season. Carrying capacity is largely determined by four factors: 1) annual forage production, 2) seasonal utilization rate, 3) average daily intake, and, 4) length of the grazing season.
Annual forage production XSeasonal utilization Rate Carrying Capacity =__________________________________________ Average daily intake XLength of grazing season Available ForageXGrazing period Utilization Rate Stocking Density=_________________________________________ Average Daily intake XLength of Grazing period
Pasture Species Stand Condition, (lb./acre/inch)* FairGoodExcellent Bluegrass/ Clover Perennial Ryegrass/ Clover Orchardgrass /Legume Tall Fescue + Nitrogen Mixed Pasture
If we have a 7 day rotation with 100 lb does consuming 5% of BW, Fescue pasture with Good stand. 69% season and 45% period utilization rate. 5 lbs of DM per day 200 lbs per acre inch and 8 in. starting height = 1600/acre of DM.
Carrying capacity = (4800*0.69) / (0.04*200) Carrying capacity – 3312 / 8 = 414 lbs of animal per acre (4 – 100 lb goats per acre) Stocking Density = (1600 *.45) / (0.04 * 7) Stocking Density = 720 / 0.28 = 2571 lbs per acre (25 – 100 lb goats per acre)
Estimate using the Forage Stick available from NRCS. Need one for your region to be accurate Need to be able to estimate stand density Clip method Take several (min 3) samples. Use a 1 sq ft square to clip samples from. Weigh samples and calculate dry matter. Use estimates from Extension, NRCS, or publications.
Goats are expected to consume 3.5 to 5 % of their body weight per day in dry matter About 5 to 30 pounds of actual forage or feed Grazing methods affect forage utilization Continuous – 30-35% Slow rotation (3-5 paddocks) – 40-50% Fast rotation (8+ paddocks) – 50-60% Stocking rate is generally calculated by animal units
AU - average annual amount of forage required for a 1,000 lb. mature cow of average milking ability with a calf less than 4 months old, expected to wean at 400 lbs. 1AU = ~ 10,080 lbs. of forage dry matter/year. Or ~ 840 lbs of forage dry matter/month Goats are considered 0.17 AU 1,713.6 lb DM/year lb DM/month Quality and digestibility of the forage will greatly impact these amounts as will size of animal.
Alternative forages are forages that are not normally used in your area. They can be either cool or warm season, annual or perennial Includes many plants that are considered weeds by others Used to help provide better nutrition during some period of time or to provide a known benefit to the animals.
Warm Season: Lespedeza – Sericea or Korean Sorghum Sudan grass Pearl Millet Soybeans Corn Alfalfa for grazing Forage Chicory Kudzu Cool Season: Cereal Rye or Ryegrass Wheat Oats Turnips Browse Multi flora rose Blackberry brambles Iron weed
Multiflora Rose: 18% CP and 72% TDN Kudzu: 14% CP and 55% TDN Jeruselum Artichoke: 20.7% CP and 62% TDN Blackberry: 8.2% CP and 72% TDN Greenbrier: 12.2% CP and 63% TDN Bush Honeysuckle: 10.3% CP and 69% TDN Pigweed: 22.1% CP and 80% TDN Common Ragweed: 17.4% CP and 75% TDN Sumac: 13.7% CP and 77% TDN
Establishment can be difficult for some alternatives. Grazing management needs to be adjusted to fit the forage growth pattern. Annual forages can be issues some years. Because some are considered weeds, issues with neighbors related to growing these forages. Finding seed may be an issue.
Must control existing forage to get a stand. Some alternatives do not hold up to competition during establishment. No-till methods can be used for some but others do better with tillage. Seeding rates are critical to success. Seeding depth is also important, both to deep and to shallow can be a problem. Information is available on specific species of forages from your local extension office.
Animals need nutrition not tonnage to live. High quality forage can provide nutritional needs of goats, poor quality forage cannot. Quality varies with type of forage, stage of maturity, and season. Annual forages can be good alternatives. Legumes can improve quality and reduce fertilizer needs. Quality is useless if they dont eat it!!
LotYearDMCP %TDN % ADFNDFNEmNEgRFV old
Forage is critical and a good way to reduce cost of production in most systems. Goats prefer a variety of forages so give them choices when possible. Proper grazing management is critical to success of alternative forages Goats may need to be exposed to some forages before they readily graze them. Establishment may be difficult in some locations. Soil test and proper fertilizer and pH are critical.