Presentation on theme: "Air Quality Live and Learn Lecture Series November 12, 2013 Pollution: Its In the Air Jack Brown, RS, MUA Department of Preventive Medicine and Public."— Presentation transcript:
Air Quality Live and Learn Lecture Series November 12, 2013 Pollution: Its In the Air Jack Brown, RS, MUA Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Air Quality in Wichita Metro Area
Regional impact MSA Community Patterns 7 County Area: Sedgwick, Harvey, Butler, Cowley, Sumner and Kingman. 33,000 residents commute into or out of Sedgwick County on a daily basis. (26,583 into Sedgwick and 6,789 out of Sedgwick)
Population Wichita MSA Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area: Harvey, Butler, Sedgwick, Sumner and Kingman counties: Estimated population - 600,444 Adding micro-population areas of Reno and Cowley counties (total population 723,883) One of most industrialized areas in Kansas
Background-Clean Air Act In 1970 Congress passed the Clean Air Act Under the CAA nation-wide standards were set to protect public health and welfare. These numerical standards are known as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Ambient air is defined as that portion of the atmosphere external to buildings that the general public has access. Since 1972 there has been an established air monitoring network in the Wichita area.
Air monitoring network
Air quality standards Clean Air Act and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards Criteria Pollutants: Carbon Monoxide (emitted from combustion processes; cars, trucks, industrial sources) Lead (incinerators, smelting operations) Nitrogen Dioxide (emissions from combustion processes; cars, trucks, buses, power plants) Ground level Ozone (formed by NOx, VOCs and sunlight) Particle Pollution (micron sized particles from combustion processes, molds, dust) Sulfur Dioxide (fossil fuel combustion/coal, diesel)
NAAQS Every 5 years EPA reviews the standards using these steps: Information from the scientific community Risk/Exposure Assessment Input from the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Ruling making and public input process.
Health Effects-Criteria Pollutants Harmful for sensitive groups Worsen bronchitis, emphysema & asthma Reduces lung function Inflames lung lining Chest pain Coughing Congestion Irritation
Sources of pollution Point sources: major industrial facilities; aircraft, chemical production, refineries, power plants, incinerators. (Air Operating Permits required) Non-point sources (area sources): smaller often un-regulated facilities: dry cleaning facilities, fabrication shops, auto body painting, gas stations. (Air Operating Permits not required) Mobile sources: on road vehicles (cars, trucks and buses), off road (airplanes, trains, construction equipment)
Air Operating Permits Required for major sources of air pollutants. A major source is defined as a facility with the potential to annually emit 10 tons or more of any Hazardous Air Pollutant or 25 tons or more of any combination of HAPs; or 100 tons or more of any other regulated air pollutant including SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, Pb, and VOC
Local Air Quality Attainment From 1974 – 1982 Wichita was Non attainment for Carbon Monoxide. Downtown and surrounding area 13 th Street North, Grove, Ark River and Kellogg Non attainment was addressed implementing various projects to improved traffic flow and signalization, a voluntary vehicle inspection program and various street and highway projects. In 1988 Wichita achieved attainment for CO.
Current attainment issue Ozone Good up high, bad nearby. Ozone season is from April 1-October 30 Ground level Ozone concentrations have been a concern for a number of years in the Wichita area. The current standard is.075 ppm (2008) The EPA may lower the standard but has delayed action based on potential impact to jobs, costs and the economy.
WHERE DOES OZONE COME FROM?
Ozone precursors NOx and VOCs
Volatile Organic Emissions
Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
Health Tip: Cut back on strenuous outdoor exercise when air quality is expected to be unhealthy. Exercise during the early morning or late evening hours when ozone levels are at the lowest levels of the day. This is especially important for children and other sensitive groups.
Site 2011 4 th Highest 2012 4 th Highest 2013 4 th Highest 2011-13 3 yr Average Peck0.0770.0760.0800.076 Health Dept 0.0810.080 0.075 NW Sedgwick0.071 0.077 Readings are in parts per million
What If We Go Out Of Attainment? Costs to Community Decreased interest from businesses to come in to or expand operations in the Wichita MSA New road projects may not be funded Costs to Individuals Increased fuel costs (2-10 cents/gallon) Health care costs Increased energy costs
Ozone Alert Day(s) 1.Air Quality Staff will evaluate conditions 2.Air Quality Section may declare an Ozone Alert Day(s) 3.Strategies for reducing ozone precursor emissions ( NOx and VOCs) are recommended
Notification Information to local media Information on City website Posting alerts on KDOT I.T.S. (Intelligent Transportation System)
Short Notice Recommendations Idle Reduction Policy Reminder – Dont idle vehicles unnecessarily Turn off lights and office equipment when not in use Encourage ridesharing and bringing lunch to work Suspend Burn Permits Alerts equal to or less than 4 hours will result in implementation of the following:
Long Term Ozone Event Recommendations Delay Fueling of vehicles until alert is over If fueling necessary; fuel late in the day & dont overfill tank to avoid spillage Signs will be posted in Fueling Areas Limit vehicle trips as much as possible during peak traffic hours Postpone, or delay to late afternoon, meetings involving travel to other facilities – substitute with teleconferencing and e-mail Ozone Alerts that extend past 1 day may result in the following recommendations:
Long Term Ozone Event Recommendations Limit use of gasoline powered weed eaters, lawn mowers, tractors, and power tools If grounds maintenance is necessary defer to late afternoon or wait until non-action day Encourage City landscaping contractors to adhere to same guidelines Delay painting activities and any other solvent use actions
Long Term Ozone Event Recommendations Encourage vehicle maintenance Ensure proper inflation of tires If feasible, implement ten-hour daily schedules for field crews, extending work into late afternoon and eliminating one employee travel day to work and reducing use of City equipment Consider flex hours where workers can remain at home and telecommute
Additional Recommendations Set Building Air Conditioning Temperatures at highest comfortable setting (78 degrees recommended) – Use fans to increase cooling efficiencies Encourage employees to ride the bus or bike to work When feasible, replace 2 cycle gasoline powered equipment with more energy efficient equipment – 4 cycle – Propane – Electric – People power
Local initiatives Creation of the Air Quality Improvement Task Force Participation in EPA Ozone Advance: 1.Help attainment areas reduce emissions in order to ensure continued health protection, 2.Better position areas to remain in attainment, and 3.Efficiently direct available resources toward actions to address ozone and fine particle problems quickly.
Local initiatives Idling reduction policies adopted by City of Wichita vehicle fleet KSU Pollution Prevention Institute Small Business Environmental Assistance Program KDOT Intelligent Transportation System Voluntary automobile emissions testing at community events.
For more information Local air quality information: http://online.wichita.gov/airquality/ EPA national air quality conditions: http://www.airnow.gov/