INTRODUCTION Ghana is located geographically in west Africa on longitude 3 degrees and 15 degrees west and longitude 1 degree and 45 degrees east. Ghana also lies between latitude 11 degrees 5 degrees north of the equator. The land area is approximately 239,537 kilometers square.
The country shares common border with three(francophone) French speaking countries. Burkina Faso Togo and Cote d Voire (Ivory Coast). At the south of the country lies the Atlantic ocean(The Gulf of Guinea). Ghana is divided into ten administrative regions with its capital city as Accra.
WEATHER Ghana experience two rainy seasons in a year. The major and the minor seasons. The major rainy season is between the months of March to July. The minor rainy season is from September to October. Rainy season in Ghana is caused by the South- West Monsoon Winds. The Monsoon winds blow from the South Western part of Ghana. This wind blows from the sea carrying a lot of moisture.
The Monsoon Wind releases most of its moisture in the South Western and the middle parts of Ghana. As a result, the northern part of Ghana gets less rain in the year. The annual average rainfall of the country is between 1200mm and 2000mm in a year. As a result, cash crop such as cocoa and most of the countrys timbers are found in the south western and the middle parts of the country. This is due to the heavy rainfall in the area.
EFFECTS OF THE RAINY SEASON. During rainy seasons rivers overflow their bank which causes flood. There are a lot of mosquitoes which brings about Malaria. Rainy seasons cause erosion. It provides us with Hydro-Electrical Power. Farmers in our country rely on the rains for their farm produce. During rainy seasons, farmers get water for their irrigation projects.
Vegetation in the Northern Ghana during rainy season.
THE DRY SEASON.( HARMATTAN). The dry season is also known locally as harmattan. The harmattan occurs between November and February. The harmattan is influenced by the North-East Trade Winds which blow from the Sahara Desert.
This wind blow from the North-Eastern part of Ghana. The wind that blows is dry and contains a lot of dust. During the period the weather becomes hazy and the atmosphere becomes very dry.
In the morning, temperatures fall as low as 21˚c but increases during the day. Temperatures again decreases during the night.
The northern part of the country experience very high temperatures between 32˚c and 38˚c during the day.
The middle belt records between 29˚c and 34˚c during the same period. Kumasi the second largest city
And the south western part of the country also record between 29˚c and 32˚c during the day. During the harmattan season, most trees share their leaves and die in the northern part of the country. The Garden City of Ghana
The dry season marks the beginning of the new farming season. This is so because farmer the weather to burn their cleared bushes. Farmers also use the weather to dry their products for export. Especially cocoa which is the countrys number one foreign exchange earner.