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The Non-Conscious Executive Ran R. Hassin The Hebrew University Many thanks to: Henk Aarts John Bargh Ruud Custers Baruch Eitam Tali Kleiman.

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Presentation on theme: "The Non-Conscious Executive Ran R. Hassin The Hebrew University Many thanks to: Henk Aarts John Bargh Ruud Custers Baruch Eitam Tali Kleiman."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Non-Conscious Executive Ran R. Hassin The Hebrew University Many thanks to: Henk Aarts John Bargh Ruud Custers Baruch Eitam Tali Kleiman

2 Executive in the literature

3 Four points of agreement * EP are resource demanding * Executive processes (EP) are necessary for flexibility, for overcoming the habitual * EP are necessary for conflict control (e.g, self control) * EP are conscious

4 Outline of the talk Method * Multiple experiments paradigm - Prime a goal - Measure goal-directed behavior Three Chapters (plus minus two) * Non-conscious conflict * Non-conscious resource demanding processes * Non-conscious flexibility

5 Methods of Goal Priming CTTAINJECP ODWULGSQOP OMESRJFDML PSLEQTCAPA EBEWCXLJEN RNSQRCQETT AVIRTSUBEN TADWRETSAM EOITSTAPLE GNIDLIUBFK Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

6 Methods of Goal Priming CTTAINJECP ODWULGSQOP OMESRJFDML PSLEQTCAPA EBEWCXLJEN RNSQRCQETT AVIRTSUBEN TADWRETSAM EOITSTAPLE GNIDLIUBFK Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

7 Methods of Goal Priming Cooperate vs. Control CTTAINJECP ODWULGSQOP OMESRJFDML PSLEQTCAPA EBEWCXLJEN RNSQRCQETT AVIRTSUBEN TADWRETSAM EOITSTAPLE GNIDLIUBFK Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

8 Methods of Goal Priming +

9 Cooperate

10 Methods of Goal Priming Encyclopedia

11 Outline of the talk Method * Multiple experiments paradigm - Prime a goal - Measure goal-directed behavior Three Chapters (plus minus two) * Non-conscious conflict * Non-conscious resource demanding processes * Non-conscious flexibility

12 Chapter 1: Non-conscious goal conflict

13 Goal Conflict Three markers of goal conflict (in repeated decisions): * Longer decision times * Greater variability in decisions * Stronger effects of environmental noise

14 The Current Research Commons resource dilemma * Subjects play against a presumed other participant * 100 fish in the lake * Each season participants fish X fish * Decide: How many to return to the lake * The fish population will extinguish below 70 The conflict * Competing ( keep many fish to oneself; dominant goal) * Cooperating (keep few fish)

15 Study 1: Priming Cooperation CTTAINJECP ODWULGSQOP OMESRJFDML PSLEQTCAPA EBEWCXLJEN RNSQRCQETT AVIRTSUBEN TADWRETSAM EOITSTAPLE GNIDLIUBFK Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

16 Study 1: Priming Cooperation CTTAINJECP ODWULGSQOP OMESRJFDML PSLEQTCAPA EBEWCXLJEN RNSQRCQETT AVIRTSUBEN TADWRETSAM EOITSTAPLE GNIDLIUBFK Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together Goal priming: Word search task (Bargh et al., 2001)

17 Study 1: Priming Cooperation Cooperate vs. Control CTTAINJECP ODWULGSQOP OMESRJFDML PSLEQTCAPA EBEWCXLJEN RNSQRCQETT AVIRTSUBEN TADWRETSAM EOITSTAPLE GNIDLIUBFK Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together Goal priming: Word search task (Bargh et al., 2001)

18 Study 1 * 60 Trials * occasional warnings (the fish population is at risk) Commons Task:

19 Study 1: Results Conflict (Coop) Control Cooperation 49%34%

20 Study 1: Results Trial

21 Study 1: Results Conflict (Coop) Control Cooperation 49%34% Decision Time 2380 ms1520 ms

22 Study 1: Results Fishing season

23 Study 1: Results Conflict (Coop) Control Cooperation 49%34% Decision Time 2380 ms1520 ms SD

24 Study 1: Results Commons resources dilemma (5 trials) Awareness * No awareness of priming * No differences in goal commitment measures of conflict * No differences in experienced conflict * No differences in experienced difficulty * No differences in perceived deliberation * No differences in enjoyment * No differences in mood

25 Study 2: Non-conflicting goal Prime competing (maximizing profit) Common resources dilemma

26 Study 2: Results CompeteControl Cooperation 25%35%

27 Study 2: Results CompeteControl Cooperation 25%35% Decision Time 2290 ms2950 ms

28 Study 3: Results CompeteControl Cooperation 25%35% Decision Time 2290 ms2950 ms SD

29 Study 2: Results Commons resources dilemma (5 trials) Awareness * No awareness of priming * No differences in goal commitment measures of conflict * No differences in experienced conflict * No differences in experienced difficulty * No differences in perceived deliberation * No differences in mood

30 Study 3: Environmental noise Prime cooperation Two Tasks: * Numerical Judgment: Odd or Even * Commons resources dilemma

31 You fished X fish Return 9 odd even Study 3: Environmental noise

32 2 odd even You fished X fish return Study 4: Environmental noise

33 Study 3: Environmental noise Prime cooperation Two Tasks: * Numerical Judgment: Odd or Even * Commons Resources Dilemma Numerical Judgments provided either * High Anchors * Low Anchors

34 Study 3: Results

35 Summary of results Study 1: NonCon conflict increased decision time, variance Study 3: NonCon conflict increased use of environmental noise All 3 markers of conflict without conscious awareness

36 Chapter 2: Non-conscious goals are allocated resources

37 Study 1: Resources Multiple Experiments * Achievement Priming * Measure working memory span (i.e., resources)

38 Study 1: Logic Control units prime task Overall task Simplifying assumptions: * we have 100 units of available resources * a fixed proportion is allocated to every goal

39 ControlAchievement units 21 units (30% x 70) 30 units51 units prime task Overall task Resources -- Logic Simplifying assumptions: * we have 100 units of available resources * a fixed proportion is allocated to every goal

40 Study 1: Automatic SPANs Procedure * Priming (word search) * RSPAN * Priming (subliminal) * OSPAN

41 Study 1: OSPAN 3 * 8 = 24DOG = 7Flower 6 / 3 = 3Computer SURPISE CUE FOR RECALL DV: -- Words recalled in their right order 7 * 1 = 7Hat …

42 Study 1: RSPAN He loves teaDOG Green ideas sleepFlower George rules!Money SURPISE CUE FOR RECALL DV: -- Words recalled in their right order Scottish sheep are greatHat …

43 Study 1: Results OSPAN Span

44 Study 1: Results RSPAN Span

45 Other Studies Improved inhibition after achievement priming Impaired inhibition after priming of fun, going out Impaired inhibition after priming of personal goals

46 Chapter 3: Non-conscious flexibility

47 Flexibility: The WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Rules that determine correct sortings change Subjects have to adapt to these changes

48 Study 1: Results Correct Responses

49 Study 1: Results Infelxibility

50 Other Studies More flexibility after flexibility priming More flexibility in attribution tasks Less flexibility after prevention priming

51 Four points of agreement * EP are resource demanding * Executive processes (EP) are necessary for flexibility, for overcoming the habitual * EP are necessary for conflict control (e.g, self control) * EP are conscious


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