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The Non-Conscious Executive

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Presentation on theme: "The Non-Conscious Executive"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Non-Conscious Executive
Ran R. Hassin The Hebrew University Many thanks to: Henk Aarts John Bargh Ruud Custers Baruch Eitam Tali Kleiman

2 “Executive” in the literature

3 Four points of agreement
* Executive processes (EP) are necessary for flexibility, for overcoming the habitual * EP are necessary for conflict control (e.g, self control) * EP are resource demanding * EP are conscious

4 Outline of the talk Three Chapters (plus minus two)
* Non-conscious conflict * Non-conscious resource demanding processes * Non-conscious flexibility Method * “Multiple experiments” paradigm - Prime a goal - Measure goal-directed behavior

5 Methods of Goal Priming
C T A I N J E P O D W U L G S Q M R F B X V K Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

6 Methods of Goal Priming
C T A I N J E P O D W U L G S Q M R F B X V K Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

7 Methods of Goal Priming
C T A I N J E P O D W U L G S Q M R F B X V K Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together Cooperate vs. Control

8 Methods of Goal Priming
+

9 Methods of Goal Priming
Cooperate

10 Methods of Goal Priming
Encyclopedia

11 Outline of the talk Three Chapters (plus minus two)
* Non-conscious conflict * Non-conscious resource demanding processes * Non-conscious flexibility Method * “Multiple experiments” paradigm - Prime a goal - Measure goal-directed behavior

12 Non-conscious goal conflict
Chapter 1: Non-conscious goal conflict

13 Goal Conflict Three markers of goal conflict (in repeated decisions):
* Longer decision times * Greater variability in decisions * Stronger effects of environmental “noise”

14 The Current Research Commons resource dilemma The conflict
* Subjects play against a presumed other participant * 100 fish in the lake * Each season participants fish X fish * Decide: How many to return to the lake * The fish population will extinguish below 70 The conflict * Competing (keep many fish to oneself; dominant goal) * Cooperating (keep few fish)

15 Study 1: Priming Cooperation
J E P O D W U L G S Q M R F B X V K Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

16 Study 1: Priming Cooperation
Goal priming: Word search task (Bargh et al., 2001) C T A I N J E P O D W U L G S Q M R F B X V K Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together

17 Study 1: Priming Cooperation
Goal priming: Word search task (Bargh et al., 2001) C T A I N J E P O D W U L G S Q M R F B X V K Building Cooperate Turtle Table Team Green Share Staple Plant Commune Dog Lamp Together Cooperate vs. Control

18 Study 1 Commons Task: * 60 Trials
* occasional warnings (“the fish population is at risk”)

19 Study 1: Results Conflict (Coop) Control Cooperation 49% 34%

20 Study 1: Results Trial

21 Study 1: Results Conflict (Coop) Control 49% 34% Decision Time 2380 ms
Cooperation 49% 34% Decision Time 2380 ms 1520 ms

22 Study 1: Results Fishing season

23 Study 1: Results Conflict (Coop) Control 49% 34% Decision Time 2380 ms
Cooperation 49% 34% Decision Time 2380 ms 1520 ms SD 20.91 15.80

24 Study 1: Results Awareness * No awareness of priming
* No differences in goal commitment measures of conflict * No differences in experienced conflict * No differences in experienced difficulty * No differences in perceived deliberation * No differences in enjoyment * No differences in mood Commons resources dilemma (5 trials)

25 Study 2: Non-conflicting goal
Prime ‘competing’ (maximizing profit) Common resources dilemma

26 Study 2: Results Compete Control Cooperation 25% 35%

27 Study 2: Results Compete Control 25% 35% Decision Time 2290 ms 2950 ms
Cooperation 25% 35% Decision Time 2290 ms 2950 ms

28 Study 3: Results Compete Control 25% 35% Decision Time 2290 ms 2950 ms
Cooperation 25% 35% Decision Time 2290 ms 2950 ms SD 18.20 19.96

29 Study 2: Results Awareness * No awareness of priming
* No differences in goal commitment measures of conflict * No differences in experienced conflict * No differences in experienced difficulty * No differences in perceived deliberation * No differences in mood Commons resources dilemma (5 trials)

30 Study 3: Environmental noise
Prime ‘cooperation’ Two Tasks: * Numerical Judgment: Odd or Even * Commons resources dilemma

31 Study 3: Environmental noise
9 odd even You fished X fish Return

32 Study 4: Environmental noise
2 odd even You fished X fish return

33 Study 3: Environmental noise
Prime ‘cooperation’ Two Tasks: * Numerical Judgment: Odd or Even * Commons Resources Dilemma “Numerical Judgments” provided either * High Anchors * Low Anchors

34 Study 3: Results

35 Summary of results Study 1: NonCon conflict  increased decision time, variance Study 3: NonCon conflict  increased use of environmental noise All 3 markers of conflict without conscious awareness

36 Non-conscious goals are allocated resources
Chapter 2: Non-conscious goals are allocated resources

37 Study 1: Resources “Multiple Experiments” * Achievement Priming
* Measure working memory span (i.e., resources)

38 Study 1: Logic Simplifying assumptions:
* we have 100 units of available resources * a fixed proportion is allocated to every goal Control --- 30 units prime task Overall task

39 Resources -- Logic Simplifying assumptions:
* we have 100 units of available resources * a fixed proportion is allocated to every goal Control Achievement --- 30 units 21 units (30% x 70) 51 units prime task Overall task

40 Study 1: “Automatic” SPANs
Procedure * Priming (word search) * RSPAN * Priming (subliminal) * OSPAN

41 … Study 1: OSPAN 3 * 8 = 24 DOG 2 + 5 = 7 Flower 6 / 3 = 3 Computer
SURPISE CUE FOR RECALL 7 * 1 = 7 Hat DV: -- Words recalled in their right order

42 … Study 1: RSPAN He loves tea DOG Green ideas sleep Flower
George rules! Money SURPISE CUE FOR RECALL Scottish sheep are great Hat DV: -- Words recalled in their right order

43 Study 1: Results OSPAN Span

44 Study 1: Results RSPAN Span

45 Other Studies Improved inhibition after achievement priming
Impaired inhibition after priming of fun, going out Impaired inhibition after priming of personal goals

46 Non-conscious flexibility
Chapter 3: Non-conscious flexibility

47 Flexibility: The WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
Rules that determine correct sortings change Subjects have to adapt to these changes

48 Study 1: Results Correct Responses

49 Study 1: Results Infelxibility

50 Other Studies More flexibility after flexibility priming
More flexibility in attribution tasks Less flexibility after prevention priming

51 Four points of agreement
* Executive processes (EP) are necessary for flexibility, for overcoming the habitual * EP are necessary for conflict control (e.g, self control) * EP are resource demanding * EP are conscious


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