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TITLE HOUSEHOLD POTABLE WATER DEMAND: LINKING AGRO FORESTRY TO SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS.

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Presentation on theme: "TITLE HOUSEHOLD POTABLE WATER DEMAND: LINKING AGRO FORESTRY TO SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS."— Presentation transcript:

1 TITLE HOUSEHOLD POTABLE WATER DEMAND: LINKING AGRO FORESTRY TO SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN GAROUA, A MAJOR TOWN IN THE SAHELIAN REGION OF CAMEROON. By: Dr. Ndjomguem Tuma Clement-Pierre Agro-biologistResearcher Director, NGO SAVE THE NATURE P. O. Box 51 Buea, S.W.P – Cameroon Tel: 00(237)

2 INTRODUCTION With a sustained population growth, Sub-Saharan African cities face the headache of urban water demand management. Garoua the head town of North Province of Cameroon is no exception of this role. At the start of the project, the water supply infrastructure had fallen into disrepair because of economic crisis and people here were unwillingly drinking contaminated water. Indeed, there was no system in place for monitoring water quality nor regulation to preserve the quality of water sources that supplied the Community aqueducts. Water quality and supply problems were being caused by increased deforestation, land erosion, the expansion of farming borders, the excessive use of pesticides in the vicinity of water sources, the unregulated development of new human settlements near water sources and the inadequate management of solid waste and wastewater. The water management scheme practiced in Cameroon, particularly in the study area of this research project was vertical, that is, imposed from above, and did not take into account the opinion and requirements of the local users. Real sustainable development can be achieved if communities participate in the entire process of a project, which means providing training and organization and raising awareness.

3 GOAL The Goal of this project is to provide information that would enhance and facilitate the process of potable water supply, its implications on the production process relevant to the poor, catchments management and environmental health. OBJECTIVES: The research is aimed at improving water management and conservation for poverty reduction, inducing attitudinal and behavioral changing with respect to sustainable water and environmental management at various levels; and create new knowledge and building capacity of the communities for efficient water management.

4 DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH AREA Garoua has a population of some inhabitants. It is mainly composed of Foulbe origin and comprises migrants from neighbouring country like Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, with a small number of Toupouri, Mousgoun and Bamileke from the countrys interior. The Sehelian climate here has a wet season between April and September; while the rest of the year is dry. Average annual precipitation for this region is between 1000 and 1,750 mm (39 to 69 inches). The average temperature is 25º - 30º in rainy season and 25º - 45º in the dry season The topology of the Garoua city shows that the area is composed of numerous micro-water sheds, and rivers tend to be short and have a notably reduced flow during the dry season. During the rainy season, the rivers rapidly erode the local acidic and clay soils, used for livestock and subsistence farming, and cause flooding in the lower parts of watersheds where most of the local Population live.

5 RESEARCH APPROACH The research project was implemented using Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach. In essence, PAR is a problem solving, iterative and systematic approach to research whereby a range of intellectual resources are drawn upon to find a solution to a problem or to improve current practices (Phillips and push, 1994). The first phase consisted of an orientation and familiarization survey of the selected urban area (Garoua). This provided an opportunity to make initial contact with the respective quarter heads, men and women and local associations, thereby introducing the research project and identifying some of their main issues and concerns. The project was planned and formulated at this phase based on proposals and recommendations made by the community leaders for a set of goals, objectives and activities, which gave it strong institutional and community support. Women, in particular, played a special role, considering the fact that they are the ones mainly responsible for water supply and use.

6 The second phase consisted of a house hold survey in which semi-structured interviews were used to collect data on: Quality and quantity of the water supply Physical and environmental conditions of water sources Newly identified water sources Physical condition of equipment, storage tanks and distribution lines; Daily water supply service during both dry and rainy season; Water use and disposal of waste water. Solid waste management Results showed that, in general; The population was not involved with water supply services and perceived them to be service provided by the Government of Cameroon, Drinking water quality was very poor and in most communities contained faucal coliform bacteria and physical and chemical contaminants. Five sources of water were available and have been used (see graphic).

7 As indicated in above table communities were using natural sources, well water, bottled water and rain water in rainy season than tap water. Its the fact that tap water (pipe borne water) usually flows through energy-efficient infrastructure. Understandably, supply irregularities exist as a result of the fact that Cameroon has only one major water company which is the Société Nationale des Eaux du Cameroun (SNEC) with majority shares owned by Cameroon Government in crisis. Bottled water has problems of its own; it leaves a flood of non-biodegradable and rarely recycled containers in its wake.

8 Wastewater and solid waste disposal Wastewater and solid waste disposal practices were deficient; During this data collection phase, or participative diagnosis, the interviewers were trained to highlight the fact that this was a project prepared by the community and aimed at solving its problems. Efforts were also made to keep the local people up to date with the findings. For example, results from biological, chemical and physical water analyses and their impact on health were presented to the community leaders in terms that could be understood by all. The results revealed that, owing to lack of protected water sources and deficient tank and pipeline management, the water being provided to most communities was highly contaminated. This surprised the local people, who had always assumed that their water supply was safe, and there was an immediate agreement to support the implementation of the projects recommendations. Priority tasks included defining the maximum theoretical area of the water sources; preventing further waste disposal into them, protecting them from wild and domestic animals by erecting living fences and protecting surrounding forest areas by planting Moringa Olifera trees. Many variety of seeds were distributed to Communities after they have been trained to plant them.

9 The third phase started after three years of intensive work with the assistance of the research area community. It consisted exclusively of training and practical experiences. The new availability of safe drinking water was presented to the local population, especially women during training sessions on safe drinking water issues using moringa oleifera seeds and filter and such environmental topics as the water cycle, the water-shed concept, surface waters and aquifers, waste water and other pollution sources, variability and climate change, soil erosion and reforestation and the sustainable use of natural resources. All this helped to increase the communities understanding of their interactions with the environment and to create a basis for a new water culture.

10 TREATMENT OF WATER WITH MORINGA OLEIFERA Moringa oleifera is a fast growing, aesthetically pleasing small tree adapted to arid, sandy condition. The species is characterized by its long, drumstick shaped pods that contain its seeds within the first year of growth, Moringa has been shown to grow up to 4 meters and can bear fruit within the same first years. For centuries indigenous in northern India and many parts of Africa have known the many benefits of Moringa Oleifera. Moringa Oleifera seeds treat water at two levels, acting as both a coagulant as well as an antimicrobial agent. It is generally accepted that Moringa works as a coagulant due to positively charged water-soluble proteins which bind with negatively charged particles silt, clay, bacteria, toxins etc allowing the resulting flocks to settle to the bottom or be removed by filtration. It is accepted that Moringa treatment will remove 90-99% of the impurities in water. Solutions of Moringa seeds for water treatment may be prepared from either kernels or from the solid residue left over after oil extraction (presscake) Moringa seeds, seed kernels or dried press cake can be stored but solutions for treating water should be prepared fresh each time.

11 To treat 10 liters of water: Remove the outer coating from mature seeds and crush the white kernels to obtain a fine powder (do not use discolored seeds). Add 5ml (1 teaspoon) of powder to 250ml (1 cup) of clean water and shake for 1 minute to activate the coagulant properties. Filter this solution through a clean cloth into the 10 liters of water to be treated. Stir the water rapidly for at least 1 minute, then slowly (15 – 20 rotations per minute) for 5 – 10 minutes. Let the water sit without disturbing for at least one hour. After the particles and contaminates have settled, the clear water from the top can be used. DOSAGE RATES: Low turbidity NTV 2502 seeds per 1 liter water

12 REMARKS The process of shaking must be followed closely to activate the coagulant properties; if the flocculation process takes too long, there is a risk of secondary bacteria growth during flocculation. The process of settling must be followed closely and the clear water should be poured / filtered off for use. The sediment at the bottom contains the impurities so care must be taken to use only the clear water and not allow the sediment to contaminate the clear water. Moringa solutions are less effective at treating water with a low level of turbidity. Moringa Oleifera does not remove 100% of water pathogens, that is why this reseach project introduced the construction and use of Bio-filters to complete the treatment of drinking water.

13 Untreated Water (Dirty water Treated with Moringa Oleifera

14 BIO-FILTERS Bio-Filters purify water after the Moringas treatment so that it becomes safe to drink. They are very useful, both in urban and rural areas which lack safe piped water. The research project have developed and innovative low-cost design using reinforced concrete.

15 MAKING A BIO-FILTER MAKING A BIO-FILTER A strong wood planed at 15mm thickness or plywood is needed to produce the form work to build the filters. The moulds should last for many years and any local carpenter can make one. A strong wood planed at 15mm thickness or plywood is needed to produce the form work to build the filters. The moulds should last for many years and any local carpenter can make one. Each filter contains seven items (see drawing below): Each filter contains seven items (see drawing below): The reinforced concrete outer shell, built using 1 sack of cement mixed with 2½ sacks of gravel and 2 sacks of sand. The reinforced concrete outer shell, built using 1 sack of cement mixed with 2½ sacks of gravel and 2 sacks of sand. A length of galvanised pipe, 15mm diameter A length of galvanised pipe, 15mm diameter A diffuser plate full of small holes, made from metal A diffuser plate full of small holes, made from metal A 50cm layer of clean, washed, medium-grade sand A 50cm layer of clean, washed, medium-grade sand A 20cm layer of charcoal from hard wood A 20cm layer of charcoal from hard wood A 10cm layer of small gravel (5/15) A 10cm layer of small gravel (5/15) A 10cm layer of big gravel (15/25) A 10cm layer of big gravel (15/25) The mixed cement is prepared and placed in the mould after putting the galvanized pipe and handle into position. The mould is then closed up like a shell. After two days the mould is opened and the filter removed, any holes can be filled to give a smooth surface. It is important to keep the reinforced concrete damp for 5 days so that it will not crack because of heat or dryness. The producing of one filter costs about $15. The filter can be sold for between $20 to $25, which ensures a profit for the producers but is still affordable for most households. The mixed cement is prepared and placed in the mould after putting the galvanized pipe and handle into position. The mould is then closed up like a shell. After two days the mould is opened and the filter removed, any holes can be filled to give a smooth surface. It is important to keep the reinforced concrete damp for 5 days so that it will not crack because of heat or dryness. The producing of one filter costs about $15. The filter can be sold for between $20 to $25, which ensures a profit for the producers but is still affordable for most households.

16 INSTALLING THE FILTER INSTALLING THE FILTER This is done once the filter is in permanent place; in the cooking or living area. This is done once the filter is in permanent place; in the cooking or living area. Place 10cm of big gravel (15/25) followed by a 10cm layer of small gravel and 20cm layer of charcoal from hard wood, the charcoal remove the odour of water. Then fill the filter up with washed sand until it is exactly below the level of the diffuser plate. Fill the filter now with water. However, the filter is not yet ready for use. A layer of what looks like dirt must first be allowed to develop on the surface of the sand. This dirty layer is the most important part of the filter. It acts as a fine filter and actually eats up some of the diseases causing microbes in the water. Lower levels in the sand continue this process, water must be poured into the filter every day. It takes two to three weeks for the dirty layer to develop fully. During this time water is much improved but not yet fully safe to drink. People should be encouraged to wait for three weeks before using the water directly for drinking. Place 10cm of big gravel (15/25) followed by a 10cm layer of small gravel and 20cm layer of charcoal from hard wood, the charcoal remove the odour of water. Then fill the filter up with washed sand until it is exactly below the level of the diffuser plate. Fill the filter now with water. However, the filter is not yet ready for use. A layer of what looks like dirt must first be allowed to develop on the surface of the sand. This dirty layer is the most important part of the filter. It acts as a fine filter and actually eats up some of the diseases causing microbes in the water. Lower levels in the sand continue this process, water must be poured into the filter every day. It takes two to three weeks for the dirty layer to develop fully. During this time water is much improved but not yet fully safe to drink. People should be encouraged to wait for three weeks before using the water directly for drinking.

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18 USING THE FILTER AT HOME: USING THE FILTER AT HOME: After three weeks, filtered water will be safe to drink. Tests show that around 99.90% of microbes and contaminates are removed, water treated with moringa oleigera is simply poured in and collected from the spud in clean containers. After filling the filter, water will need to be collected in a clean gallon. Normally one litre of water is filtered every minute, so it will take to 60 minutes for the contents of a 60 liters bucket to pass through the filter. The filter can be used as often as needed After three weeks, filtered water will be safe to drink. Tests show that around 99.90% of microbes and contaminates are removed, water treated with moringa oleigera is simply poured in and collected from the spud in clean containers. After filling the filter, water will need to be collected in a clean gallon. Normally one litre of water is filtered every minute, so it will take to 60 minutes for the contents of a 60 liters bucket to pass through the filter. The filter can be used as often as needed

19 MAINTAINING THE FILTER MAINTAINING THE FILTER Maintenance of the filter is very simple. There are just a few important points that need to be remembered: Maintenance of the filter is very simple. There are just a few important points that need to be remembered: If water is not poured into the filter every day, the dirty layer can become less effective. If water is not poured into the filter every day, the dirty layer can become less effective. Children and animals must not be allowed to touch the spout so that it remains clean. Children and animals must not be allowed to touch the spout so that it remains clean. The filter must not be knocked or moved. The filter must not be knocked or moved. Over time, the dirty layer may become very thick so that water takes a very long time to pass through the filter. If this happens there are two (02) options: Over time, the dirty layer may become very thick so that water takes a very long time to pass through the filter. If this happens there are two (02) options: Gentle stirring: Gentle stirring: Block the spout and fill the filter with water. Stir the water very gently and slowly with a clean hand. Dont swirl too fast or the sand layers will be disturbed. Scoop the muddy water out with a cup, taking care not to touch the sand. You can repeat this a few times until the water is no longer very dirty during swirling, unblock the spout and allow the water to pass through the filter as normal, it will be safe to drink almost immediately. Block the spout and fill the filter with water. Stir the water very gently and slowly with a clean hand. Dont swirl too fast or the sand layers will be disturbed. Scoop the muddy water out with a cup, taking care not to touch the sand. You can repeat this a few times until the water is no longer very dirty during swirling, unblock the spout and allow the water to pass through the filter as normal, it will be safe to drink almost immediately. Thorough cleaning: Thorough cleaning: Carefully remove 2 – 5cm layer of sand, wash it and replace it, unless gentle stirring fails to restore a good flow rate, this method is not really recommended because it disturbs the dirty layer it is therefore really important to wait three weeks before using the water again to ensure it is safe to drink. During the three weeks of waiting needed after thorough cleaning, other low-cost methods of making water safe for drinking can be used, such as boiling or using water from a neighbours filter. Carefully remove 2 – 5cm layer of sand, wash it and replace it, unless gentle stirring fails to restore a good flow rate, this method is not really recommended because it disturbs the dirty layer it is therefore really important to wait three weeks before using the water again to ensure it is safe to drink. During the three weeks of waiting needed after thorough cleaning, other low-cost methods of making water safe for drinking can be used, such as boiling or using water from a neighbours filter.

20 RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVEMENTS RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVEMENTS Among the main indicators of success were: Among the main indicators of success were: Planting of 17,500,000 trees of Acacia sp, parking sonia, prosopis Planting of 17,500,000 trees of Acacia sp, parking sonia, prosopis Planting of 65,600,000 trees of leucalna leucocephala Planting of 65,600,000 trees of leucalna leucocephala Planting of 36,000,000 trees of Calhandra Calothyrsus Planting of 36,000,000 trees of Calhandra Calothyrsus Planting of 98,000,000 trees of Moringa Oleifera Planting of 98,000,000 trees of Moringa Oleifera Planting 80,000,000 trees of Neem Planting 80,000,000 trees of Neem An improvement in water quality An improvement in water quality An improvement in management, protection, conservation and use of water sources. An improvement in management, protection, conservation and use of water sources. An introducing of moringa oleifera and Biofilter for water treatment An introducing of moringa oleifera and Biofilter for water treatment An improvement of solid-waste and waste water management. An improvement of solid-waste and waste water management. A lower incidence of gastrointestinal diseases in children and adults, when properly used, moringa oleifera and the filter help to control most water-borne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera and typhoid. A lower incidence of gastrointestinal diseases in children and adults, when properly used, moringa oleifera and the filter help to control most water-borne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera and typhoid. So far, households in Garoua have bought, and are using the filters after training. So far, households in Garoua have bought, and are using the filters after training filters were sold over four years, providing health benefits while generating income; the business of producing filters proved very successful and the technicians have set up business in new areas to meet fast increasing demand filters were sold over four years, providing health benefits while generating income; the business of producing filters proved very successful and the technicians have set up business in new areas to meet fast increasing demand. 156 ecological sanitation toilets have been constructed. 156 ecological sanitation toilets have been constructed. 18 Water Committees are registered, women represent about 50% of water committees members and are presiding over 10 of them. 18 Water Committees are registered, women represent about 50% of water committees members and are presiding over 10 of them. 18 water committees are functioning democratically and organize election each year. 18 water committees are functioning democratically and organize election each year. Improved community health, measurement by a fall in community health centre activities and a reduction in health expenses of approximately 60 per cent. Improved community health, measurement by a fall in community health centre activities and a reduction in health expenses of approximately 60 per cent. A creation of water committee charged with the sustainability of the project. A creation of water committee charged with the sustainability of the project. Atmospheric levels of carbon have been brought down through photosynthesis, a process whereby plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Atmospheric levels of carbon have been brought down through photosynthesis, a process whereby plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen.

21 Decrease of disease (Typhoid) in the Communities Decrease of disease (Diarrhoea and Cholera) in the Communities Data collected from medical district hospital in the 18 quarters of research project area (Garoua): 80% children, 20% adults.

22 Tree planted around the water sources to ameliorate the consequence of Unregulated development of human settlement and Agricultural activities.

23 THANK YOU


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