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To Autumn 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with.

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Presentation on theme: "To Autumn 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with."— Presentation transcript:

1 To Autumn 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with him how to load and bless With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run; With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run; To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees, To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees, And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, And still more, later flowers for the bees, And still more, later flowers for the bees, Until they think warm days will never cease, Until they think warm days will never cease, For Summer has o er-brimm d their clammy cells. For Summer has o er-brimm d their clammy cells.

2 2. Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep, Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep, Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook Spares the next swath and all its twin é d flowers: Spares the next swath and all its twin é d flowers: And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep Steady thy laden head across a brook; Steady thy laden head across a brook; Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours. Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

3 3. Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue; And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft Among the river sallows, borne aloft Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies; Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

4 Stanza 1 Autumn: a season of harvest; fruiting stage Autumn: a season of harvest; fruiting stage Metaphors of the autumn: close bosom-friend of the maturing sun, Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness Metaphors of the autumn: close bosom-friend of the maturing sun, Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness him the sun him the sun bless with fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run bless the vines that run round the thatch-eves with fruit bless with fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run bless the vines that run round the thatch-eves with fruit load and bless : Autumn and the sun not only load but also bless the vines with fruit. The effects of using the word bless may include autumn s benediction over the ripening of the fruits and its power to enrich the fertility of nature. load and bless : Autumn and the sun not only load but also bless the vines with fruit. The effects of using the word bless may include autumn s benediction over the ripening of the fruits and its power to enrich the fertility of nature. To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees To bend the moss d cottage-trees with apples The apples become so numerous that their weight bends the trees. To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees To bend the moss d cottage-trees with apples The apples become so numerous that their weight bends the trees. to set budding more : -ing form suggests activity that is continuing to set budding more : -ing form suggests activity that is continuing And still more suggests the mushrooming of flowers And still more suggests the mushrooming of flowers Use of flashback : line 9 - line 11(cause and effect are reversed) Use of flashback : line 9 - line 11(cause and effect are reversed)

5 Stanza 2 Autumn: lax or resting; the stage of slowing down; personification of autumn as a reaper or a harvester Autumn: lax or resting; the stage of slowing down; personification of autumn as a reaper or a harvester sound asleep, Drows'd Autumn is listless and even falls asleep sound asleep, Drows'd Autumn is listless and even falls asleep Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours : The end of the cycle is near. The squeezing of the apple cider is nearly finished ( the last oozings ) Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours : The end of the cycle is near. The squeezing of the apple cider is nearly finished ( the last oozings )

6 Stanza 3 Autumn: Description of the beauty of autumn. Keats blends living and dying, the pleasant and the unpleasant, because they are crucial elements of the mixed nature. Autumn: Description of the beauty of autumn. Keats blends living and dying, the pleasant and the unpleasant, because they are crucial elements of the mixed nature. Mention of spring : 1. representing process; the proceeding flow of time (like the summer in stanza 1) 2. Spring is a time of rebirth of life which contrasts with the seemingly dying autumn of stanza 3. Mention of spring : 1. representing process; the proceeding flow of time (like the summer in stanza 1) 2. Spring is a time of rebirth of life which contrasts with the seemingly dying autumn of stanza 3. the soft-dying day : Its dying also creates beauty (as the following lines present) the soft-dying day : Its dying also creates beauty (as the following lines present) While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble- plains with rosy hue : the setting sun casts a bloom of rosy hue over the stubble left after the harvest While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble- plains with rosy hue : the setting sun casts a bloom of rosy hue over the stubble left after the harvest And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn : sheep will be slaughtered in autumn (Note: why is Keats using the term lambs rather than sheep ?) And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn : sheep will be slaughtered in autumn (Note: why is Keats using the term lambs rather than sheep ?) And gathering swallows twitter in the skies : The swallows are gathering for their winter migration suggesting that the autumn will cease And gathering swallows twitter in the skies : The swallows are gathering for their winter migration suggesting that the autumn will cease

7 We could compare To Autumn with s, which describes autumn as a withering season rather than a season of harvest and beauty. But it also has some similarities with To Autumn as in which correlate with stanza 3 (ex: And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn ) We could compare To Autumn with s, which describes autumn as a withering season rather than a season of harvest and beauty. But it also has some similarities with To Autumn as in which correlate with stanza 3 (ex: And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn )

8 Images Keats wrote a letter to his friend J. H. Reynolds after he wrote "To Autumn." Keats wrote a letter to his friend J. H. Reynolds after he wrote "To Autumn." Even the letter alludes to ancient myths, where Diana (in Roman myth, or Artemis in Greek) is the moon and the goddess of chastity and hunting. Even the letter alludes to ancient myths, where Diana (in Roman myth, or Artemis in Greek) is the moon and the goddess of chastity and hunting.

9 Letter to J. H. Reynolds How beautiful the season is now -- How fine the air. A temperate sharpness about it. Really, without joking, chaste weather -- Dian skies -- I never lik'd stubble-fields so much as now -- Aye better than the chilly green of the Spring. Somehow a stubble plain looks warm -- in the same way that some pictures look warm -- This struck me so much in my Sunday's walk that I composed upon it. How beautiful the season is now -- How fine the air. A temperate sharpness about it. Really, without joking, chaste weather -- Dian skies -- I never lik'd stubble-fields so much as now -- Aye better than the chilly green of the Spring. Somehow a stubble plain looks warm -- in the same way that some pictures look warm -- This struck me so much in my Sunday's walk that I composed upon it.

10 Images Keats did not believe in gods and goddesses. He did, however, take a great interest in the poetry of ancient Greece, and "To Autumn" is the sixth in his famous sequence of odes, poems ancient Greeks wrote to the various gods in their polytheistic world. To the Greeks, a god was not a distant, disembodied entity. Thus a god could dwell at the site of a river, for it was the spirit of the river. Even one of the mightiest gods, Apollo, was at some level simply the sun. Keats did not believe in gods and goddesses. He did, however, take a great interest in the poetry of ancient Greece, and "To Autumn" is the sixth in his famous sequence of odes, poems ancient Greeks wrote to the various gods in their polytheistic world. To the Greeks, a god was not a distant, disembodied entity. Thus a god could dwell at the site of a river, for it was the spirit of the river. Even one of the mightiest gods, Apollo, was at some level simply the sun. In "To Autumn," Keats treats autumn as a kind of god or goddess whose presence can be felt in many occurrences of late summer and early fall. In "To Autumn," Keats treats autumn as a kind of god or goddess whose presence can be felt in many occurrences of late summer and early fall. The weather, crops, plants and animals, sounds, even the activities typical of that season are turned into images of the god's presence. The weather, crops, plants and animals, sounds, even the activities typical of that season are turned into images of the god's presence.

11 Images:Stanza 1 Images:Stanza 1 The whole stanza is a single phrase that does not form a complete sentence. The whole stanza is a single phrase that does not form a complete sentence. It addresses Autumn by name, just as a prayer would begin by invoking or naming the god it addresses, but uses a description rather than Autumn's proper name.( e.g. Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, & Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun ) It addresses Autumn by name, just as a prayer would begin by invoking or naming the god it addresses, but uses a description rather than Autumn's proper name.( e.g. Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, & Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun ) Personification Personification

12 Images:Stanza 1 Besides maturing sun, other words and phrases that suggest maturity Besides maturing sun, other words and phrases that suggest maturity And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells

13 Images:Stanza 1 A repetitive listing of ripening indicates that Keats might designed it on purpose, in order to show the conspiracy between autumn and sun. A repetitive listing of ripening indicates that Keats might designed it on purpose, in order to show the conspiracy between autumn and sun. Autumn and the sun not only load but also bless the vines with fruit. the effects of using the word bless Autumn and the sun not only load but also bless the vines with fruit. the effects of using the word bless at the end of the stanza, Autumn and the sun make so many flowers bud late in the season that the bees have become confused (Until they think warm days will never cease, For Summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.) suggests unawareness at the end of the stanza, Autumn and the sun make so many flowers bud late in the season that the bees have become confused (Until they think warm days will never cease, For Summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.) suggests unawareness

14 Images:Stanza 2 Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Keats is stressing that in fact everyone has seen Autumn.Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Keats is stressing that in fact everyone has seen Autumn. harvested grain, a partially harvested field, apples being pressed to make cider All the stanza's images take sights common in the countryside during autumn harvested grain, a partially harvested field, apples being pressed to make cider All the stanza's images take sights common in the countryside during autumn sitting careless; sound asleep; Drows'd; keep / Steady; with patient look the images seem to picture Autumn at rest sitting careless; sound asleep; Drows'd; keep / Steady; with patient look the images seem to picture Autumn at rest

15 Images:Stanza 3 the soft-dying day, mourn, sinking, dies, the soft-dying day, mourn, sinking, dies, words and phrases that suggest death or dying words and phrases that suggest death or dying Indicates that Autumn is leaving Indicates that Autumn is leaving

16 Images:Stanza 3 Autumn's music: Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge- crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft And gathering swallows twitter in the skies Autumn's music: Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge- crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft And gathering swallows twitter in the skies

17 Images:Stanza 3 And full-grown lambs bleat from hilly bourne;And full-grown lambs bleat from hilly bourne; Hedge-crickets sing; Hedge-crickets sing; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. connotations of death connotations of death Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breat whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies."

18 Implication of Autumn in John Keats Romantic poem Alfonso Liu Alfonso Liu

19 Autumn with fruitfulness, abundance, and joyfulness Autumn with fruitfulness, abundance, and joyfulness Autumn with Autumn with hope (sun) hope (sun)

20 1st stanza describing the autumn as a fruitful season Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with him how to load and bless With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run; To bend with apples the mossed cottage trees, And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, And still more, later flowers for the bees, Until they think warm days will never cease, For Summer has o er-brimmed their clammy cells.

21 2nd stanza Comparing autumn to someone (personification) Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep, Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook Spares the next swath and all its twin é d flowers: And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep Steady thy laden head across a brook; Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

22 3rd stanza Autumn is a symbol of maturity of beings Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

23 Winchester College

24 Comparison & Conclusion Elaine

25 Personal Questions 1. Which poem do you find easier to read? Which one do you like more? 2. Which topic interests you more: Art or Nature? How are they different? 3. Do you get emotionally involved in the things you like? Do you get emotionally involved in Art and/or Nature? 4. Do you agree that truth and beauty are all you need to know?

26 Reflective Questions 1. How do the two different openings present the two speakers different attitudes and moods? Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness, Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness, Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, / Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, / Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;

27 Reflective Questions 1. How does each speaker talk to/about the subject (Art/Nature)? 2. What are their attitudes? 3. Is the speaker in To Autumn more respectful and in awe than Grecian Urn ? How?

28 1. Who drives the story and the action in each poem? 2. Are reality and imagination given the same weights/values in both poems? 3. Are the speakers questions resolved in the poems? If not, what are the effects of these unanswered questions? Reflective Questions

29 Odes Lengthy Lengthy Serious in subject matter Serious in subject matter Elevated in its word choice and style Elevated in its word choice and style Elaborate structure in stanzas Elaborate structure in stanzas The Horatian ode - To Autumn The Horatian ode - To Autumn uniform stanzas uniform stanzas same metrical pattern same metrical pattern more personal, meditative, & restrained more personal, meditative, & restrained

30 Structure Grecian Urn --> The timelessness of the urn --> Ideal v.s. Real (canst not leave … nor ever can … never, never … ) --> Greater passions depicted on the urn --> Looks at the urn from without; imaginations --> Addresses the urn and speaks to it as an observer --> Conclusion: beauty v.s. truth To Autumn --> Ripeness of the harvest --> Laziness of the Autumn --> Imageries of death and passing.

31 Tone Grecian Urn Apostrophe - direct address (18) Apostrophe - direct address (18) Many questions Many questions Theoretical questions and statements Theoretical questions and statements What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape? Beauty is truth, truth beauty To Autumn Apostrophe - aids in the imagery (8) Apostrophe - aids in the imagery (8) More descriptions, less questions More descriptions, less questions Retrospective, calm, reflective, unhurried Retrospective, calm, reflective, unhurried Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, / Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;

32 Perspective Grecian Urn Narrator is emotionally involved in the narration Narrator is emotionally involved in the narration There is a constant question on art and life, reality and imagination There is a constant question on art and life, reality and imagination Speaks to the urn and asks for a response Speaks to the urn and asks for a response Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss Though winning near the goal -- yet, do not grieve; To Autumn Narrator is less emotionally involved, but is very observant Narrator is less emotionally involved, but is very observant Does not flee from the reality Does not flee from the reality Appreciates Nature as it is Appreciates Nature as it is Narrator contemplates a lot (speaks to himself) Narrator contemplates a lot (speaks to himself) Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

33 Concluding Questions 1. Are the speakers questions resolved in the poems? If not, what are the effects of these unanswered questions? 2. How do the speakers approach the complexities and mysteries of life, art, and nature? 3. Do art and nature really offer us more than our perception of reality? Or are we the ones defining the meaning of art and nature?

34 Sources Newman Library http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/2000/c_n_c/c_07_roma nticism/reading_keats.htm Newman Library http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/2000/c_n_c/c_07_roma nticism/reading_keats.htm Newman Library http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/2000/c_n_c/c_07_roma nticism/reading_keats.htm Newman Library http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/2000/c_n_c/c_07_roma nticism/reading_keats.htm Brooklyn College http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/autumn. html Brooklyn College http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/autumn. html http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/autumn. html http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/autumn. html


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