4 BACKGROUND FACTSIn the 1970s and early 1980s, New Hampshire residents attempted to reduce their heating expenses by using more wood stoves and alternative heating devices.Data from NFPA indicates a 35,000- fire increase in one- and two-family dwelling heating fires from 1979 to 1980 alone.Heating remains the # 1 cause of structure fires in New Hampshire.During times of high fuel costs, we will likely see a significant increase in fires and fire deaths.Many older New Hampshire dwellings lack basic modern safety devices. (Smoke Alarms and Fire Sprinklers)We have already seen heating system related fire and carbon monoxide deaths in New Hampshire this year.
5 Stratford New Hampshire March 25, 2008 Three fatalitiesImproperly installed wood stoveExit blocked by snowPossibly non-functioning smoke detectorNo residential fire sprinklersFamily could not afford heating oil
8 Our Current SituationHeating oil and gasoline costs continue to be high, New Hampshire citizens are looking for alternative solutions to heating their homes during the upcoming winter season.Many are again turning to space heaters, fireplaces and wood burning stoves to help save money, which can be effective cost saving alternatives, but also present significant fire dangers if not properly installed and maintained.We have already seen a big increase in wood and pellet stove sales over this summer. It is projected that we will see also see an increase in residential fires as well as carbon monoxide incidents because of the increased use of alternative heating devices.
9 Division of Fire Safety In light of our current situation, the New Hampshire Division of Fire Safety and the Vermont Division of Fire Safety, have joined forces in an proactive educational approach to inform the citizens of both states about safety precautions, to keep their families safe and warm.
10 How can we prevent a repeat of what happened in the 80s ? HOW DO WE PREVENT INJURIES, LOSS OF LIFE AND PROPERTY DAMAGE ?EARLY WARNING AND EDUCATIONUse Smoke and CO DetectorsMaintain Proper ClearancesMaintenance of EquipmentProper Venting of AppliancesHome Fire Sprinkler System
11 WHAT WE ARE DOING ? Increased Inspections in residential properties Improved fire safetyImproved smoke detectors in residential propertiesPeriodic inspection of heating appliancesPublic Education on heating safety - media campaignPublic Events – Fire Prevention EducationMedia Push – Press ReleasesFire Safety information sections on the DFS web page.
13 Heating equipment is the leading cause of home fires in New Hampshire Heating equipment is the leading cause of home fires in New Hampshire. Very often heating related fires are the result of improper installation, a lack of maintenance, or simple acts of carelessness.
15 Conventional Wood Stoves and Fire Place Inserts Efficiency range: 54%Manual ash cleanoutManual stokingHarmful levels of particulate matter and creosote buildup.
16 EPA Certified Stoves Non-catalytic Multi-chamber Stove Catalytic Stove Broader tolerance for temperature rangeManual ash cleanoutManual stokingEfficiency: 68%Catalytic StoveLower Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and particulate emissions compared to conventional wood stovesOver firing will damage catalytic converterHigh maintenanceManual ash cleanoutManual stokingCompared to conventional wood stoves, EPA certified wood stoves are up to 70% more efficient and uses 30% less wood.
17 Catalytic Wood Stoves Catalytic stoves. These stoves use a catalytic combustor that operates on the same principle as the catalytic converter in your car.Advanced combustion woodstoves provide a lot of heat but only work efficiently when the fire burns at full throttle. Also known as secondary burn stoves, they can reach temperatures of 1100°F.the firebox is insulated, which reflects heat back to it, ensuring that the turbulent gases stay hot enough to burn. New advanced combustion stoves have advertised efficiencies of 60%–72%.
18 Catalytic combustors need to be inspected at least three times every heating season and replaced according to the manufacturer's recommendations.The catalytic cell is removable and replaceable and costs between $75 and $160.Because a lot of energy can be wasted burning wet wood, you should use wood that has been properly seasoned.Properly seasoned wood is harvested in the spring and allowed to dry throughout the summer. Look for wood that is of even color, without any green. It should have a moisture content of just over 20%–25% by weight.
19 Pellet StovesPellet stoves. Some stoves burn fuel pellets manufactured from wood or other biomass.With a pellet stove, you load batches offuel into a hopper. A motorized auger, controlled by a dial or thermostat, then moves the pellets into the stove as needed. A small fan controls air flow in the combustion process.Pellet stoves, like the other stove types, have advantages and disadvantages.a pellet stove is often cheaper to install than a cordwood-burning heater. Many can be direct-vented and do not need an expensive chimney or flue. As a result, the installed cost of the entire system may be less than that of a conventional wood stove.
20 Pellet appliances are more complex and have expensive components that can break down. They also require electricity to run fans, controls, and pellet feeders.For pellet-fuel appliances, it is very important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for operation and maintenance. Inspect fans and motors regularly, and maintain them properly.You can check pellet fuel quality by inspecting the bag for excessive dirt and dust. (Dirt can form clinkers in the stove.) There should be less than one half of a cup of dust at the bottom of a 40 pound (18 kg) bag. Pellet stoves designed for low-ash (typically top-fed stoves) tend to operate poorly when used with pellets of a higher ash content.
22 Electric heatersEven though electric space heaters don't have an open flame, the heating elements of some types of electric heaters are hot enough to ignite nearby combustibles like draperies, paper, clothing, furniture, and flammable liquids. It is, therefore, important to check surrounding objectsOnly use heaters with the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) safety listing. Read and follow all instructions in the owner's manual.The heater should be placed on the floor, away from combustible materials, and out of high-traffic areas.Never put anything on top of your space heater.Never leave the heater unattended or with unsupervised children.Electric heaters should be unplugged if you go to bed or leave the house.Plug the heater directly into the wall. Don't use an extension cord, Don't overload your outlets. do not insert more than two plugs into one outlet.
23 Un-vented heaters are allowed in New HampshireIf a un-vented heater is used:Must meet UL Standard 647 or ANSI ZFollow manufacturer’s instructions for operation and refueling.Always provide adequate ventilationNever refuel a kerosene heater when it is still hot.Always refuel a kerosene heater outdoors away from the house, never on a porch or in a garage.
24 Un-vented heater and LP cylinder in a condo in Killington VT DFS PHOTO BY B. SUTHERLAND
25 Un-Vented heaters NFPA 54 Chapter 10 Prohibits the installation of un-vented room heaters in bedrooms and bathroomsProhibits the use of un-vented room heaters in Residential Board & Care and Health Care Facilities
26 NFPA 58 LP Gas Code“In areas where heavy snowfall is anticipated, piping, regulators, meters, and other equipment installed in the piping system shall be protected from the forces anticipated as a result of accumulated snow.”
27 Division of Fire Safety CODES & STANDARDS FOR WOODBURNING / LIQUID FUEL HEATING
28 NFPA 211- Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances NFPA 31- Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning EquipmentNFPA 54 – Fuel Gas CodeNFPA Liquefied Petroleum Gas CodeManufacturer’s Instructions
29 NFPA 211 Chapter 9 Chimney Connectors and Vent Connectors A connector serving a gas or oil appliance shall not be connected to a chimney flue serving a factory-built fireplace unless specifically listed for such installation.A connector serving a gas or oil appliance shall be permitted to be connected to a masonry fireplace flue if one of the following conditions is met:(1) The fireplace opening is sealed.(2) The chimney flue that vents thefireplace is permanently sealed belowthe connection.
30 NFPA 211 Chapter 9 Chimney Connectors and Vent Connectors ~ 9 NFPA 211 Chapter 9 Chimney Connectors and Vent Connectors ~ 9.8 Interconnection.Connectors serving appliances operating under natural draft shall not be connected into any portion of a mechanical draft system operating under positive pressure.Unless listed for such connection, solid fuel-burning appliances shall not be connected to a chimney flue serving another appliance.
31 NFPA 211Gas utilization appliances and appliances burning liquid fuel shall be permitted to be connected to one chimney flue through separate openings or shall be permitted to be connected through a single opening, provided they are joined by a suitable fitting located as close as practicable to the chimney and provided both of the following apply:(1) Sufficient draft is available for the safe combustion of each appliance and for the removal of all products of combustion.(2) The appliances so connected are equipped with primary safety controls and all appliances are located in the same room.
32 NFPA 211 Chapter 12 Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances 12.2 Location of Appliances.Solid fuel-burning appliances shall not be installed in alcoves or enclosed spaces less than 512 ft3 (14.5 m3) unless specifically listed for such use.Solid fuel-burning appliances shall not be installed in any location where gasoline or any other flammable vapors or gases are present.Solid fuel-burning appliances shall not be installed in any garage.
33 NFPA 211 Chapter 12 Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances Solid fuel-burning appliances shall be installed in a location and manner so as to provide ventilation and combustion air supply to allow proper combustion of fuel, chimney draft, and maintenance of safe temperatures.Where buildings are so tight that normal infiltration does not provide the necessary air, outside air shall be introduced.
34 Additional Notes from NFPA 211 A connector serving a gas or oil appliance shall not be connected to a chimney flue serving a factory-built fireplace unless specifically listed for suchfuel-burning appliances shall not be installed in alcoves or enclosed spaces less than 512 ft3 (14.5 m3) unless specifically listed for such use.Solid fuel-burning appliances shall not be installed in any garage.Solid fuel-burning appliances shall not be installed in any location where gasoline or any other flammable vapors or gases are present.
35 Additional Notes From NFPA 211 Appliances listed for installation with clearances less than specified in Table of NFPA 211 shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
36 Division of Fire Safety SAFETY OF WOODBURNING / HEATING APPLIANCES
37 HEATING APPLIANCES Common Issues Clearance to CombustiblesMaintenanceProper Installation
38 HEATING APPLIANCES Clearances A common hazard is the storage of combustible materials where they can be ignited by heat radiated by a furnace, stove, or other heating appliance.
39 the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has established guidelines for chimney connectors and clearances. In NFPA 211
40 HEATING APPLIANCES Common Issues Flues and smoke pipes can constitute a hazard; both should be kept in good condition and have adequate clearance from any combustibles.Flues should be cleaned annually and inspected for damage or holes. In addition, throughout the heating season, checks for creosote buildup in the flue pipe.
41 HEATING APPLIANCES Maintenance To keep your wood- or pellet-burning system operating efficiently and safely, you'll need to maintain it on a regular basis.a certified chimney sweep should have the knowledge to help make sure your appliance, hearth, connecting pipe, air inlets, chimney, and all other components are functioning efficiently and safely.
42 Heating System Maintenance Highlights Every year, preferably before each heating season, have a certified chimney sweep inspect your wood-burning system.In addition to cleaning the chimney, a certified chimney sweep should have the knowledge to help make sure your appliance, hearth, connecting pipe, air inlets, chimney, and all other components are functioning efficiently and safely.
43 Chimneys and Stovepipes A chimney is a critical part of your wood heating system. It carriers smoke out of the house, and creates the suction or draft necessary to draw air to the fire. A well designed chimney allows the stove to operate cleanly, producing a minimum amount of smoke and creosote.Chimney height is critical to creating proper draft and meeting fire codes. The chimney should extend at least three feet above the point where it exits the roof, and should be a minimum of two feet higher than any part of the roof within ten feet.All chimneys require regular inspection for deterioration and creosote buildup. The chimney should be inspected and cleaned at least once a year, as often as biweekly if you use your wood stove daily.
44 HEATING APPLIANCES Safety Have equipment professionally installedMake sure to have any fireplace and chimney inspected that has not been used for any extended period of timeNever leave fire unattendedAnnual chimney inspection by certified chimney sweepProper spacing from upholstery, carpeting and furnitureApply appropriate precautions: keep children away from operating stove
45 Division of Fire Safety OTHER HOME SAFETY ISSUES
46 Smoke Alarms-It’s the Law RSA 153:10-a Fire Protection and Warning Devices in Multi-Family Dwellings. – I. Each unit contained in a multi-unit dwelling shall be equipped with automatic fire warning devices. On every floor level and in each common stairway and in each common hallway of a multi-unit dwelling, there shall be an automatic warning device. II. Every single family dwelling which is built or substantially rehabilitated after January 1, 1982, shall be equipped with an automatic fire warning device.
47 Smoke Alarms (Cont.)II-a. Every rental unit as defined in RSA 153:1, IX-a shall be equipped with at least one automatic fire warning device. An automatic fire warning device shall be located in each hallway or area which is adjacent to a sleeping area. The provisions of this paragraph shall be in addition to any requirements under paragraph II. The owner of the rental unit shall be responsible for maintaining the automatic fire warning device in a suitable condition.
48 NFPA 101,Life Safety Code 2003 edition New One & Two Family DwellingsSmoke alarms shall be:Installed in all sleeping rooms in other than existing one- and two-family dwellings.Outside of each separate sleeping area, in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping rooms.On Each level of the dwelling unit, including basements.They must be interconnected.International Residential Building Code 2006 has similar language.
49 Carbon Monoxide Detectors New Hampshire does not currently require carbon monoxide detectors. Carbon monoxide detectors are recommended by the Division of Fire Safety.Please support us when we move to change that.
50 Other Common Issues Careless Use of Smoking Materials and Matches. Electrical Installations.Flammable Liquids.Housekeeping, Storage, and Rubbish Hazards.Fire Extinguishers.Residential Automatic Sprinkler Systems.
52 Thank You Have a Fire Safe Day This material was compiled by the New Hampshire and Vermont Divisions of Fire Safety from a variety of sources includingConsumer Product Safety CommissionUnited States Fire AdministrationNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA)U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyU.S. Department of EnergyHearth, Patio & Barbecue AssociationWoodheat.orgAmerican Gas Association.Minnesota Department of Commerce Energy Information CenterAmerican Red CrossUnderhill-Jericho Fire Dept. woodstove inspection programThank YouHave a Fire Safe Day