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Part 2. Functional Components of Citrus and Their Relation of Cancer and Chronic Disease Prevention Bhimu Patil Part II (Continued)

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Presentation on theme: "Part 2. Functional Components of Citrus and Their Relation of Cancer and Chronic Disease Prevention Bhimu Patil Part II (Continued)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 2

2 Functional Components of Citrus and Their Relation of Cancer and Chronic Disease Prevention Bhimu Patil Part II (Continued)

3 Vit. C

4 Vitamin C deficiency Scurvy Cutaneous hemorrhages Improper bone development Poor collagen production Anemia Susceptibility to infection

5 Clinical Trials? Citrus fruits were first suggested for treatment of scurvy in 1593 and again in then in 1747 came the clinical trial which was not randomized but was pretty conclusive- two patients got well on citrus fruit and then other ten, on other five treatments go worse. It was 40 years before British navy required lemons and limes and other citrus fruits on board ships at sea. It took 154 years from innovation to the trial, 40 years from the trial to practice. From Chalmers: A Potpouri of RCT topics. Controlled Clinical Trials 1982:3:285

6 Limonoids Vit. C Folic Acid Pectin Carotenoids Flavonoids Fiber Potassium Coumarins

7 Carotenoids Lycopene-Prostate Cancer Beta-carotene Beta cryptoxanthin Lutein and zeaxanthin-Macular degeneration

8 Lycopene

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10 Enhancing Carotenoids Preharvest Factors –Genetics –Season –Location/Climate Postharvest Factors –Postharvest Storage

11 Patil 2001, Proc. International Citrus Congress, Orlando, FL.

12 Enhancing Carotenoids Preharvest Factors –Genetics –Season –Location/Climate Postharvest Factors –Postharvest Storage

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14 Enhancing Carotenoids Preharvest Factors –Genetics –Season –Location/Climate Postharvest Factors –Postharvest Storage

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16 Postharvest Storage Effect

17 Enhancing Phytochemicals Preharvest Factors –Genetics –Season –Location/Climate Postharvest Factors –Storage Juice Storage Fruit storage Irradiation

18 Methodology Storage time 0 day 30 day 60 day Storage temperature 9 C 15 C 24 C

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21 Changes in Functional Components During Storage of Citrus Juice

22 Paper board cartons (100% Juice-single strength) processed not from concentrate Patil 2004, ACS Symposium Series 871

23 Paper board cartons (100% Juice-single strength) processed not from concentrate Patil 2004, ACS Symposium Series 871

24 Quarantine Treatments Current: Cold treatment (10-12 days) Methyl Bromide Fumigation Vapor Heat (4h + 30 min for cooling) High-temperature forced-air (4h + 30m) Modification of vapor heat Research Under Progress Refrigerated Ultra-low oxygen storage Irradiation (15-20 min)

25 Refrigerated Ultra Low Filteration Replaces Chemical fumigation Reduces Green Mold HTFA- Fruit quality affected Heat treatment: not fully ripe Extend shelf life Nutritive Value:Very little research on functional components

26 Storage Conditions Three commercial shipping cartoons harvested, washed and waxed. Treatment: 21 d inside marine container under 0.05 kPa Oxygen at 14C + 14 additional days in air at 21C. Control: 21 d inside walk in cooler at 10C + 14 d in air at 21 C

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30 Fruit Evaluation

31 * * Patil and Shellie 2004, Acta Hort

32 *

33 *

34 Quarantine Treatments Current: Cold treatment (10-12 days) Methyl Bromide Fumigation Vapor Heat (4h + 30 min for cooling) High-temperature forced-air (4h + 30m) Modification of vapor heat Research Under Progress Refrigerated Ultra-low oxygen storage Irradiation (15-20 min)

35 Naringin ab aa a (P = 0.05) a aa 13.15% 26.36% 8.22% 123% Irradiation effect on Cut and Whole fruit. Vanamala, ….. Patil Food Chemistry

36 Narirutin in cut and whole fruits 57.6% 50.0% 23.3% 16.1% ab (P = 0.05) abaaaa Vanamala, ….. Patil Food Chemistry

37 Foods for Health: Opportunities and Challenges

38 Well balanced diet Macronutrients-Energy (Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) 800 million people do not have in their diet Micronutrients-Good Health Essential-nutritional disorders –17 minerals and 13 vitamins –250 m Vitamin A Deficiency –2 billion iron deficiency –1.5 billon iodine deficiency –Poor eating habit in Developed countries Non Essential -promotion of good health –Phytochemicals –80, ,000 DellaPenna 1999, Science

39 Farm to TableTable to Farm Prevention HHS sponsoring Workshops: Agriculture, and Health Health and Human Service $$? Disease combating 274 million- obesity $1 billion-heart $1 billion-diabetes

40 Vitamins Chemical namesContribution of F&V ARetinol, beta-carotene30-35 % DColecalciferol, ergocalciferol- ETocopherols15-22 % KPhylloquinone, MenaquinoneVegetables >> B1B1 Thiamin17-24 % B2B2 Riboflavin ~ 10 % PP or B 3 Nicotinic acid or nicotinamide ~ 10 % B5B5 Panthotenic acidLegumes B6B6 Pyridoxin, pyridoxal20-22 % B8B8 Biotinlegumes B9B9 Folic acid polyglutamates > 50% B 12 Cobalamins- CAscorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid 70% FV + potatoes 22%

41 Vitamin A deficiency and Xerophthalmia Undernutrition - low serum retinol status

42 Money spent per person/year Annual Cost for Cancer alone $ 102 billion

43 Average Life Span Extended

44 Meta-Analysis Systematic Review Randomized Controlled Trials Cohort studies Case Control studies Case Series/Case Reports Animal research In vitro and In vivo experiments What do we need to do to change from Myth to Realty?

45 Consumption of Fruit & Vegetables and Relative Risk of Cancer Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center · Horticultural Sciences · TAES

46 Protective against cancers - compilation of epidemiological studies ProductsTargetProtective effect Fruits and vegetables Upper aero-digestive tract, stomach, lung, colon convincing FishColonprobable FibersBreast, Colo-rectumprobable CerealsBreastpossible VegetablesProstatepossible (CNERNA, 1996 ; World Cancer Research Fund, USA, 1997 ; COMA, 1998)

47 Opportunity identify bioactive compounds in F & V that promote health and reduce the risk for chronic diseases develop new agricultural and food processing technology that optimize the bioactive compounds in F &V Identify agricultural practices that improve the value of crops for growers and help ensure the long term viability of the state, nation and global agricultural enterprise

48 Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Putative Bioactive Compounds

49 ROTOEVAPORATION SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT EXTRACTION SILICA GEL COLUMN SEPARATION SILICA GEL COLUMN SEPARATION HPLC LIMONOID CHARACTERIZATION HPLC LIMONOID CHARACTERIZATION PURIFIED LIMONOID AGLYCONES PURIFIED LIMONOID AGLYCONES LIMONIN CRYSTALLIZATION AND PURIFICATION LIMONIN CRYSTALLIZATION AND PURIFICATION GROUND SEEDS GROUND SEEDS DRIED SEEDS DRIED SEEDS CITRUS FRUITS

50 Isolated Citrus Bioactive Compounds Limonoid Aglycone Limonoid Glucosides Limonoids and Flavonoids

51 Confirmation of Limonoids using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Proposed fragmentation of Limonin Proposed fragmentation of Nomilin Proposed fragmentation of Obacunone Proposed fragmentation of Deacetylnomilin Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 2003:17:

52 Isolation and Characterization Bioactive Compounds Flavonoids Limonoids Cell Culture Phase II Enzymes GST and QR Phase I Enzymes CYP450s Animal Studies

53 Colon Cancer

54 Diets Containing GFPP, IGFPP, Naringin, and Limonin significantly reduced AC and HMACF GFPP – Grapefruit Pulp Powder IG – Irradiated Grapefruit Pulp Powder Jairam Vanamala Vanamala et al., Carcinogenesis

55 Objective To investigate the possibilities of various citrus limonoids and flavonoids to reduce plasma cholesterol

56 LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio a b c d d d d Jun Yu

57 NO 2 Cl GSH GST NO 2 GS HCl GST-catalyzed Conjugation of CDNB to GSH 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzeneDinitrophenyl glutathione INSOLUBLESOLUBLE ToxicLess toxic

58 Jiaxling Li

59 Shibu Poulose Limonoids stimulate caspase activation

60 Induction of caspase activity in human neuroblastoma cells by limonoid glucosides. (A) Time-dependent change in caspase 3/7 activity in cells treated with 10 µmol/L limonoid glucosides or CAMP. Poulose, Harris and Patil. J. Nutr : Limonoids and Caspase activity Hours Caspase 3/7 activity Control LG OG NAG DNAG CAMP

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62 Activity (nm) Citrus Juice and Osteoporosis Deyhim et al., Nutrition

63 In Vitro Effects of Citrus Pectin on the FGF Signaling System

64 Pectin Content in Different Fruits ( % fresh wt) Baker, 1997

65 Dr. Yan Liu M.D. Graduated in 2000

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67 Factor-Receptor Cell needs to communicate to each other.

68 FGFR FGF FGFR FGF FGFR FGF FGFRFGF Stimulation Inhibition No Stimulation No Inhibition

69 Inhibitors ( Heparin Mimics ) Suramin Suramin analogs pentosan polysulfate Carrageenans Dextran Dextran derivatives

70 Specific bound (% of control) Pectin Concentration ( g/ml) Pectin Inhibit FGF-1 Binding to FGFR1 Liu et al., Journal of Agric. and Food Chemistry 49(6):

71 Pectin AddedHeparin Only % of Maximum Binding Heparin Concentration ( g/ml) Pectin Inhibit FGF-1 Binding to FGFR1 Liu et al., Journal of Agric. and Food Chemistry 49(6):

72 Variation of Pectin Content and Composition in Different Citrus Species

73 Inhibition Activities of Pectin Percentage of binding c aaa a a bb Liu et al., Journal of Agric. and Food Chemistry 49(6):

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75 Inhibition activities of pectin Percentage of binding a a a ab a a a aa b aba a ba a bca a ab Liu et al., Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 82:

76 Challenges Develop F & V that contain group of nutrients and bioactive compounds tailored to individual needs Many bioactive compounds are bitter, acrid, astringent or pungent- consumer preference Bioavailability of bioactive compounds –Interaction with bioactive compounds –Type –Food Matrix Carotenoids dissolved in oil or aqueous dispersion (>50%) v/s tomato juice (<3%)

77 Bioavailability of carotenoids Raw Carrots Tomato Juice Spinach Low High Processed Mild Cooked Carrots Processed tomato Juice with Oil Tomato Paste with Oil Mild Cooked Spinach Formulated carotenoids Oil Solutions Water-dispersible Beadlets Yeum and Russell, 2002

78 First Study-Bioavailability of Limonoids Manners et al., 2003

79 Students/Post Doc/Res Professors Undergraduate Students Ceclie Tixier Marc Villalobos Erika Cantu Julian Ortega Jose Perez Jasmine Williams Sonia Del Rio Etem Chu Jose Garcia Erica Salinas Robert Cooper Denise Santa Ana Michael Gutierrez Charlie Balli Marlene Perez Undergraduate students Yarania Diaz Mike Deleon Katie Sanford Justin Liska Conrad Ojong Rachel Hoerster Eron Reid M.S. Marco Ponce Omar Montemeyor Jiaxing Li Yan Liu, M.D. Kranthi Kiran Mandadi Melissa Etlinger Savitha M. Ph.D. Jairam Vanamala Jun Yu Shibu Poulose Basavaraj Girennavar Amit Vikram Kranthi Chebrolu Hajeen Bae Jin Hee Kim Ram Uchoo Post Doc / Research Scientist/Faculty Dr. Deepak Dandekar Dr. Jayaprakasha, G.K. Dr. Girija Raman Dr. Ananthkrishnan, S Dr. Quingguo Tian Dr. Gerson Peltz, M.D. Dr. C.R. Sankar Dr. K.N.C. Murthy Dr. Kil Sun Yoo Dr. Hae Jeen Bang Dr. Sun Hun Park

80 Dr. Leonard Pike Breeder Dr. Hassan Ahmad Biochemistry Dr. Narayan Bhat Chemistry Dr. Edward Miller Biomedical Science Dr. Wallace Mckeehan Cancer Biology Dr. Jennifer Brodbelt Chemistry Dr. Joanne Lupton Nutrition-Colon Cancer Dr. Jenna Anding Outreach activities Dr. Nancy Turner Nutrition-Colon Cancer Dr. Richard Mayer Entomologist USDA-ARS Dr. Edward Harris Biochemistry

81 Peer-reviewed Publications on Citrus USDA-IFAFS Grants

82 Peer-reviewed Publications on Citrus USDA-IFAFS Grants

83 New Book released on June 6, 2006 Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center · Horticultural Sciences · TAES Editors

84 Book chapters on Citrus- USDA-IFAFS grant

85 Foods with cancer preventative properties Increasing importance Garlic Cabbage Licorice Soybeans Ginger Umbelliferae (carrots, celery, parsnips) Onions Tea Turmeric Citrus (orange, lemon, grapefruit) Whole Wheat Flax Brown Rice Solanacae (tomato, eggplant, peppers) Cruciferous (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts ) OatsMintsOregano Cucumber Rosemary SagePotatoThymeChives CantaloupeBasilTarragon BarleyBerries

86 Connie Sebesta

87 ...Learning to eat healthy

88 Cost of Not consuming F&V Global mortality attributed to inadequate of F&V is 2,635 million death per year Increase 600 g/day could reduce worldwide burden of coronary heart disease by 31% and stroke by 19% (1) Higher F&V consumption- savings of Medicare charges $2,000 (2) 1.Lock et al., Bull World Health Org Daviglus et al., J. Am Diet Assoc 2005,

89 $$$$$ USDA NIH

90 Money spent on Clinical Trials NIH $3.0 billion Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical industry $22.6 billion

91 Copyright restrictions may apply. Prentice, R. L. et al. JAMA 2006;295: Participant Flow in the Dietary Modification Component of the Women's Health Initiative $415 Million Multi-institute Study

92 Copyright restrictions may apply. Beresford, S. A. A. et al. JAMA 2006;295: Kaplan-Meier Estimated Cumulative Hazards for Invasive Colorectal Cancer (N = 48, 835)

93 Copyright restrictions may apply. Prentice, R. L. et al. JAMA 2006;295: Kaplan-Meier Estimates of the Cumulative Hazard for Invasive Breast Cancer

94 Copyright restrictions may apply. Howard, B. V. et al. JAMA 2006;295: Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Cumulative Hazards for CHD (MI, CHD Death, or Revascularization) and Stroke

95 WHI study did not consider phytochemical levels of F&V from harvest to consumption It is time for NIH and USDA to marry and conduct multidisciplinary research

96 Feedback from all students Opportunities in foods for health Challenges for foods for health program What do you think about conducting research in interdisciplinary research- Foods for Health? Are you conducting biological activities studies? What is your major?

97


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