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Exercise Physiology & Intelligent Training Julie Downing, PhD, FACSM Central Oregon Community College Health & Human Performance Professor, Exercise Physiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Physiology & Intelligent Training Julie Downing, PhD, FACSM Central Oregon Community College Health & Human Performance Professor, Exercise Physiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Physiology & Intelligent Training Julie Downing, PhD, FACSM Central Oregon Community College Health & Human Performance Professor, Exercise Physiology Lab Director, & National Chair of ACSM Personal Training Committee

2 COCC Exercise Physiology Lab

3 Outline The basics of Training: The three fives:The basics of Training: The three fives: –5 parts of physical fitness –5 parts of an exercise routine –5 consideration of an exercise plan 4 Training Zones4 Training Zones PeriodizationPeriodization OvertrainingOvertraining Physiology of AgingPhysiology of Aging

4 5 Parts of Physical Fitness 1)Cardiorespiratory Fitness Tests Tests –Rockport Walk Test –1.5 Mile Run Test –Astrand-Rhyming Bike Test –Step test –Go to a lab and have it actually measured with a metabolic system = VO2max

5 2) Muscular Endurance –submaximal –Can measure with timed pushups or sit-ups, etc. 3) Muscular Strength –Maximal –Can measure with grip strength or 1-RM max

6 4)Flexibility –Can measure with Sit-n-reach or body rotation, etc. 5)Body Composition –Fit = 18-24% for women & 10-17% for men – Order of accuracy: DXA, Underwater weighing, Bod Pod, Skinfolds, Infrared, BIA, others…

7 5 parts of an Exercise Routine Warm-upWarm-up Pre-stretch?Pre-stretch? –Dynamic or static? ActivityActivity Cool-downCool-down Post-stretchPost-stretch

8 5 parts of an Exercise Plan (FITTP) FrequencyFrequency IntensityIntensity –Heart rate, watts, RPE, pace, talk test TypeType TimeTime ProgressionProgression –Baby steps

9 4 Training Zones Zone 1: Basic Endurance For easy, long, recovery, warm-ups, cool-downsFor easy, long, recovery, warm-ups, cool-downs Necessary to build the base & achieve more capillaries & enhanced mitochondria, etc.Necessary to build the base & achieve more capillaries & enhanced mitochondria, etc. LSD days, % in zone 1 (90 min)LSD days, % in zone 1 (90 min) Maintenance days, >70% in zone (30-60 min)Maintenance days, >70% in zone (30-60 min) Emphasis is in the off-season but doEmphasis is in the off-season but do NOT neglect during the season MOST IMPORTANT!!!!!!MOST IMPORTANT!!!!!!

10 Mitochondria - the powerhouse of the cell, converts foodstuffs into energy when oxygen is present.

11 Increased capillarization

12 Zone 2: Speed Endurance If used too much in place of zone 1, we call itNo Mans LandIf used too much in place of zone 1, we call itNo Mans Land Junk Miles – fatigues the bodyJunk Miles – fatigues the body OK to spend < 30% of the time on your easy days & < 20% of the time on your LSD days here but NOT moreOK to spend < 30% of the time on your easy days & < 20% of the time on your LSD days here but NOT more Late off-season & early pre-season, intervals performed at the top of this zoneLate off-season & early pre-season, intervals performed at the top of this zone

13 Zone 3: Lactate Threshold (LT) Plus From just under LT to aFrom just under LT to a couple beats over LT The whole idea is toThe whole idea is to move the lactate curve out to the right

14 Lactate Threshold (aka Anaerobic Threshold) The point at which the body can no longer clear the lactic acid as fast as it is producing itThe point at which the body can no longer clear the lactic acid as fast as it is producing it

15 Zone 3: LT continued LT heart rate is slower than race pace for short events, similar to medium-duration events (example: 10K run), and faster than long eventsLT heart rate is slower than race pace for short events, similar to medium-duration events (example: 10K run), and faster than long events During the pre-season, 1-2 x week (NO MORE) either cruise intervals or tempo training. It is best to alternate cruise and tempo training. Dont do the same thing every week. Variety is very important!During the pre-season, 1-2 x week (NO MORE) either cruise intervals or tempo training. It is best to alternate cruise and tempo training. Dont do the same thing every week. Variety is very important!

16 Two ways to work LT: 1)TEMPO TRAINING Warm-up > 15 minutes in zone 1Warm-up > 15 minutes in zone 1 Straight minutes in zone 3,Straight minutes in zone 3, basically a mini-time trial Cool down > 15 minutes in zone 1Cool down > 15 minutes in zone 1

17 Two ways to work LT: 2) CRUISE INTERVALS Warm-up > 15 minutes in zone 1Warm-up > 15 minutes in zone 1 Accumulate minutes worth of intervals in zone 3, interval duration should be 2-10 minutes with rest = 75% of the duration of the interval, use ladders, repeats, etc. Example: 4 x 4 minute intervalsAccumulate minutes worth of intervals in zone 3, interval duration should be 2-10 minutes with rest = 75% of the duration of the interval, use ladders, repeats, etc. Example: 4 x 4 minute intervals Cool down > 15 minutes in zone 1Cool down > 15 minutes in zone 1

18 Zone 4: Maximal Oxygen Consumption NOT necessary for most peopleNOT necessary for most people Short, fast intervals 6-8 wks before big eventShort, fast intervals 6-8 wks before big event Will get you fit very quickly, but you can only hold onto that fitness for a short period of timeWill get you fit very quickly, but you can only hold onto that fitness for a short period of time 30 sec to 2 min intervals & time in this zone should NOT exceed 5-10 minutes per workout. Example: 6 x 1 minute intervals30 sec to 2 min intervals & time in this zone should NOT exceed 5-10 minutes per workout. Example: 6 x 1 minute intervals

19 We need to learn to set our course by the stars, not by the light of every passing ship. Omar Bradley

20 Periodization Definition: organized structure of training over an extended period of timeDefinition: organized structure of training over an extended period of time The year is divided into distinct periods each with a purposeThe year is divided into distinct periods each with a purpose Main goals:Main goals: –To reach competitive potential –To ensure that peak performances are achieved at the appropriate time –To avoid boredom / overtraining –To optimize training time

21 Periodization History 1940s USSR began using a wave-like pattern throughout the year1940s USSR began using a wave-like pattern throughout the year 1960s Romanian Tudor Bompa modernized the concept & wrote a book that western athletes quickly adopted. Bompa known as the father of periodization1960s Romanian Tudor Bompa modernized the concept & wrote a book that western athletes quickly adopted. Bompa known as the father of periodization Other influences: Arthur Lydiard (New Zealand) & Bill Bowerman (U.S.) 1940s-1060s with runningOther influences: Arthur Lydiard (New Zealand) & Bill Bowerman (U.S.) 1940s-1060s with running

22 What most people do Random (Haphazard) training –Do what you feel like –Little or no planning –Primarily dictated by training partners, weather, mood –Primarily dictated by training partners, weather, mood –No peaking –Often train in No Mans Land –Ok if you just want to participate & finish

23 Periodization Blocks MicrocycleMicrocycle –Shortest block (usually one week but may be 10 days) MesocycleMesocycle –Grouping of microcycles of one general type or purpose, usually 6-8 weeks to allow time for cumulative adaptations MacrocycleMacrocycle –Usually one racing season, may be 3-4 months up to a year

24 Mesocycles Example #2 by Jeff Galloway 1.Base-training 2.Hill-training 3.Speedwork 4.Off-season

25 Overtraining Also known as stalenessAlso known as staleness Excessive overload which negates the benefits of months of hard training, leaving you unable to produce a performance representative of your potentialExcessive overload which negates the benefits of months of hard training, leaving you unable to produce a performance representative of your potential Imbalance between training & recoveryImbalance between training & recovery

26 How do you become overtrained? Too longToo long Too hardToo hard Too oftenToo often Too soonToo soon Too much of one thingToo much of one thing Other factors:Other factors: –Improper nutrition, extreme heat, extreme cold, high altitude, mental stress

27 Overtraining Signs & Symptoms Decreased performanceDecreased performance Heaviness, extreme chronic fatigueHeaviness, extreme chronic fatigue Elevated morning pulse (>10% or 10 bpm)Elevated morning pulse (>10% or 10 bpm) Elevated blood lactate, heart rate, & VO2 during submaximal exerciseElevated blood lactate, heart rate, & VO2 during submaximal exercise Inability to reach max heart rate or VO2maxInability to reach max heart rate or VO2max

28 Signs & Symptoms continued Body weight loss (decreased body fat) with decreased appetite (decreased body fat)Body weight loss (decreased body fat) with decreased appetite (decreased body fat) Altered mood state: irritability, depression, listlessness, low morale, lack of enthusiasmAltered mood state: irritability, depression, listlessness, low morale, lack of enthusiasm Muscle tenderness / sorenessMuscle tenderness / soreness

29 7 Keys to Prevent Overtraining 1) Listen to your body!!!!!! 2) Hard-easy principle 3) Periodize training 4) Schedule complete rest days, active recovery days, & cross-training days 5) Do NOT up volume >10%/wk after 20 min goal 6) Have a physiology test then FOLLOW the advice!! 7) If in doubt, refer out –Examples: Certified Personal Trainer, Wellness Coach, Dietician, Sports Psychologist, Sports Physician, etc.

30 Overtraining Example Male college cross-country runnerMale college cross-country runner Early season on 6 min/mile pace VO2 = 49 ml/kg/min & HR = 142 bpmEarly season on 6 min/mile pace VO2 = 49 ml/kg/min & HR = 142 bpm –Best race = 30:53 10K Late season on 6 min/mile pace VO2 = 56 ml/kg/min & HR = 168 bpmLate season on 6 min/mile pace VO2 = 56 ml/kg/min & HR = 168 bpm –Best race = 32:10 10K

31 Aging Gender is a significant factorGender is a significant factor Lifestyle a primary factorLifestyle a primary factor

32 Age & Endurance Performance Main reason seniors are slower is the decrease in VO2max. How? VO2max = SV x HR x avO2diffVO2max = SV x HR x avO2diff Inactive Max HR goes down 10 beats/10 yrsInactive Max HR goes down 10 beats/10 yrs Active Max HR goes down 5-7 beats/10 yrsActive Max HR goes down 5-7 beats/10 yrs Inactive VO2max decrease = 10%/decade after age 25Inactive VO2max decrease = 10%/decade after age 25 Active VO2max decrease = 5%/decade after age 25Active VO2max decrease = 5%/decade after age 25 Also, seniors dont recover as fast after exerciseAlso, seniors dont recover as fast after exercise

33 Successful Aging Recent research:Recent research: –Elderly individuals with weak muscles are at greater risk for mortality than at greater risk for mortality than age-matched individuals age-matched individuals –Increase in amount and rate of loss of muscle increases risk of premature death muscle increases risk of premature death –Physical inactivity is 3rd leading cause of death in US and plays role in chronic illnesses of aging

34 THANK YOU

35 3 Energy Systems 1) Creatine-phosphate system 2) Glycolysis –Anaerobic (with OUT oxygen) –Aerobic (with oxygen) 3) Aerobic System –Krebs Cycle –Electron Transport System *** All 3 systems start together ***

36 Mesocycles Example #1 by Joe Friel 1.General Preparation (base-building) 4-16 weeks 4-16 weeks 2.Specific Preparation (early-season) 4-12 weeks 4-12 weeks 3.Pre-competition (in-season build) 1-4 weeks 1-4 weeks 4.Competition (peak week/s) Usually one week but could be more Usually one week but could be more 5.Transition (post-season rest with active recovery, 1-6 weeks)


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