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Water and carbon fluxes in forested and crop areas in Brazil Humberto Rocha Chicago, Illinois/US, 12-13 Jun 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Water and carbon fluxes in forested and crop areas in Brazil Humberto Rocha Chicago, Illinois/US, 12-13 Jun 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water and carbon fluxes in forested and crop areas in Brazil Humberto Rocha Chicago, Illinois/US, Jun 2012

2 1.Description of climate and croplands 2.Measurements of ET, GEP and albedo 3.Deforestation feedback in rainfall 4.Peak flows and load discharge in cropland streams

3 3 1. Climate

4 Critical patterns of water availability Fonte: ANA – Conjuntura Recursos Hídricos do Brasil

5 Sugar cane Soybean Corn Rice 2. Main crops – area, productivity

6 The forest protection code legislation (1965) statements: Legal reserve (RL) Permanent Protected Areas (APP) Law enforcement (2005)

7 3. Flux tower sites in forested areas

8 Flux tower over sugar cane, cerrado and eucaliptus plantation (MogiGuaçu watershed – state of São Paulo)

9 ET and GEP across a forest-cerrado biome transition Gross Ecosystem Productivity (fraction of max) with days since start of dry season Equatorial forests Tropical seasonal forests Savanna & Pasture Evapotranspiration (fraction of max) Equatorial forests Tropical seasonal forests Savanna & Pasture

10 CO2 fluxes: annual sum is prone to uncertainties Miller 2004, Ecol Appl; Goulden 2004 Ecol Appl, 2006 JGR Saleska 2003, Science; Hutyra 2007 JGR R eco GPP R eco ~ nighttime flux GPP ~ daytime flux – R eco High numbers are observed in the tropics Miller 2004, Ecol Appl... but leads to a reasonable interpretation of seasonality R eco u*filtered Dry season sink Wet season loss CO2 flux – tropical forest Santarem (k83 site)

11 Wet season 68% at 3m Dry season 84% at 7m Soil moisture pumped from trees at different depths (% of daily totals) Soil moisture measurement with Time Domain Reflectometry The ability of forest vegetation to reach soil moisture and depend on its variability is a key step to understand the ecosystem resilience

12 Previous modelling sudies suggested that large scale deforestation in Amazonia may lead to a reduction in rainfall and impact the ecosystem, but the investigation over small areas is still a less known matter. This numerical experiment used: BRAMS atmospheric model w/ 3 nested grids (64,32,08 km of horizontal resolution) Rainfall inhibition Rainfall enhancement Changes varied from 10 to 30 % Deforestation strip

13 Global Solar Albedo over sugar cane plantation – measurements in 3 different harvest types (Cabral et al 2011, and unpublished data) – harvest in Apr/May, dry leaves burning, manual harvest (unpublished) harvest in Sep/Out, green harvest w/ mulching (unpublished) harvest in Apr/May, burning dry leaves, mechanical harvest (Cabral et al 2011) Harvest (bars )

14 Measured mean ET and above canopy temperature (Source: Tatsch, J. (2012) PhD thesis USP and unpublished data) ET simulatied w/ modified-SiB2 model)

15 Rainfall runoff modelling (DBHM/SiB2) at MogiGuaçu watershed. Source: Tatsch, J. (2012) PhD thesis USP Current Land Cover APP_reforest (Permanent Protected areas)

16 Eucaliptus intermediate Cerrado lower sugar cane higher

17 Final statements Brazil ranks 8th in global economy - Agrobusiness ~ 1/3 GDP and ½ jobs Very competitive ethanol (10 units of energy/1 unit of fossil fuel used) Large potential crop expansion with strong concern on environmental sustainability University of São Paulo seeks for partnerships which helps to quantify the ecosystem services and identify ways for their economical internalization with regional and global benefits Thanks – contact


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