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Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations macroclimate- largest area of study, area extends for 4 x 10 8 m 2, up to 6000.

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Presentation on theme: "Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations macroclimate- largest area of study, area extends for 4 x 10 8 m 2, up to 6000."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations macroclimate- largest area of study, area extends for 4 x 10 8 m 2, up to 6000 m vertically (continental in scale) mesoclimate- 10 3 m 2 up to 4 x 10 8 m 2 in area (sub continental in scale) Local climate - a group of microclimates that characterize a specific region; 10 3 to 10 8 m 2 in size Microclimate - the smallest category 1 to 10 4 m 2 in area An individual field or park Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations macroclimate- largest area of study, area extends for 4 x 10 8 m 2, up to 6000 m vertically (continental in scale) mesoclimate- 10 3 m 2 up to 4 x 10 8 m 2 in area (sub continental in scale) Local climate - a group of microclimates that characterize a specific region; 10 3 to 10 8 m 2 in size Microclimate - the smallest category 1 to 10 4 m 2 in area An individual field or park

2 Schematic of climatic scales of study

3 Climate classification: What, Why and How? What:Organize regions with similar climates Why:Understand what causes the climate to be what it is and when to worry about departures How:Look at moisture, temperature, evaporation, transpiration, vegetation, altitude, latitude, etc. and decide on some value that sets the boundary (threshold)- commonly related to plants Climate classification: What, Why and How? What:Organize regions with similar climates Why:Understand what causes the climate to be what it is and when to worry about departures How:Look at moisture, temperature, evaporation, transpiration, vegetation, altitude, latitude, etc. and decide on some value that sets the boundary (threshold)- commonly related to plants

4 Köppen climate classification scheme Uses Monthly mean temps, monthly mean precipitation, and annual mean temps to establish major climatic zones designated with capital letters Widely used but frequently criticized no agreement between plants and climate variability in the factors that set boundary = climate classification changes constantly Köppen climate classification scheme Uses Monthly mean temps, monthly mean precipitation, and annual mean temps to establish major climatic zones designated with capital letters Widely used but frequently criticized no agreement between plants and climate variability in the factors that set boundary = climate classification changes constantly

5 Class Class name Subcategory Subcategory name Key characteristic for sub categorization A A Tropical humid Af Tropical wet No dry season Am Tropical monsoonal Short dry season; heavy monsoonal rains in other months Aw Tropical savanna Winter dry season B B Dry BWh Subtropical desert Low-latitude desert BSh Subtropical steppe Low-latitude dry BWk Mid-latitude desert BSk Mid-latitude steppe Mid-latitude dry C C Mild Mid-Latitude Csa Mediterranean Mild with dry, hot summer Csb Mediterranean Mild with dry, warm Cfa Humid subtropical Mild with no dry season, hot summer Cwa Humid subtropical Mild with dry winter, hot summer Cfb Marine west coast Mild with no dry season, warm summer Cfc Marine west coast Mild with no dry season, cool summer Köppen Climate table summer

6 D D Severe Mid-Latitude Severe Mid-Latitude Dfa Humid continental Humid continental Humid with severe winter, no dry season, hot summer Dfb Humid continental Humid continental Humid with severe winter, no dry season, warm summer Dwa Humid continental Humid continental Humid with severe, dry winter, hot summer Dwb Humid continental Humid continental Humid with severe, dry winter, warm summer Dfc Subarctic Severe winter, no dry season, cool summer Dfd Subarctic Severe, very cold winter, no dry season, cool summer Dwc Subarctic Severe, dry winter, cool summer Dwd Subarctic Severe, very cold and dry winter, cool summer E E Polar ET Tundra Polar tundra, no true summer EF Ice Cap Perennial ice H H Highland

7 Climate zones of the world Divided into alphabetic categories A, B, C, D, E, H zones Climate zones of the world Divided into alphabetic categories A, B, C, D, E, H zones

8 KÖPPEN Climate classification Tropical climates designated with a capital A Based in part on vegetation zones that are sensitive to moisture and temperature KÖPPEN Climate classification Tropical climates designated with a capital A Based in part on vegetation zones that are sensitive to moisture and temperature

9 Tropical (A) Climates - All tropical climates are warm the subdivisions are based on differences in rain Tropical Rainforest (Af) Climates located 0-15° N/S Lat. Diurnal temperature range is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). Every month has precipitation and no month is deficient in rainfall. This high amount of rainfall keeps the soil moisture at capacity. EVT occurs at potential rate Tropical (A) Climates - All tropical climates are warm the subdivisions are based on differences in rain Tropical Rainforest (Af) Climates located 0-15° N/S Lat. Diurnal temperature range is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). Every month has precipitation and no month is deficient in rainfall. This high amount of rainfall keeps the soil moisture at capacity. EVT occurs at potential rate

10 Am- Tropical monsoonal climate Diurnal temperature range is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). seasonal precipitation surplus and deficit Distinctive dry and wet season related to wind reversal Aw- Tropical savanna climate Diurnal temperature range is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). precipitation deficit much of the year Distinctive dry and wet season Am- Tropical monsoonal climate Diurnal temperature range is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). seasonal precipitation surplus and deficit Distinctive dry and wet season related to wind reversal Aw- Tropical savanna climate Diurnal temperature range is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range). precipitation deficit much of the year Distinctive dry and wet season

11 B climates - semi-arid to arid Several sub categories B climates - semi-arid to arid Several sub categories

12 All B-climates have less than 30 of annual precipitation BW climates are arid (less than 10) and can be divided further based on latitude (temperature) BWh- low latitude hot and dry BWk- mid latitude cool and dry BWh is a function of Hadley cell circulation; occur between 18 and 32° N-S Latitude All B-climates have less than 30 of annual precipitation BW climates are arid (less than 10) and can be divided further based on latitude (temperature) BWh- low latitude hot and dry BWk- mid latitude cool and dry BWh is a function of Hadley cell circulation; occur between 18 and 32° N-S Latitude

13 BS climates are semi-arid (more than 10 but less than 30 of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps) BSh- low latitude hot and dry BSk- mid latitude cool and dry A gradational change from A climates on either side of the B climates BS climates are semi-arid (more than 10 but less than 30 of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps) BSh- low latitude hot and dry BSk- mid latitude cool and dry A gradational change from A climates on either side of the B climates

14 C climates- Mesothermal temperate Warm summers (<10°C); Mild Winters (between -3 to 18°C) Annual moisture distribution determines subcategories C climates- Mesothermal temperate Warm summers (<10°C); Mild Winters (between -3 to 18°C) Annual moisture distribution determines subcategories

15 C-subcategories Cf = moisture evenly distributed throughout the year Cw = 10x the amount of moisture in the summer as compared to the driest winter month Cs = 3x as much moisture in the winter as compared to the driest summer month; at least 1 month with less than 3 cm of precipitation C-subcategories Cf = moisture evenly distributed throughout the year Cw = 10x the amount of moisture in the summer as compared to the driest winter month Cs = 3x as much moisture in the winter as compared to the driest summer month; at least 1 month with less than 3 cm of precipitation

16 Csa= called Mediterranean climate western edge of mid-latitude continents Cfa= called a Humid subtropical climate Southeastern edge of mid latitude continents Cfb= called Marine west coast Western edge of continents at higher latitudes Csa= called Mediterranean climate western edge of mid-latitude continents Cfa= called a Humid subtropical climate Southeastern edge of mid latitude continents Cfb= called Marine west coast Western edge of continents at higher latitudes

17 D climates- Severe Mid-latitude All have severe winters; short summers that range form hot in the south to cool to the north D climates- Severe Mid-latitude All have severe winters; short summers that range form hot in the south to cool to the north

18 E climates - Polar No true summer Cold all year long E climates - Polar No true summer Cold all year long

19 Köppen climate regions of North America

20 Köppen climate regions of the US

21 Trewartha climate classification scheme - a modified version of the Köppen system. Attempts to redefine the broad climatic groups in such a way as to be closer to vegetational zoning. Group A - this is the tropical climate group, defined as places which do not receive annual winter frosts (in maritime regions this corresponds closely to the Köppen boundary). Climates with no more than 2 dry months are classified Ar, while others are classified Aw. There is no specific monsoon climate identifier. Group B - this is identical to the Köppen scheme. Group C - in the Trewartha scheme this category includes subtropical climates only (8 or more months above 10 °C). The identifiers are the same as the first two letters of the Köppen identifier - the Mediterranean climate is denoted Cs and the humid subtropical climate, Cf or Cw. Trewartha climate classification scheme - a modified version of the Köppen system. Attempts to redefine the broad climatic groups in such a way as to be closer to vegetational zoning. Group A - this is the tropical climate group, defined as places which do not receive annual winter frosts (in maritime regions this corresponds closely to the Köppen boundary). Climates with no more than 2 dry months are classified Ar, while others are classified Aw. There is no specific monsoon climate identifier. Group B - this is identical to the Köppen scheme. Group C - in the Trewartha scheme this category includes subtropical climates only (8 or more months above 10 °C). The identifiers are the same as the first two letters of the Köppen identifier - the Mediterranean climate is denoted Cs and the humid subtropical climate, Cf or Cw.

22 Trewartha Climate scheme (Continued) Group D - this group represents temperate climates. Continental climates are represented as Dca (Köppen Dfa, Dwa, Dsa ) and Dcb (Köppen Dfb,Dwb,Dsb ). Maritime temperate climates (Köppen Cfb,Cwb,Csb,Cfc ) are denoted Do in the Trewartha classification. The dividing point between maritime and continental climates is 0 °C in the coldest month, rather than the usual Köppen value of -3 °C. Group E - this group is undivided and contains the continental subarctic climates (Köppen Dfc,Dwc,Dfd ) Group F - this is the polar climate group, split into Ft (Köppen ET ) and Fi (Köppen EF ). Group H - Highland climates - in which altitude is the most important factor determining climate. Trewartha Climate scheme (Continued) Group D - this group represents temperate climates. Continental climates are represented as Dca (Köppen Dfa, Dwa, Dsa ) and Dcb (Köppen Dfb,Dwb,Dsb ). Maritime temperate climates (Köppen Cfb,Cwb,Csb,Cfc ) are denoted Do in the Trewartha classification. The dividing point between maritime and continental climates is 0 °C in the coldest month, rather than the usual Köppen value of -3 °C. Group E - this group is undivided and contains the continental subarctic climates (Köppen Dfc,Dwc,Dfd ) Group F - this is the polar climate group, split into Ft (Köppen ET ) and Fi (Köppen EF ). Group H - Highland climates - in which altitude is the most important factor determining climate.

23 Other climate classification schemes Thornthwaite-based his scheme on moisture effectiveness and temperature efficiency mathematical relationships easy to identify from available meteorological data Also uses info on season when rain or snow falls Other climate classification schemes Thornthwaite-based his scheme on moisture effectiveness and temperature efficiency mathematical relationships easy to identify from available meteorological data Also uses info on season when rain or snow falls

24 Genetic classification Identifies the Why of climates first and uses that information to establish each climatic zone -which air mass dominates Genetic classification Identifies the Why of climates first and uses that information to establish each climatic zone -which air mass dominates

25 Tropical wet Tropical wet and dry Tropical dry (desert) GrpI mid latitude wet Mid latitude summer or winter dry mid latitude dry (desert) Grp II Polar wet Polar wet and dry Polar dry (desert) GrpIII Wet Dry Warm Cold Air masses and climatic types

26

27 Climate zones determined by air mass

28 Vegetation Closely linked to climate Often used as PROXY data for lack of climate data 5 distinct veggie zones Forests = trees; many different types of forests e.g., hardwood, conifer, rainforest Deserts = discontinuous veggies; scrub brush; cactus, etc. Grasslands = grasses Taiga = cold; climate evergreen conifer forests Tundra = cold; grasses sedges mosses and lichens Vegetation Closely linked to climate Often used as PROXY data for lack of climate data 5 distinct veggie zones Forests = trees; many different types of forests e.g., hardwood, conifer, rainforest Deserts = discontinuous veggies; scrub brush; cactus, etc. Grasslands = grasses Taiga = cold; climate evergreen conifer forests Tundra = cold; grasses sedges mosses and lichens


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