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Sedge Biology and Control in Warm-Season Turf Tim R. Murphy The University of Georgia.

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Presentation on theme: "Sedge Biology and Control in Warm-Season Turf Tim R. Murphy The University of Georgia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sedge Biology and Control in Warm-Season Turf Tim R. Murphy The University of Georgia

2 Taxonomy of Sedges Order – Graminales Class – Angiospermae Subclass – Monocotyledoneae Family – Cyperaceae (grasses are in Poaceae) Problem Genera – Cyperus and Kyllinga

3 Purple Nutsedge – Cyperus rotundus Introduced, native to Eurasia S. East U.S., CA and AZ Ranked worlds worst weed Forms chains of interconnected tubers Prefers medium to fine- textured soils Highly adapted to compacted soils

4 Yellow Nutsedge – Cyperus esculentus Native to North America Found in all of U.S. Ranked 16 th worst weed in world Forms tubers Commonly found in sandy soils Thrives in non-compacted soils

5 Other Key Differences

6 How do nutsedges reproduce? Seed - ????? –Research indicates seed production and viability is very low Tubers –The primary method of reproduction –Numerous buds per tuber

7 Yellow Nutsedge Tuber Biology Begin to form at tips of rhizomes 4 to 6 weeks after plant emerges 80% located in top 6 inches of soil Counts as high as 4 to 12 million/acre Shade will decrease tuber production

8 Yellow Nutsedge Tuber Longevity Longer as tuber burial depth increases 4 month half-life at 4 inches 6 month half-life at 8 inches 3 consecutive yrs of control reduced tuber density 85% In SC, 200,000 tubers/ac remained after 4 consecutive yrs of > 90% control in bermudagrass

9 Tuber Sprouting Buds form new shoots Yellow – 54 F. Purple – 68 F.

10 Kyllinga species Sedge family Annuals – seed Perennials - seed and rhizomes No tuber formation Thrive in wet soils Increasing in severity Lack of MSMA use??

11 Green (perennial) kyllinga

12 Sedge & Kyllinga Herbicides Basagran T/O - yellow, annual sedges, kyllinga Manage - yellow, purple, annual sedges, kyllinga Monument - yellow, purple, annual sedges, kyllinga Katana & Battalion – in development MSMA/DSMA - yellow, purple, annual sedges, kyllinga Image - yellow, purple, annual sedges, kyllinga Pennant - yellow, annual sedges & annual kyllinga

13 Research Data Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) False green kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima) (Appreciation is extended to Dr. Fred Yelverton, NCSU for use of data slides)

14 Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Control Rates are per acre. Trial initiated Sequential applied b 99a 85c 74d

15 Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Control Rates are per acre. Trial initiated Sequential applied bc 94a 63d 69cd 63d

16 Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Control Rates are per acre. Trial initiated Sequential applied a 16bc 5c 40b 38b 35b

17 Untreated

18 Monument.35 fb.35 oz

19 Monument.59 fb.59 oz

20 Manage 1.27 fb 1.27 oz

21 Image 2.67 fb 2.67 pt

22 False Green Kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima) Control 85 a 97 a 82 a84 a 87 a Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-7. Sequential applied 5-27.

23 False Green Kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima) Control 99 a 64 b 99 a Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-7. Sequentials were applied 5-27.

24 Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control 100 a 98 a 93 a 63 bc 35 d Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated Sequential applied 6-23.

25 Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control 80 ab 100 a 98 a 93 a 45 cd Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated MSMA seq applied 5-26, flaz seq applied 6-3, sulfo seq applied 7-28.

26 Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control 61 abc 30 bcd 69 ab 56 abc 19 cd Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated Sequential applied 6-23.

27 Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control 25 bcd 20 cd 58 abc 81 a 39 a-d Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated MSMA seq applied 5-26, flaz seq applied 6-3, sulfo seq applied 7-28.

28 Key Factors for Sedge Control Make initial application when sedges are actively-growing (need good soil moisture) Repeat the application MSMA – 7 to 10 days Basagran T/0 – 7 to 10 days Monument, Manage, Katana, Battalion, Image – 4 to 8 weeks (when regrowth is noted)

29 Key Factors for Sedge Control Be aware of rainfast periods Image - NA (water 1 to 7 d after) Monument – 3 hrs Manage – 3 to 8 hrs Basagran T/O – 4 hrs MSMA/DSMA – 24 hrs Add adjuvant as per label.

30 Key Factors for Sedge Control Map infestations Include MSMA in rotation plan, especially for kyllinga Include Basagran T/O in rotation plan, especially for yellow nutsedge

31 Key Factors for Sedge Control Follow all approved cultural practices Eliminate drainage problems Dont over-irrigate and create habitat favored by sedges and kyllinga Plan on a multi-year program Persistence will be required

32 Sedge control ratings for selected turfgrass herbicides. ( From McCarty, Murphy and Yelverton) Herbicide Annual Sedge Purple Nutsedge Yellow Nutsedge Annual Kyllinga Green Kyllinga PennantGPGF-GP RonstarGPPFP Basagran T/OGPGF-G ImageGGP-FGG ManageGGGGF-G MSMA/DSMAGP-FFGG Image + MSMA GG-EGGG Monument??G-EGG

33 ???QUESTIONS????


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