3bateaA gold pan in which miners scooped up mud from streambeds to find gold.
4riffle boxA long box crossed with pieces of wood called riffles that trapped gold as mud washed through the box.
5arrastraA grinding mill used by miners to crush rock so they could easily remove gold.
6TejanosMexicanos who lived and cattle ranched in Texas.
7vaquerosCowboys who cared for cattle in the Southwest.
8rodeoOne of the vaqueros’ most important job, is the rodeo, or roundup of cattle.
9irrigationA system for bringing water to farmland by artificial means, such as using a dam to trap water and ditches to channel it to fields.
10adobeMexicano’s main building material is a mixture of earth, grass, and water that is shaped into bricks and baked in the sun.
11community propertyMexican law said that all property acquired during a marriage was “community property.” If a couple separated, half of that property belonged to the wife, half to the husband.
12Contributions Mining Cattle Ranching The Cowboy Sheep Raising Irrigated FarmingMexican FoodSpanish ArchitectureMexican LawsMexicano Entertainment
13MiningAmericans knew nothing about the mining techniques, of quartz, silver, and copper.Mexicanos introduced the batea, riffle box, and arrastra, to make quartz, silver and copper mining easier.
14Cattle Ranching The Spanish brought cattle ranching to the West. Spanish cattle adapted well to dry conditions.They brought the tradition of the roundup and branding.Branding cattle avoided conflict over ownership.
15The CowboyThe Spanish language provided useful new terms- stampede, corral, and lasso.Ten gallon hats, or sombrero, shaded eyes and were used as a water pail or pillow.Chaps protected the legs.Boots slipped easily into stirrups.Ponchos provided protection from the rain.The lariat was used to rope cattle, and saddle horns anchored lariats.
16Sheep RaisingThe Spanish raised new varieties of sheep- merinos & churros.These sheep adapted well to the dry environment in the West.They used the Spanish system or large scale production of sheep raising.Wool production was profitable- business production soared from million to 22 million pounds a year from to 1880.
17Irrigated FarmingCitrus fruits introduced by the Spanish thrived in the sunny Southwest.The Spanish introduced the “Mexican System” of irrigation.It allowed the cultivation of deserts.
18Mexican Food Settlers enjoyed the appealing flavors of Spanish foods. The Spanish combined New World foods, such as corn, tomatoes, and chocolate, with Spanish foods, such as oranges, grapes, and olives.Other New World foods included peanuts, vanilla, beans, squash, avocados, coconuts, sunflower seeds and chili peppers.
19Spanish ArchitectureSpanish style homes had thick walls, red tile roofs, rounded arches, patios, and verandas made from adobe brick.Adobe bricks and design were well suited for the Southwest climate.
20Mexican Laws Many American laws did not work in the West. No mining laws existed.The Spanish created mining laws, water laws, and community property laws.Community property laws were adopted because many American settlers wanted to share the gains of marriage.
21Mexicano Entertainment Settlers enjoyed the music, color, and energy of the dances, and the excitement of the rodeo.Dances included the corrido, jota, fandango, La bamba, and Mexican hat dance.Mexicanos also celebrated fiestas like Cinco de Mayo.The rodeo was an exciting event where cowboys competed in calf roping, bull riding, and bronco busting.