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Season Extension Early and Late Keith VanderVelde Marquette Ag Agent Kingston-Feb 27, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Season Extension Early and Late Keith VanderVelde Marquette Ag Agent Kingston-Feb 27, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Season Extension Early and Late Keith VanderVelde Marquette Ag Agent Kingston-Feb 27, 2008

2 Methods of Season Extension Low tech to high tech Low tech to high tech Plasticulture Plasticulture Cold frames – drip tape – high tunnels – greenhouses Cold frames – drip tape – high tunnels – greenhouses Low $ to High $$$$$ Low $ to High $$$$$ Light, water, wind, colors, bugs, benefits, temperatures, fertilizers, plastic, wood, glass and varieties Light, water, wind, colors, bugs, benefits, temperatures, fertilizers, plastic, wood, glass and varieties

3 Variety Selection – Days to Maturity Easiest way to get earlier crop Easiest way to get earlier crop May be limited on varieties May be limited on varieties May not be best flavor as longer season crops May not be best flavor as longer season crops Earlier to market, better price Earlier to market, better price Consumer may be tolerant of smaller size/ less flavor if they are the first available Consumer may be tolerant of smaller size/ less flavor if they are the first available

4 Variety Selection – Days to Maturity Easiest way to get earlier crop Easiest way to get earlier crop May be limited on varieties May be limited on varieties May not be best flavor as longer season crops May not be best flavor as longer season crops Earlier to market, better price Earlier to market, better price Consumer may be tolerant of smaller size/ less flavor if they are the first available Consumer may be tolerant of smaller size/ less flavor if they are the first available

5 Time of Harvest Consider size of vegetable at harvest Consider size of vegetable at harvest Early red potatoes Early red potatoes Small pickling cucumbers Small pickling cucumbers Small summer squash Small summer squash Baby carrots Baby carrots Cherry tomatoes Cherry tomatoes

6 Differences Amongst Vegetables

7 New Vegetables Arugula 42 Days Swiss Chard 55 Days Lettuce Blend DaysSpinach Mustard 35 Days

8 Considerations with New Veggies Growing requirements for new crop Growing requirements for new crop Samples?? Samples?? Consider providing recipe cards Consider providing recipe cards Suggestions for use Suggestions for use Information on nutrition Information on nutrition Engage the customer – I bet youve never seen this before Engage the customer – I bet youve never seen this before

9 Starting Seeds Plants Earlier Light very important – quality and duration Light very important – quality and duration Fan on young seedlings – helps prevent leggy plants Fan on young seedlings – helps prevent leggy plants Temperature – daytime °F – nights no lower than 50°F Temperature – daytime °F – nights no lower than 50°F Size of container – prevent root bound plants Size of container – prevent root bound plants Timing – getting plants in the ground in a timely manner Timing – getting plants in the ground in a timely manner

10 Lighting Considerations Incandescent – not good for plants needs Incandescent – not good for plants needs Good for heat, day length control Good for heat, day length control Fluorescent – supplement sunlight well Fluorescent – supplement sunlight well Combination of cool white with warm white will provide full light spectrum Combination of cool white with warm white will provide full light spectrum Cool white bulbs are more efficient than grow lights in providing supplemental light Cool white bulbs are more efficient than grow lights in providing supplemental light High Pressure sodium and metal halide High Pressure sodium and metal halide 1/3 more efficient than fluorescent - costly 1/3 more efficient than fluorescent - costly

11 Cold Frames / Hot Beds Mini greenhouses Mini greenhouses Old windows Old windows Plastic film on wood frame Plastic film on wood frame Rigid plastic Rigid plastic Hinged top needed to regulate heat Hinged top needed to regulate heat

12 Cold Frames Dont have to be covered Dont have to be covered Used to harden off plants before going to field Used to harden off plants before going to field Can use lattice or snow fence to shade plants Can use lattice or snow fence to shade plants

13 Other Cold Frame Use Earlier plantings of leafy greens Earlier plantings of leafy greens Lettuce, spinach, swiss chard, parsley Lettuce, spinach, swiss chard, parsley Better in cool weather and lower light Better in cool weather and lower light Wintering containers – Early forcing of tulips, hyacinths, daffodils and crocus Wintering containers – Early forcing of tulips, hyacinths, daffodils and crocus Force early spring Force early spring New markets??? New markets???

14 Other Cold Frame Use Late Summer Seeding Late Summer Seeding Plant broccoli, pepper, spinach, lettuce Plant broccoli, pepper, spinach, lettuce Early winter harvest Early winter harvest Something to market other than root vegetables and winter squash Something to market other than root vegetables and winter squash

15 Hot Beds Heating Cable Heating Cable Hole 6 inches deep Hole 6 inches deep Lay cable Lay cable Cover with sand Cover with sand Manure Manure 10 inch deep hole Add horse or chicken manure Cover with window screen Cover with soil

16 Shade Houses Propagation of woody cuttings – some perennials Propagation of woody cuttings – some perennials In containers or in ground bed In containers or in ground bed Misting may be needed Misting may be needed Finishing/conditioning plants – from greenhouse before field planting Finishing/conditioning plants – from greenhouse before field planting

17 Row Covers Flexible transparent material Flexible transparent material Perforated plastic, spunbonded polyester – polypropylene Perforated plastic, spunbonded polyester – polypropylene Floating or supported by hoops Floating or supported by hoops Can cover one or more rows Can cover one or more rows Trap heat of day – warm air and soil Trap heat of day – warm air and soil Wind protection, less moisture loss Wind protection, less moisture loss May be insect barrier depending on type May be insect barrier depending on type Think of crop needs when deciding on type of row cover – temperature needs, pollination, growth habit Think of crop needs when deciding on type of row cover – temperature needs, pollination, growth habit

18 Supported Row Covers Also Called Low Tunnels Also Called Low Tunnels Can use PVC pipe, heavy wire Can use PVC pipe, heavy wire More labor needed More labor needed Support needed for crops such as tomato, pepper and summer squash Support needed for crops such as tomato, pepper and summer squash Weed control needed between rows Weed control needed between rows

19 Low Tunnels

20 Floating Row Covers Spunbound polyester or polypropylene Spunbound polyester or polypropylene 70 – 80% light, air and water transmission 70 – 80% light, air and water transmission Placed directly on crop Placed directly on crop 0.5 – 1.25oz. /sq yard 0.5 – 1.25oz. /sq yard Covers under 0.5oz. – very little heat retention Covers under 0.5oz. – very little heat retention Over 1.75oz. Significant light reduction Over 1.75oz. Significant light reduction 2° - 4° frost protection in spring, more protection in fall 2° - 4° frost protection in spring, more protection in fall

21 Floating Row Covers For large covers weigh down centers to prevent damage with high winds For large covers weigh down centers to prevent damage with high winds Insect control may improve Insect control may improve Maggot control Maggot control Squash bug control Squash bug control Remember needs for pollination Remember needs for pollination Dont trap insect pests – CPB Dont trap insect pests – CPB 2-6 weeks earlier depending on local conditions 2-6 weeks earlier depending on local conditions

22 Floating Row Cover

23 Zip Houses Mini greenhouse Mini greenhouse Ability to easier regulate temperature, light and ventilation Ability to easier regulate temperature, light and ventilation Frost protection down to 26° Frost protection down to 26° Open and close easily from end of row Open and close easily from end of row Reusable for 2-3 seasons Reusable for 2-3 seasons

24 Zip Houses Protects from heavy rains, heavy winds and small hail Protects from heavy rains, heavy winds and small hail wide and tall wide and tall Cut to any length – strings stay ready to pull Cut to any length – strings stay ready to pull 500 roll $158 + S&H 500 roll $158 + S&H

25 Zip Houses Zip House Opened Zip House Opened Several hundred feet opened with one string pull Several hundred feet opened with one string pull No dirt moved when opening No dirt moved when opening Opens in seconds Opens in seconds Allows pollination Allows pollination Can be sprayed thru open top Can be sprayed thru open top Zip House Closed Zip House Closed Release strings at end of row Closed in seconds Double layer walls Protects from wind, rains and blowing soil Much earlier growth

26 Colored Plastic Mulches

27 Plastic Mulches Used for years in vary colors Used for years in vary colors Advantages – increased yields, earlier crops, higher quality, weed control and enhanced insect management Advantages – increased yields, earlier crops, higher quality, weed control and enhanced insect management Work well with drip irrigation Work well with drip irrigation High value crops – melons, tomatoes, peppers cucumbers, squash, eggplant ………………. High value crops – melons, tomatoes, peppers cucumbers, squash, eggplant ………………. Many considerations for color Many considerations for color

28 Plastic Mulches 2 Colors – black, white, clear, white on black, red, green, silver reflecting, blue-green, brown, yellow, ect. Colors – black, white, clear, white on black, red, green, silver reflecting, blue-green, brown, yellow, ect. Red and black raise soil temps comparably Red and black raise soil temps comparably Blue-green and brown warm soil like clear without weed problem Blue-green and brown warm soil like clear without weed problem Red, blue, yellow, gray and orange have distinct optical characteristics and reflect different radiation pattern into the crop Red, blue, yellow, gray and orange have distinct optical characteristics and reflect different radiation pattern into the crop

29 Plastic Mulches 3 Blue and green plastic increased root:shoot ratios in turnips Blue and green plastic increased root:shoot ratios in turnips Yellow, red and blue increased green peach aphids Yellow, red and blue increased green peach aphids Yellow attracted cucumber beetles Yellow attracted cucumber beetles Silver repels certain aphid species and reduces or delays virus in summer squash Silver repels certain aphid species and reduces or delays virus in summer squash White or grey may require herbicide for weed control White or grey may require herbicide for weed control

30 Mulch Color and Tomatoes Penn State Study – Sunbeam Mountain Supreme Penn State Study – Sunbeam Mountain Supreme Best yields on black – worst on green infra-red thermal Best yields on black – worst on green infra-red thermal Blue, silver and brown reduced fruit sizes Blue, silver and brown reduced fruit sizes Varieties differ in response to same colors Varieties differ in response to same colors Colors affect microclimate in variety of ways Colors affect microclimate in variety of ways Reflected wavelengh, temperature, moisture, humidity, insects and diseases Reflected wavelengh, temperature, moisture, humidity, insects and diseases

31 Mistakes in Plasticulture Lack of firm uniform bed – hot air funneling Lack of firm uniform bed – hot air funneling Loose plastic – can cover transplants, wind Loose plastic – can cover transplants, wind Poorly placed irrigation tape – plant health, cut tape when planting Poorly placed irrigation tape – plant health, cut tape when planting Failure to operate drip system immediately after planting Failure to operate drip system immediately after planting Not monitoring temperatures Not monitoring temperatures Not calibrating fertilizer injectors/rates Not calibrating fertilizer injectors/rates Not removing row cover from cucurbit crops during pollination Not removing row cover from cucurbit crops during pollination

32 Hoop Houses High tunnel High tunnel Many manufacturers Many manufacturers Build your own Build your own Anchored in ground Anchored in ground Many heights/lengths Many heights/lengths Some large enough for tractors Some large enough for tractors Sides and ends for ventilation Sides and ends for ventilation

33 Crops Anything high value Anything high value Anything with early season premium Anything with early season premium Fruits and vegetables, cut flowers, etc Fruits and vegetables, cut flowers, etc Keep a crop later in the season – extend harvest Keep a crop later in the season – extend harvest Starting plants earlier Starting plants earlier Wind protection / temp modification over winter – nursery plants, perennials and herbs Wind protection / temp modification over winter – nursery plants, perennials and herbs

34 Penn State Research Facility Dan Mielke – tomatoes, peppers and cukes

35 Hoop Houses Selling fresh local tomatoes in June Selling fresh local tomatoes in June Give you months of extra hours in a growing season Give you months of extra hours in a growing season Cultivating spinach and leafy greens year round Cultivating spinach and leafy greens year round

36 High Tunnel Houses

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39 Benefits Extending cropping season Extending cropping season August/September seeding – spinach, broccoli, other greens August/September seeding – spinach, broccoli, other greens Harvest until December Harvest until December Limited by sunlight w/out supplemental light Limited by sunlight w/out supplemental light Mulch with straw and harvest root crops throughout winter Mulch with straw and harvest root crops throughout winter

40 One Growers Experience 20 x 96 foot tunnel 20 x 96 foot tunnel 4 rows tomatoes 4 rows tomatoes 2 rows of peppers 2 rows of peppers 1 row of cucumbers 1 row of cucumbers Yields Yields 4,500 lbs of tomatoes 4,500 lbs of tomatoes 13 bu of peppers 13 bu of peppers 300 lbs of cucumber 300 lbs of cucumber Cost of tunnel - $2000 Cost of tunnel - $2000 Sales > $5000 Sales > $5000

41 Outside TunnelInside Tunnel

42 Strawberry Crop Started on 4/15/03 by lowering sides Started on 4/15/03 by lowering sides Temperature monitoring critical Temperature monitoring critical Use floating row cover on cold nights Use floating row cover on cold nights Picking started on 6/1/03 – tunnel Picking started on 6/1/03 – tunnel 6/11/03 – plastic mulch with row cover 6/11/03 – plastic mulch with row cover 6/26/03 – berries without mulch or row cover 6/26/03 – berries without mulch or row cover Berries were sweeter, cleaner, less distorted, larger Berries were sweeter, cleaner, less distorted, larger Tunnel vs no-tunnel from 200 – 380 % increase in yield Tunnel vs no-tunnel from 200 – 380 % increase in yield

43 Strawberry Varieties Early Glow – 200% increase in tunnel Early Glow – 200% increase in tunnel Honeoye – 380% increase in tunnel Honeoye – 380% increase in tunnel Jewel – 330% increase in tunnel Jewel – 330% increase in tunnel

44 Raspberry Crop Fall berries Fall berries First ripe berries inside or out September 26 First ripe berries inside or out September 26 October 1 st outside crop froze October 1 st outside crop froze Tunnel berries produced until November 2 Tunnel berries produced until November 2 Let berries freeze because of extended cold weather Let berries freeze because of extended cold weather Too costly to heat for amount of sales Too costly to heat for amount of sales

45 Other Considerations Diseases and rotation Diseases and rotation Moving hoop houses Moving hoop houses Drainage around tunnels Drainage around tunnels

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47 Simple Hoophouse Simple to Build Simple to Build Frame of plastic or metal pipe Frame of plastic or metal pipe Anchored by ground posts Anchored by ground posts Open ends Open ends Ventilation important Ventilation important Doors, sidewalls other vents Doors, sidewalls other vents

48 Classic A-Frame Very easy construction Very easy construction Steep roof sheds snow Steep roof sheds snow Limited space (no room for benches) Limited space (no room for benches) Growing space for tall plants Growing space for tall plants Ventilation important Ventilation important Can have second layer of plastic on inside Can have second layer of plastic on inside

49 Gothic Arch Can be portable or anchored to foundation Can be portable or anchored to foundation Curved walls shed snow Curved walls shed snow Inexpensive Inexpensive Lets in lots of light Lets in lots of light

50 Modified A-Frame Steep roof for shedding snow Steep roof for shedding snow Sits on frame of 4x4 posts + insulation Sits on frame of 4x4 posts + insulation More headroom More headroom Room for benches – storage underneath Room for benches – storage underneath Roof Vents Roof Vents Can use triple wall plastic panels for more insulation Can use triple wall plastic panels for more insulation

51 Sun - Pit Foundation sunk below ground with concrete block walls Foundation sunk below ground with concrete block walls More expensive initially More expensive initially Recoup costs from heating savings Recoup costs from heating savings Need good drainage Need good drainage Accessibility concerns Accessibility concerns Higher initial costs Higher initial costs

52 Barn Style Lots of light – good headroom Lots of light – good headroom Solid sidewalls Solid sidewalls Use plastic panels or two layers of plastic Use plastic panels or two layers of plastic With foundation, greater wind resistance With foundation, greater wind resistance Attractive design Attractive design

53 Slant-Sided Barn Style Sheds heavy snow Sheds heavy snow Wind resistance Wind resistance Simple construction Simple construction Allows room for benches Allows room for benches Can use double plastic with squirrel cage fan Can use double plastic with squirrel cage fan

54 Attached Lean-To Strong, easy to construct Strong, easy to construct Energy savings Energy savings Can attach to house wall with existing door Can attach to house wall with existing door Need good ventilation Need good ventilation

55 Attached Angled-Wall Effective with cold sunny winters and hot summers Effective with cold sunny winters and hot summers Wall angled to face low winter sun Wall angled to face low winter sun Roof is covered and insulated against summer heat Roof is covered and insulated against summer heat

56 Attached Solar Connected to house with sliding glass doors Connected to house with sliding glass doors Helps heating house in winter Helps heating house in winter Summer Cooling from House Summer Cooling from House Rigid acrylic or polyethylene panels Rigid acrylic or polyethylene panels

57 Kit Greenhouses Easy to construct Easy to construct Easily built in 1-2 days Easily built in 1-2 days Limited in size Limited in size Can be costly Can be costly

58 Resources


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