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Chapter 2: Tools for Healthy Eating

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1 Chapter 2: Tools for Healthy Eating

2 What Is Healthy Eating? Eating to maintain health and prevent disease
Involves the key principles of Adequacy Balance Variety Moderation

3 Healthy Eating Principles
Adequacy and Balance: Diet provides all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy Diet provides the correct proportion of nutrients Inadequacy  Undernutrition  Malnutrition Overnutrition  Overweight and Obesity

4 Healthy Eating Principles
Variety Diet contains a mixture of different food groups and foods within each group Moderation Diet provides reasonable but not excessive amounts or foods and nutrients Be aware of portion size and number of servings

5 What’s a Portion Size? Figure 2.1

6 Portion Distortion Portion – the amount of food eaten in one sitting
Serving size – the standard amount or recommended portion of food for which the nutrient composition is presented Portion sizes have increased over the years

7 Portion Distortion Increased portion sizes have contributed to
Increased kcal intake Increased weight Increased risk of developing Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Joint problems Cancers



10 Nutrient-Dense Foods Nutrient dense
Measurement of the nutrients in a food compared to the kilocalorie content High in nutrients and low in kilocalories Provide more nutrients per kilocalorie Low in fat and added sugar

11 Which Is the Healthier Way to Enjoy Potatoes?
Figure 2.2

12 Low-Energy-Dense Foods
Energy density Measurement of kilocalories compared with weight (grams) of the food Most high-fat foods Low-energy-dense foods Lower in fat and high in nutrient content Means larger portions for the same number of kilocalories Will “fill you up before they fill you out”


14 Resources for Planning a Healthy Diet
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Reference values for nutrients developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine Used to plan and evaluate the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada

15 Resources for Planning a Healthy Diet
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Includes Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Basis for Dietary Guidelines for Americans MyPyramid Daily Values (DVs) These resources help consumers Decide what foods to buy Plan a varied, moderate, and balanced diet

16 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Focus on Maintaining good health Reducing the risk of developing chronic disease Avoiding unhealthy excess (toxic amounts of nutrients) Nutrient requirements for different life stages Pregnant versus non-pregnant status Age Gender Periodically updated

17 DRIs Encompass Several Reference Values
Figure 2.4

18 DRI Reference Values Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
Starting point for determining other values Amount of a nutrient projected to meet the needs of 50% of healthy Americans by age and gender Requirements are based on a measurement that indicates whether the individual is at risk of a deficiency Measurement differs from nutrient to nutrient If there isn’t enough research to develop an appropriate measurement for a nutrient, EAR is not established Used to calculate RDAs

19 DRI Reference Values Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Recommendation for each nutrient that should meet the needs of nearly all (97 to 98%) of the individuals in a specific gender and age group Higher than the EARs Not available for all nutrients

20 DRI Reference Values Adequate Intakes (AI)
Estimate based on the judgment of the FNB members Next best scientific estimate of the amount of a nutrient that groups of similar individuals should consume to maintain good health Set without having established RDAs Only estimation for nutrients’ adequacy in infants

21 DRI Reference Values Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
Highest amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily Consumption above this level increases risk of toxicity Not all nutrients have ULs Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) Amount of daily energy needed to maintain a healthy body and meet energy needs based on Age Gender Height Weight Activity Level

22 DRI Reference Values Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) Ensure that intake of nutrients is adequate and proportionate to physiological needs Carbohydrates 45–65% of daily kcal Fats 20–35% of daily kcal Proteins 10–35% of daily kcal



25 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Nutritional goals for Americans established by scientists Updated every five years by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Shapes all federally funded nutritional programs in areas of research and labeling Educates and guides consumers concerning healthy diet and lifestyle choices

26 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010
The most current nutrition and physical activity recommendations for good health Designed to help individuals aged 2 and over Improve the quality of diet Lower the risk of chronic disease and unhealthy conditions

27 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010
Divided into four current, major goals: Balance kilocalories to manage weight Prevent overweight/obesity- Control total kilocalorie intake, increase physical activity Food groups to encourage Variety of vegetables and fruits Whole grains Variety of protein, specifically seafood Lower fat food, oils vs. solid fat Food choices to discourage Reduce sodium intake and cholesterol consumption Less saturated fats, added sugars, refined grains, alcohol Building Healthy Eating Patterns

28 What Is MyPlate? Food guidance systems
Graphics used to summarize guidelines to healthy eating Visual depiction of the recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2011 Online components provide personalized diet plan based on the latest nutrition and health recommendations from Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report DRIs Illustrates a healthy diet

How to Use MyPlate Personalize your eating plan at For a moderately active female who needs 2,000 kcal daily, a healthy daily diet would consist of the following: 6 servings from the grains group 21⁄2 cups of dark green, orange, starchy and other vegetables 2 cups of fruits 3 cups of fat-free or low fat milk and yogurt 51⁄2 oz lean meat, poultry and fish, or equivalent in meat alternatives such as beans 6 tsp of vegetable oils MIX UP CHOICES WITHIN EACH FOOD GROUP

30 MyPlate Recommendations
"Make half your plate fruits and vegetables” "Switch to 1% or skim milk" "Make at least half your grains whole" "Vary your protein food choices.” The guidelines also recommend portion control while still enjoying food, as well as reductions in sodium and sugar intakes.

31 Fitting Discretionary Calories into a Balanced Diet
Figure 2.9



34 Time of Day and Eating: Does It Impact Your Health?
Eat breakfast may decreases the total number of kilocalories you eat in a day Increased satiety with breakfast foods May be a good strategy for weight control Eating later in the day may increase kilocalorie intake Eating more fat and consuming more alcohol on the weekends can result in weight gain

35 Time of Day and Eating: Does It Impact Your Health?
Start your day with a nutrient-dense breakfast Choose breakfast foods that are more satisfying Control kilocalorie intake on nights and weekends

36 Food Labels Strictly Regulated by the FDA
Every packaged food must be labeled with Name of food Net weight, the weight of the food in the package, excluding weight of the package or packing material Name and address of the manufacturer or distributor List of ingredients in descending order by weight Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated in 1990 Uniform nutritional information Serving sizes Specific criteria for health claims

37 Food Labels Strictly Regulated by the FDA
Additional requirements since 1990 Nutrition information: total kilocalories, kilocalories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron Uniform serving sizes among similar products Indication of how a serving of the food fits into an overall daily diet Uniform definitions for descriptive label terms such as “light” and “fat free” Health claims that are accurate and science based, if made about the food or one of its nutrients

38 Nutrition Fact Panel Area on the food label that provides a list of specific nutrients obtained in one serving of food Very few foods are exempt from carrying the nutrition fact panel Use as a shopping guide to make healthier decisions Figure 2.12

39 Daily Values (DVs) General idea of how the nutrients in the food fit into the overall diet Based on a 2,000 kilocalorie diet Food is considered high in nutrient if DV is > 20% Food is considered low in nutrient if DV is < 5% There is no DV for trans fat, sugars, and protein Some Nutrient Facts Panels have a footnote at the bottom that provides a summary of DVs for 2,000 and 2,500 kilocalorie diets

40 Label Claims Can Reveal Potential Health Benefits
FDA mandates that all claims on labels follow strict guidelines Currently three types of health claims are allowed Nutrient content claims Health claims Structure/function claims





45 A Structure/Function Label Claim
Figure 2.14

46 Quick Review FDA regulates the labeling on all packaged foods
Every food label must contain the name of the food, net weight, name and address of the manufacturer or distributor, a list of ingredients, and standardized nutrition information FDA allows and regulates the use of Nutrient content claims Health claims Structure/function claims Foods or dietary supplements displaying these Must meet specified criteria Claims must be truthful

47 Putting It All Together

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