Presentation on theme: "Byler Road Association Tuscumbia, Alabama January, 2014"— Presentation transcript:
1Byler Road Association Tuscumbia, Alabama January, 2014 OLD BYLER ROAD PROJECTByler Road AssociationTuscumbia, AlabamaJanuary, 2014Dedicated to preserving, promoting, and enhancing the history and scenic beauty of Alabama’s first enacted roadway for public awareness, education, and enjoyment; and for tourism and economic revitalization in the north west region of the state.
2Objectives Of Byler Road Project Passage of Resolution by Alabama Legislature that recognizes the historical importance and scenic attributes of Byler RoadNational Historic Registration of Byler RoadQualification of Byler Road as a Scenic By-WayEstablish Signage, Historical Markers, Maps, and Informational Brochures Along Byler Road For Public Driving Pleasure, Education, Tourism and Economic Impact in North West Region of Alabama
3Old Byler Road StoryThe world is full of many stories, and from time to time they permit themselves to be told. Old Cherokee Indian Saying
4Byler Road originated as a buffalo trail that was used by Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Choctaw Indian hunters moving north toward The Cumberland River Valley in search of Buffalo.
5The Trail Was Used By Many Indian People Ancient Paleo - Mississippian Indian PeopleHistoric Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Creek Indian Tribes
6On December 16, 1819, just two days after Alabama became a state, the legislature enacted, and Governor William W. Bibb approved a law making Byler Road the first public road in Alabama.Section 1. Byler Road Law reads as follows:Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the State of Alabama, in General Assembly convened. That a public road be, and the same is hereby established, as follows, to-wit: Beginning on the great military road, leading from Columbia in Tennessee to Madisonville in Louisiana, at or near the place where Samuel Craig now lives, on the west side of Big-shoal creek in Lauderdale county, thence, the nearest and best way to the Tennessee river, at the ferry opposite the town of Bainbridge, Franklin county; thence southeast from the southern part of said town, the nearest and best way to the county line between the counties of Lawrence and Franklin; thence south along said county line, wherever the situation of the ground will admit, and at all times as near the said line as practicable, to the southern boundaries of the counties of Lawrence and Franklin, thence the most eligible route to the falls of Tuskaloosa river
7John Byler Road Builder 1781 - 1824 John Byler was married to Elizabeth Walker, born in Their daughter, Elizabeth Catherine, married Eldridge T. Mallard in 1819.Mallard was the tollgate manager at Eldridge on the Byler Road, and the town was named for him. William M. McCain, operator of McCain’s Toll Booth, was another Byler son-in-law.The Byler Road Law granted Byler permission and contracted with him to build the toll road and maintain it for a period of 12 years. He would keep all tolls collected for those years.John Byler died shortly after Byler Road was completed. He is buried at Rock Springs Cemetery on Byler Road at Mount Hope, Alabama in Lawrence County.Headstone that eulogizes John Byler, a soldier in the War of John Byler personally knew all five Revolutionary War Soldiers buried alongside him at Rock Springs Cemetery near Mt. Hope
8Facts About Old Byler Road The roadway was constructed through Lauderdale, Colbert, Franklin, Lawrence, Walker, Winston, Marion, Fayette, and Tuscaloosa counties in Alabama.Over time, segments of Byler Road became known by many names including Bailey Springs Road (Lauderdale County), Bainbridge Road (Franklin/Colbert County), County Line Road (Colbert, Franklin, and Lawrence counties), Stagecoach Road (Fayette and parts of Tuscaloosa County) Main Avenue (Tuscaloosa County), and Hillsboro Road in east Lawrence County.The approximately 140 miles of Byler Road were completed on November 21, 1823.The original road was to be “twelve foot wide and devoid of all stumps and roots”. Commissioners were responsible for seeing this provision was met.In 1826, after Tuscaloosa became the capitol of Alabama, the road became more important than ever.
9Old Byler Road TollsThe original toll rate was 75¢ for a four wheeled carriageA two wheeled carriage was 50¢Horseback riders were charged 12 1/2¢A pack animal toll was 6 1/2¢Each head of cattle cost 1¢, while sheep and hogs were 1/2¢Those who evaded the toll were fined $5, plus the tollIssue 1, Free State Journal newsletter , Steve Hicks and Dennis Bales
10Civil War Troops En Route To Elyton, Tuscaloosa & Selma Along Byler Road This painting by Alabama artist, John Warr, depicts Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest and his men closing in onC olonel Abel Streight’s Mule Brigade.Colonel Streight’s 1700 man Mule Brigade crossed the Byler near Mt. Hope, engaged on Battleground Mountain (Cullman County) with General N. B. Forrest’s cavalry and surrendered near Georgia State LineGeneral John Bell Hood’s 40,000 man Army of the Tennessee crossed the Tennessee River at Bainbridge, Southport and Florence going to/from the Battle of Franklin/Nashville in late 1864.In March, 1865, a division of Union General J. H. Wilson’s cavalry of 13,480 horseman passed down Byler Road in route to Tuscaloosa and the Battle of Selma. A Calvary division of about 4000 troops camped at Kinlock Spring off Byler Road on March 14, 1865.General Winslow's division passed along the Byler Road through Lawrence County and stayed the night at David Hubbard’s Plantation located at Kinlock.Brigadier General James Garfield (later US President Garfield) crossed the Byler Road at Leighton and again at Hillsboro in May 1862 while carrying out his mission to secure the Corinth MS to Huntsville AL railroad assets for Union Army use.
11Let’s Take A Ride Along Old Byler Road NORTH TO SOUTHLet’s Take A Ride Along Old Byler Road
12Old Byler Road Linking Mobile To Nashville Old Byler Road begins at Jackson’s Military Road in Lauderdale County.It meanders southerly across Colbert, Franklin, Lawrence, Winston, Walker, Marion, and Fayette counties.It ends in Northport (original name Kentuck, Kentucky or Canetuck) in Tuscaloosa County, at the foot of Main Avenue.Byler Road is the midsection of the Mobile Trace to Jackson’s Military Road.State of AlabamaThe Byler RoadThe dotted line is Byler Road from Brown’s Ferry to Courtland , connecting along Gaines Trace.
13At it’s northernmost point, Byler Road intersects with Jackson’s Military Road in Lauderdale County
14Southward Journey Down Old Byler Road This is a relic abutment from the old bridge used by Andrew Jackson’s army engineers to cross Shoal Creek. This is the start of Old Byler Road, at the junction on the west bank of Shoal Creek Bridge and Jackson’s Military Road.
15Historic Bailey Springs In Lauderdale County The area near Camp Westmoreland is known as Bailey Springs. It was a resort in the 1800's due to the so-called curing agents of the mineral springs. Families moved to the area due to these springs. Many famous people visited the springs to enjoy their effects. Antebellum spas offered wealthy individuals and families relaxation, social events, and advertised medical cures. Bailey Springs was one of the highest regarded resorts in the South. Jonathan Bailey came to Lauderdale County around He originally purchased about 200 acres near Shoals Creek; and later purchased an additional 40 acres, which included the springs, from John Hough. In 1843 "Mr. Bailey was so afflicted with dyspepsia, that he was unable to visit distant mineral springs." He began to use his own springs and found himself almost well within 4 weeks. The fame of the springs increased yearly. He built a resort to accommodate the many visitors. Mr. Michael Tuomey, the state of Alabama's first geologist visited the springs around this time. His examination found them to be composed of carbonate iron, carbonate soda, chloride sodium, carbonate potassa and sulfur. Bailey is said to have operated the resort until his death in There were a series of owners thereafter.
16Shoal Creek Crossing Downstream From Jackson’s Military Road
19Town of Bainbridge, Colbert County, North Byler Route What Bainbridge might have looked like in 1819Situated on the south bank of the Tennessee River, this early town was 6 miles east of Florence in Lauderdale County and along Byler Road. An overgrown cemetery is all that remains today of Bainbridge, once a popular river crossing. When settlers first rushed into the Tennessee Valley just before 1819, they had dreams of establishing a great commercial city at the Muscle Shoals.On January 16, 1819, the commissioners of the town issued a report stating that Bainbridge was laid out on an inclined plain "so that the streets when filled will resemble the seats of a theatre“. A ferry operating on the site crossed the Tennessee River in eight to nine minutes.The building of the railroad from Tuscumbia to Decatur bypassed Bainbridge. By merchants had begun an exodus to Tuscumbia and Florence. The number of inhabitants rapidly dwindled, the ferry ceased operations, and Bainbridge became a ghost town. Bainbridge is now submerged under Lake Wilson.
20Ghost Towns Along Byler Road Bailey Springs Resort Lauderdale County By Shoals CreekBainbridge Colbert County, under Lake WilsonBarker’s Stand Lawrence County, near Mt. HopeNew London Winston County by Bankhead ForestDeGraffeinried’s Inn Winston County by PebblePruitt’s Stand Winston County by NW AL HospitalArc Winston County by Rocky Ravine PKWinston Winston County on Hoggle RidgeBiler Winston County SE of HaleyvilleLarissa (Ferris Inn) Winston County, south of Nat. BridgeMajic Winston County south of LarissaDublin (Tidwell’s Stand) Fayette County, SW of EldridgeDry Creek Fayette County, NE of FayetteSheffield Fayette County, NE of FayetteOld Dublin Fayette County, E-NE of FayetteBuck Snort Fayette County bet Bankston & BerryNewton Fayette Co ALStrongs Fayette County, south of BankstonCrump Tusc County/9 mi N of SamanthaMarcumville Tusc County/6 mi N of Samantha
21South of Bainbridge at Leighton in Colbert County The Oaks PlantationThe Oaks Plantation was owned by Abraham Ricks, Sr. He was born 1791 in North Carolina and died 1852 at The Oaks in Colbert County. He left North Carolina in 1818 with 30 families and his slaves for Alabama. Portions of the 10,000 acre plantation were purchased during the United States government land sales of 1818.A log cabin was already built at The Oaks by Cherokee Indians who occupied the area from 1770 to Abraham Ricks added and attached the main part of the house to the log cabinSouth of Bainbridge at Leighton in Colbert County
22William Russell’s Grave in Franklin, County Major William Russell was born ca in Tyron County ,NC . He died in 1825 in Franklin County, Alabama. Major Russell was Chief-Of-Staff to General Andrew Jackson during the War of Russell’s Valley in Colbert County and the Town of Russellville in Franklin County are named for William Russell.
23General Phillip Roddy’s Birthplace Along Byler Road North Route Moulton, Alabama General Phillip Dale Roddy was born on this site about 1820 near downtown Moulton within a few blocks of Byler Road.In October 1862, at Tuscumbia, Roddy raised a company that became part of the 4th AL Cavalry. He served as captain, colonel, and brigadier general.His efforts in keeping the Union Army north of the Tennessee River earned him the title “Defender of North Alabama.”Roddy's battlefield encounters included Shiloh, Streight's Raid, Gen. Dodge at Tuscumbia, and actions in MS and GA.
24General Leroy Pope Walker Lived Along Byler Road In Lawrence County Leroy Pope Walker was the son of John W. Walker who was House Speaker of the AL Territory, the first constitutional convention president, the first US AL senator, and namesake of Walker County, AL.Leroy P. Walker began his political career in Lawrence County. He lived on Market Street in Moulton, a few blocks from Byler Road. He served in the General Assembly from 1843 to 1849 and 1853 to He was speaker of the AL House (1847 and 1849).Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him 1st Confederate States Secretary of War. Walker ordered the attack upon Fort Sumter that started the Civil War.In 1883, Walker successfully defended Jesse James' brother, Frank, for an 1881 Muscle Shoals robbery.Leroy Pope WalkerThe Original Confederate Cabinet: L-R Judah Benjamin, Stephen Mallory, Christopher Memminger, Alexander Stephens, LeRoy Pope Walker, Jefferson Davis, John Reagan, Robert Toombs
25Cruising The Scenic North Byler Route, Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence County
26Sections Of Old Byler Road Are Obsolete The name “J. C. Fannin”, date “1831,” is carved into this old beech tree along Byler Roadbed near Byler Gap, William B. Bankhead National Forest near Mount Hope, Alabama in Lawrence County.Members of Byler Road Association hike a section of obsolete roadbed near Byler Gap, William B. Bankhead National Forest , Mount Hope, Alabama in Lawrence County.
27John Byler Home PlaceThe old rock chimney is all that remains of the John Byler home located on the North Byler Route at Mount Hope in Lawrence County.
28Alabama’s Earliest Caucasian Settlers Migrated From Surrounding States And Territories To North West Alabama Along Byler RoadThis log house at Mount Hope is located adjacent to John Byler’s home place. The house is reminiscent of the rustic dwellings built by the early settlers.
29Legendary “Aunt” Jenny Brooks Johnson The FeudWhen the Confederate Home Guard came to herdoor in 1863, Louisa Elizabeth Jane Bates Brookswas 37 years old. A pretty, blue-eyed halfCherokee from Walker County, she marriedWillis Brooks from Kentucky when she was 14and he was 35. They raised a large family andran a roadhouse on the Byler Road in southwestLawrence County.The Home Guard killed 57 year old Willis Brooks.When son John tried to save his father, he wasshot dead. Placing all her boys’ hands in theblood on their father’s chest, Jenny madethem swear a “blood oath” that they wouldnever rest until all eight killers were dead. Thefeud that started with the killing of Jenny’shusband and oldest son lasted forty years. Theeight men were killed by Brooks and her sons.Until she died at age 98, she claimed to be proudof her boys, who she reportedly said, “died like,men, with their boots on”. She is buried in JohnsonCemetery, a few miles from her home on BylerRoad.Jane “Jenny” Brooks Johnson
30Old Byler Road, Bankhead National Forest, Between Poplar Springs Cemetery And Aunt Jenny Brook’s Place, Was A Trail From Prehistoric Indian TimesOnly Osage orange trees and barn wood remain at Jenny Brooks Johnson’s place on Byler Road in Bankhead Forest. These trees were called bow-wood trees by early French settlers because Indians used the trees to make their bows.
31Beautiful Kinlock Falls North Byler Road Route William B Beautiful Kinlock Falls North Byler Road Route William B. Bankhead National Forest Lawrence County, Alabama
32Kinlock Rock ShelterKinlock Rock Shelter is a treasure trove of ancient Indian history in Bankhead National Forest.
33The High Town PathThis route was some1,000 miles in length and ran from Old Charles Town, South Carolina to Chickasaw Bluffs near Memphis, Tennessee.It is named in honor of the Indian village of High Town located near present-day Rome, Georgia.The Moulton Fork of the Byler Road ran from Moulton through Youngtown, and up to the mountain at McClung GapThe two Byler Roads joined at a site known as the 66 mile tree which was located about one-half mile west of the junction of the High Town Path and the Moulton Fork. The 66 mile tree was thought to be a designated tree at the forks of the two roads. Sign Marking The High Town Path InHaleyville, Winston County, Alabama
34Capt. Jacob Pruett "AN OUT-STANDING American soldier and citizen.“ The Huntsville Democrat May 21, 1845 issueJacob Pruett was a principal investor in the Byler Road project. Pruett was one of the 'Free State's' earliest and most colorful settlers. A private in the American Revolutionary War at an early age, Pruett was a captain of the Mounted Volunteers of Tennessee during the War of Jacob Pruett's stand (tavern) was a popular stopping place on the Byler Road in the 1830s and 1840s. A two-story poplar log structure with four 20 foot square rooms per floor, it was located near a large spring and netted a handsome profit as most of the hogs and cattle driven to south Alabama passed this way. There are many undocumented tales of highway robbery and murder on the Byler Road, and it is said some of those early Alabama travelers slain were tossed into "the big hole" near the tavern at Haleyville, AL.Pruett died while chasing a bear on horseback at age 81 years. He is buried near his beloved "Pebbly Branch" at Haleyville, AL
35Natural Bridge On South Byler Route Natural Bridge is located in Winston County at Natural Bridge, the smallest town in Alabama. The entrance to Natural Bridge is less that ½ mile from Byler Road. The natural bridge formation within the park is the largest natural arch east of the Rockies. The sandstone and iron ore bridge is 60 ft. high and 148 ft. long.
36Approximate Location Of Byler Road Toll Booth Town Of Eldridge, Walker County Eldridge T. Mallard was the tollgate manager at Eldridge on the Byler Road. He was John Byler’s son-in-law. The town of Eldridge and Mallard Creek are named for him.
37Byler CrossingByler Crossing is near the ghost town of Dublin (Tidwell’s Stand), and south west of Eldridge, in Walker County, Alabama, along the southern route.
38Fayette County, Alabama On The Southern Route of Byler Road Byler Road (Also Know As Old Stagecoach Trail) Alabama’s Other “Lost Highway”Fayette County, Alabama On The Southern Route of Byler Road
39Collins Plantation House, Tuscaloosa, County Splendid Southern Architecture Along Byler Road Southern Route
40Old Byler Road Crossed North River (Now Lake Tuscaloosa) And The John Welch Prewitt Plantation John Welch Prewitt, slave trader and successful planter, was said to have owned more than 600 slaves. Prewitt’s estate covered more than 6,000 acres north of Northport, near North River.Prewitt is reported to have owned slave ships that docked in Mobile. He had a vested interest in the Byler Road because it connected his plantation to the Mobile Trace and the Port of Mobile.Prewitt funded and built about 15 miles of the Byler roadway using slave labor.Once a toll road over land that was swallowed by Lake Tuscaloosa, Byler Road connected the Warrior and Tennessee rivers, and ran through the John Welch Prewitt plantation.John Welch Prewitt
41Prewitt Slave Cemetery Northport, Alabama In the 1820’s, John Welch Prewitt designated a two-acre parcel of land on his plantation at Northport as a burial ground for slaves and their descendants.It is possibly the largest existing slave cemetery in Alabama with graves. The last burial was in 1945.The markings range from initials scratched into stone to full names and dates going back to 1819, the year Alabama became a state.Pole Bridge Baptist Church owns and maintains the cemetery.
42Here Bring Your Hearts, Here Tell Your Anguish, Earth Has No Sorrow That Heaven Cannot Heal Sir Thomas More, English Humanist (More was an ancestor of some early English inhabitants to the region)This compelling marker is located in the old Prewitt Slave Cemetery on Byler Road at Northport. Although the inscription is barely legible, the simply carved heart on the gravestone poignantly conveys the most essential human emotions; requited love and longing for people that matter the most in our lives.
43Relax At The End Of Old Byler Road City Café is perhaps the best known eating establishment in the Tuscaloosa area; it’s where Coach Bear Bryant always had his morning coffee, making it a magnet for the past 50 years. It is located on Main Avenue (Byler Road) in Northport. Northport didn’t exist until Byler made the town.City Café is one block from the Warrior River, at the south end of Byler Road, where goods were loaded onto ships headed to many unknown destinations.
44We Hope You Have Enjoyed The History and Scenic Beauty Along Byler Road The Road Told You It’s Story, Just As The Cherokee Indians’ Said It Would Do