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1Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries 2 3 Double stars Rev. John Mitchell - 1767 it is highly probable in particular, and next to a certainty in general, that.

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Presentation on theme: "1Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries 2 3 Double stars Rev. John Mitchell - 1767 it is highly probable in particular, and next to a certainty in general, that."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

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4 3 Double stars Rev. John Mitchell it is highly probable in particular, and next to a certainty in general, that such double stars as appear to consist of two or more stars placed very near together, do really consist of stars placed near together, and under the influence of some general law. The definitive existence of binary stars was demonstrated by William Herschel in Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

5 4 A multitude of types Binary stars astrometriceclipsing spectroscopic Visual Resolved by telescope into two stars Oscillatory motion on the sky Stars periodically pass in front of each other in our LOS Unresolved by telescope, but two sets of spectral lines seen Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

6 5 Example of Visual Binaries Krueger 60 : d = 4 pc M3.5V + M 4V, Period = 44.5 years

7 6 Example of Visual Binaries Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

8 7 a d

9 8 Keplers 3rd law:

10 9 Ursa Major, The Big Bear (Big Dipper) Mizar was the first known binary, noticed in 1650 by Riccioli. Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

11 10 Mizar: A binary within a binary Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

12 11 Resolution of a telescope Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

13 12 Binary system Mizar A Observed by NPOI Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) Array south of Flagstaff AZ, The Mizar images were obtained with the inner three 0.5m telescopes. A total of 10 telescopes will be operational starting in Mizar A binary (period 20 days) arcsec Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

14 13Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

15 14 Example: Wavelength λ=500nm, baseline B=100m Θ ~ = 1 mas CHARA – Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Georgia State University SUSI – Sydney University Stellar Interferometer NPOI - Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer Mark III Interferometer PTI - Palomar Testbed Interferometer Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

16 15Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

17 16Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

18 17Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

19 18 Keck Interferometer (2x10m) Mauna Kea, Hawaii VLT Interferometer (4x8m) Chile (ESA) Examples of Optical Interferometers Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

20 19 a1a1 a2a2 M1M1 M2M2 CM Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries The binary motion

21 20Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

22 21Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

23 22Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

24 23 Planet Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

25 24 Kepler first law:

26 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries25 Kepler second law:

27 26 Origin of orbits of both stars Periastron point Empty Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

28 27 The Masses of Sirius A & B –5 th closest star to us: d = 2.63pc –Sirius A is the brightest star in the sky Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

29 28 Wobble of Sirius Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

30 29 Sirius AB Binary System HST image

31 30 Orbits of Sirius A and B Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

32 31 Sirius AB Binary System Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

33 32 Ratio of motion: Distance estimate: a = AU at a distance of 2.63 pc M 1 + M 2 = (20.04) 3 /(49.9) 2 = 3.23 Keplers 3rd law: Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries Sirius AB Binary System

34 33 Hence M 1 / M 2 = 2.3 and M 1 + M 2 = 3.23 –so, unraveling the masses gives M 1 = mass of Sirius A = 2.25 M M 2 = mass of Sirius B = 0.98 M Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries Sirius AB Binary System

35 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries Adams obtained a spectrum of Sirius B T~25,000 K Clark resolved the two stars Sirius AB Binary System

36 35 The H-R Diagram Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries L = 4 R 2 T 4

37 36 The Sizes of Stars Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

38 37 Gliese 229B 8 separation 10 mag difference in J,H,K (Nakajima 1995) Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

39 38 A multitude of types Binary stars astrometriceclipsing spectroscopic Visual Resolved by telescope into two stars Oscillatory motion on the sky Stars periodically pass in front of each other in our LOS Unresolved by telescope, but two sets of spectral lines seen Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

40 39Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

41 40 One star with a spectrum composed of two spectra Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

42 41 The Doppler Effect Spectrum of Hydrogen in Lab Spectrum of a Star Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

43 42 Spectroscopic binary Spectrum of Hydrogen in Lab Spectrum a Star…..Day 1 Spectrum a Star…..Day 2 Spectrum a Star…..Day 3 Spectrum a Star…..Day 4 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

44 43 To earth Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

45 44 Spectroscopic Binaries If the Doppler shift of a stars absorption lines changes with time (redshift, then blueshift, then redshift, etc.), its a spectroscopic binary. Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

46 45 Spectroscopic Binaries Double-lined spectroscopic binary. Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

47 46 Spectroscopic Binaries Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

48 47 Single-lined spectroscopic binary (SB1)

49 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries48 Single-lined spectroscopic binary (SB1)

50 49Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

51 50 Eclipsing Binaries Animation Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

52 51 Time T 1 = first contact Time T 2 = beginning of total eclipse Time T 3 = end of total eclipse phase Time T 4 = last contact Time Brightness T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T4T4 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

53 52 Star of radius R 1 Star of radius R 2 a Orbit of star 2 relative to star 1 Eclipse zone T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T4T4 LOS Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

54 53Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

55 54 The geometry of the eclipse Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

56 55 Relative dimension: Relative surface flux Inclination

57 56 CoRoT-Exo-2 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

58 57Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

59 58 Absolute Properties of the Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary Star BP Vulpeculae Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries Lacy et al. 2003

60 59 BP VULPECULAE Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries

61 60 BP VULPECULAE

62 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries61 BP VULPECULAE

63 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries62 BP VULPECULAE

64 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries63

65 Tsevi Mazeh: Leuven-Binaries64


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