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CRM-MPL1 The Western Sahara in the light of the International law : Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara® Carlos Ruiz Miguel, Universidad.

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Presentation on theme: "CRM-MPL1 The Western Sahara in the light of the International law : Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara® Carlos Ruiz Miguel, Universidad."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRM-MPL1 The Western Sahara in the light of the International law : Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara® Carlos Ruiz Miguel, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España Moisés Ponce de León Iglesias, Université Rennes 2 – Haute Bretagne, France

2 CRM-MPL2 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara ®

3 CRM-MPL3 « Any legal analysis of the question of Western Sahara should take into account several basic, objective, statements that are the key of any approach to the conflict according to the International Law » Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

4 CRM-MPL4 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara « Any approach differing from these statements could be clearly qualified as illegal according to the Law of the United Nations »

5 CRM-MPL5 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara Small historical and geographical reminder

6 CRM-MPL6 http://www.un.org/depts/Cartographic/map/profile/afrique.pdf October 2011

7 CRM-MPL7 http://www.un.org/depts/Cartographic/map/dpko/minurso.pdf

8 CRM-MPL8 1884. Spain signs a Treaty of protectorate with Sahrawi tribes and begins its occupation of the territory 1965. The General Assembly of the UNO asks Spain to withdraw from Sahara, in the international context of the decolonization, and asserts the right to self-determination for the Sahrawi people 1973. Creation of the Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Front Polisario) Small historical reminder

9 CRM-MPL9 Small historical reminder 1974. Spain announces its intention to withdraw and suggests and organize a referendum of self- determination. Hassan II persuades the General Assembly to ask an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice about how proceed with the decolonisation of the Territory. 1975. Advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice reaffirming the application of resolution 1514 of the UN-GA in the decolonization of Western Sahara and the application of the principle of self-determination for the populations of the territory. (October 16th)

10 CRM-MPL10 1975. Green March launches the occupation of the Western Sahara by Morocco (November 6th). 1976. (February 26th) Withdrawal from Spain. Morocco and Mauritanian try to conquer the Territory 1976. (February 27th). Creation of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ( RASD) by the Front Polisario. 1978-1979. Cease fire and peace treaty with Mauritania. Annexation by Morocco of the territory occupied by Mauritania Small historical reminder

11 CRM-MPL11 1981 - 1987. Construction by the Moroccan army of walls of 2700 km which cut the Sahrawi territory in two. 1984. OUA ( Organization of African Unity ) admits the RASD within it as 51sh member. 1991. Under the auspices of the OAU and the UNO, signature by the two parties (Morocco and Polisario Front) of the Settlement Plan, wich establishes a cease-fire and the holding of a referendum on self-determination in 1992. The Settlement Plan is approved by the Security Council (resolutions 658 & 690). Creation of the Misssion of the United Nations for the Referendum in the Western Sahara (MINURSO in the Spanish acronym) 1992. Boycott of the referendum by Morocco Small historical reminder

12 CRM-MPL12 1997- 2004. Personal Envoy of the Secretary- General : James Baker III. Baker Plan (CS Res. 1495). Resignation in 2004. 1997. Houston Accords, approved by the Security Council. 2005 - 2008. Peter Van Walsum. Non renewal by the Secretary- General. 2009 - … Personal Envoy of the Secretary- General : Christopher Ross. Small historical reminder

13 CRM-MPL13 1 The Western Sahara is a « non-self governing territory » and a « colonial country » A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/2625_1970 … A/RES/66/86_2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

14 CRM-MPL14 A/RES/2072_1965 1

15 CRM-MPL15 A/RES/2072_1965 1

16 CRM-MPL16 RES/2072_1965 1

17 CRM-MPL17 A/RES/2625_1970 1

18 CRM-MPL18 A/RES/2625_1970 1

19 CRM-MPL19 A/RES/66/86_2012 1

20 CRM-MPL20 2 The conflict of Sahara Occidental is a « question of decolonization » A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 A/RES/39-40_1984 A/RES/45-21_1990 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 A/RES/66/86_2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

21 CRM-MPL21 2 A/RES/2072_1965

22 CRM-MPL22 A/RES/2229_1966 2

23 CRM-MPL23 2 A/RES/35-19_1980

24 CRM-MPL24 2 A/RES/35/19_1980

25 CRM-MPL25 2 A/RES/35/19_1980

26 CRM-MPL26 2 A/RES/45-21_1990

27 CRM-MPL27 A/RES/65-112_2011 2

28 CRM-MPL28 A/RES/66/86_2012 2

29 CRM-MPL29 3 The United Nations recognizes internationally the existence of the « people of Western Sahara » A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/RES/33/31_1978 A/RES/34/37_1979 A/RES/35/19_1980 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 S/RES/1920_2010 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

30 CRM-MPL30 3 A/RES/2229_1966

31 CRM-MPL31 3 A/RES/3458_1975

32 CRM-MPL32 3 A/RES/66/86_2012

33 CRM-MPL33 3 S/RES/2044_2012

34 CRM-MPL34 4 The people of Western Sahara is composed by the « indigenous people of the Territory » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 S/2000/131, para. 6 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

35 CRM-MPL35 4

36 CRM-MPL36 4 A/RES/3458_A/1975

37 CRM-MPL37 4 S/2000/131

38 CRM-MPL38 4 S/2000/131

39 CRM-MPL39 4 S/2000/131

40 CRM-MPL40 5 The people of the Western Sahara has a « right to self-determination » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 S/RES/1871_2009 S/RES/1920_2010 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

41 CRM-MPL41 A/RES/2229_1966 5

42 CRM-MPL42 A/RES/65/112_2011 5

43 CRM-MPL43 A/RES/3458-A_1975 5

44 CRM-MPL44 S/RES/1871/2009 5

45 CRM-MPL45 S/RES/1920/2010 5

46 CRM-MPL46 6 The right of self-determination of the people of Western Sahara is « inalienable » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 A/RES/66/86_2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

47 CRM-MPL47 A/RES/2229_1966 6

48 CRM-MPL48 A/RES/66/86_2012 2

49 CRM-MPL49 7 The inalienable right of self-determination of the people of Western Sahara should be exercised by a « referendum » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 A/RES/38-40_1983 A/RES/65/112_2011 S/RES/621_1988 S/RES/658_1990 S/RES/1871_2009 S/RES/1920_2010 S/RES/2044/2012 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

50 CRM-MPL50 A/RES/2229_1966 7

51 CRM-MPL51 A/RES/3458-A_1975 7

52 CRM-MPL52 A/RES/38-40_1983 7

53 CRM-MPL53 S/RES/658/1990 7

54 CRM-MPL54 S/RES/690/1991 7

55 CRM-MPL55 S/RES/2044/2012 7

56 CRM-MPL56 S/RES/1920/2010 7

57 CRM-MPL57 S/RES/2044/2012 7

58 CRM-MPL58 8 The referendum of self-determination should be « free, democratic and impartial » « without any administrative or military contraints » A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/38-40_1983 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

59 CRM-MPL59 S/RES/2229/1966 8

60 CRM-MPL60 A/RES/38-40/1983 8

61 CRM-MPL61 9 The people of Western Sahara has a « right to independence » Because never existed « any tie of territorial sovereignity » Between Morocco and the Western Sahara A/RES/2229_1966 CIJ 1975 A/RES/38-40_1983 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

62 CRM-MPL62 A/RES/3292/1974 9

63 CRM-MPL63 A/RES/3292/1974 9

64 CRM-MPL64 9 http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/61/6195.pdf

65 CRM-MPL65 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975

66 CRM-MPL66 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 105 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 105

67 CRM-MPL67 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 105

68 CRM-MPL68 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 162 http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/61/6195.pdf

69 CRM-MPL69 9 ICJ Western Sahara, 1975, para. 162 http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/61/6195.pdf

70 CRM-MPL70 10 Spain is the « administering power » of the Western Sahara A/RES/2072_1965 A/RES/3458-A_1975 A/RES/3458-B_1975 A/66/65_2011 A/67/71_2012 S/2002/161, para. 6 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

71 CRM-MPL71 10 S/2002/161

72 CRM-MPL72 10 A/67/71

73 CRM-MPL73 10 A/67/71

74 CRM-MPL74 10 A/67/71 but… a State neither loses its status of administering power, nor is released from the fulfilmente of its obligations by simply opposing to it de facto…

75 CRM-MPL75 11 The presence of Morocco in the major part of Western Sahara is an « occupation» S/RES/380_1975 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

76 CRM-MPL76 11 S/RES/380_1975

77 CRM-MPL77 11 A/RES/34-37_1979

78 CRM-MPL78 11 A/RES/35-19_1980

79 CRM-MPL79 11 A/RES/35-19_1980

80 CRM-MPL80 12 The Frente Polisario is the « representative of the people of Western Sahara » A/RES/33-31_1978 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

81 CRM-MPL81 12 A/RES/33-31_1978

82 CRM-MPL82 12 A/RES/34-37_1979

83 CRM-MPL83 12 A/RES/35-19_1980

84 CRM-MPL84 13 The Frente Polisario and Morocco are the two « parties to the conflict » A/RES/38-40_1983 A/RES/39-40_1984 A/RES/45-21_1990 S/RES/1495_2003 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

85 CRM-MPL85 13 A/RES/38-40_1983

86 CRM-MPL86 13 A/RES/39-40_1984

87 CRM-MPL87 13 A/RES/45-21_1990

88 CRM-MPL88 14 The people of Western Sahara has « legitimacy » to fight on behalf of the right to self-determination and independence of the people of Western Sahara A/RES/2625_1970 A/RES/34-37_1979 A/RES/35-19_1980 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

89 CRM-MPL89 14 A/RES/34-37_1979

90 CRM-MPL90 14 A/RES/2625_1970

91 CRM-MPL91 15 There is a « responsability of the United Nations » in the decolonization of the Western Sahara A/RES/2229_1966 A/RES/2983_1972 A/RES/3162_1973 A/RES3458-A_1975 A/RES/64/101_2010 A/RES/65/112_2011 Fifteen basic statements on the conflict of Western Sahara

92 CRM-MPL92 15 A/RES/2229_1966

93 CRM-MPL93 15 A/RES/2983_1972

94 CRM-MPL94 15 A/RES/3162_1973

95 CRM-MPL95 15 A/RES/3458-A_1975

96 CRM-MPL96 15 A/RES/65/112_2011

97 CRM-MPL97 …for, any proposed solution needs to be firmly grounded in international law in order to achieve just and fair, legitimate and sustainable outcomes. Karin Arts et Pedro Pinto Leite (in International law and the question of Western Sahara, Éd. IPJET, 2007 Le droit international et la question du Sahara occidental, Éd. IPJET, 2009)

98 CRM-MPL98 The history of the conflict is downright discouraging to anyone who believes in the rule of law.

99 CRM-MPL99 Despite dozens of UN Security Council resolutions since 1975, all reaffirming the right of the people of Western Sahara to self-determination, and the fact that the UNs Fourth Committee treats Western Sahara as a Moroccan colony, Morocco continues to put itself above the law and remains firmly in place, and in charge, in Western Sahara, Africas last colony.

100 CRM-MPL100 It is what lawyers call res ipsa loquitur (the thing speaks for itself), which means that in certain crystal clear situations a simple recitation of the facts, without need of further proof, is sufficient to presume guilt.

101 CRM-MPL101 We are all Saharawis now Aujourdhui, nous sommes tous des Sahraouis Hoy todos somos saharauis Frank Rudy Ambassadeur des États Unis

102 CRM-MPL102 Occupied but not conquered Ocupados pero no conquistados Occupés mais non conquis

103 CRM-MPL103 Hmad Hammad

104 CRM-MPL104 SOURCES - The rigth to self-determination and the natural resources of the Western Sahara (inedit), Carlos Ruiz Miguel - International law and the question of Western Sahara, Ed. IPJET, 2007, Karin Arts et Pedro Pinto Leite IPJET (International Platform of Jurist for East Timor) - http://www.un.org/depts/Cartographic/map/profile/afrique.pdf - http://www.un.org/depts/Cartographic/map/dpko/minurso.pdf -http://un.org A/RES et S/RES -http://arso.org Carlos Ruiz Miguel and Moisés Ponce de León Iglesias ® The Western Sahara Symposium, Ljubljana, Slovenia, May 2012


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