2 Danziger, Chapter 9Politics as a ValueAllocation Process
3 Public Policy: is any decision or action by a governmental authority that results in the allocation of a value (Danziger p.232)Policy Process:Problem IdentificationProblem DefinitionSpecification of alternative responsesPolicy selection and enactmentPolicy implementationPolicy EvaluationPolicy continuation/modification/termnation
4 The Elite Approach Key Concepts: 1. Politics is defined as the struggle forpower.2. The Political World is characterized byPolitical Stratification.
5 The Italian Application of the Elite Approach Mosca, et al “The Ruling Class”(1896/1939)All Political systems have two strata:The Political Class (the elite): controls allpolitical functions, holds virtually all political power, and dominates the allocation of values.Primary base of Elite domination: military power, thenreligious control, then economic power, and most recentlytechnical knowledge.The nonpolitical classthe mass.(Danziger, p. 239)
6 The American Application of the Elite Approach C. Wright Mills, et al (1956):a. The Power Elite in American Society are:1. The “warlords” in the militaryestablishment.2. The “corporation chieftains” in theeconomic sector.3. The “political directorate” at the toppositions in the political system.(Danziger, p. 239)
8 The Value Allocation (policy) Process 1. The active elites are subject to little direct influence from the mass or even from the understructure of government.2. The understructure follows the elite’s instructionsbecause its members depend wholly on the elite’s power and resources for having and keeping their positions, and for any authority the understructure maintains in the eyes of the Mass.3. The mass is politically apathetic and impotent and policy is imposed upon them.
9 The Class Approach Concepts within the Class Approach: 1. Stratification, the basic fact of“structured inequality”.2. Class:a. The ruling class or capitalist class(Karl Marx, ).b. The proletariat class or non-ruling class.3. Class Conflict: inevitable rebellions by the suppressed class, even possible revolution because of continued disparities between classesand the allocation of values.
10 The Group Approach Key Concepts: 1. A group is made up of members with shared or common interests.2. All group members may belong to multiple groups.3. Individuals are not stratified.4. The groups or individual’s resources may be used to influence the political system.5. Politics can be understood as the interaction or competition among groups to have access to government and achieve their political interests through beneficial policymaking.
11 Functions of Government in the Group Approach To establish the rules of the game for the group struggle.To determine the interests of competing groups and the levels of political resources the competing groups have to offer and can be utilized.To find a public policy that balances the positions ofall active groups.To enact public policy that balances these positions.To implement the resulting value allocations.
12 Danziger, Chapter 10: Change and Political Development Characteristics of “More Developed” SocialSystems must include:The organizational dimension:The technological dimension:The attitudinal dimension:
13 The Process of Development: economic, social, and political. Stage Development: traditional and modern, mechanical and organic, folk and urban, less developed and more developed. Marx: “…society’s particular stage of development depends upon which individuals share control jointly over any available productive resources…” in other words, history or logic reveals a single, inevitable sequence of stages.
14 Response to Key Challenges as part of the process of development: Macro-level structural dynamics and how they occur:The tension between traditional ideas and values and modern ones.The transition from a rural, agrarian society to an urban, industrial society.The transfer of social and political power from traditional elites to modernizing ones.The fit among geographical territory, national identities, and state boundaries (Barrington Moore (1966), in Danziger)
15 Processes of Development, continued Micro-level dynamics/or individual-level change (Danziger: in other words, the attitudinal dimension:--this perspective emphasizes the social-psychological factors of the individual that might account for variations in rates and patterns of development.Inkeles and Smith 1999; Inkeles et al 1985 conducted studies in six countries (Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, India, the Oriental Jews of Israel, and Nigeria) and concluded there is remarkable similarity in beliefs among modern men in all six societies relevant to:1. openness to new experiences regarding both people and behaviors;2. A shift in allegiance from traditional authority structures;3. Confidence in modern technologies.4. Belief in the value of planning and punctuality.5. Desire for social mobility for oneself and one’s children.6. Interest in local politics and community affairs.7. Interest in news, especially national and international affairs.
16 Processes of Development, continued A Civil Society: When individuals create new patterns and attitudes of interaction at the group or societal level by having (in Danziger:a. Tolerance of differences in opinions andbehaviors.b. Willingness to cooperate with others.c. Inclination to negotiate in order to achieve aconsensus, and desire to avoid using violenceto resolve differences.d. A sense of shared identity with others.Analysts conclude the prevalence of these values of civility is crucial for sustaining effective community and democracy.(Diamond et al. 1997; Stepan and Linz 1996; Putnam 1993)
17 Processes of Development, continued Culture and the process of Change:Max Weber’s study (1958a): implies linkage between the culture ofProtestant religions and the rise of capitalist political economies.--Weber suggested Protestantism motivated people to makesubstantial, even irrational, sacrifices of material consumption and the pleasure of life. To work extra ordinarily hard and accumulate wealth rather than spend it.--Weber suggested in India and China the absence of development was an affect of the linkage between culture and religion. (Danziger, pp )However, development has grown in Asia since the 1980s, and recent explanations emphasize how Asian culture has “facilitated” development (Davis 1987; Huntington 1987: 21-28, 1991; Pye 1985; in Danziger, p. 267)
18 The Dynamics of Economic Development Competing Styles of Economic development:Statism, (Danziger, p. 274):a. Emphasizes the importance of strong actions by the state to support the system of production and distribution of goods.b. The state extensively regulates the market and the actions of firms and households.c. The state protects firms from external competition.d. Many important areas of production are publicly owned and operated as state enterprises (transportation, power, banking).e. The state also controls the prices of certain basic goods (foods, fuel).f. The state distributes many free or subsidized goods and services.
19 Processes of Development, continued Neoliberalism, (Danizger, p. 275)a. To maximize the economic freedom of individuals, households, and firms.b. The state’s economic actions are limited severely. Restrictions against the free market enterprises are perceived as underminingand distorting the efficiency of the free market.c. Public expenditure is minimal.d. Little government regulation of the economy.e. Direct foreign investment and free trade across state boundaries are encouraged.f. The state is mainly concerned with maintaining fiscal and monetary discipline (not spending much, keeping currencies stable)and facilitating the dynamics of the local, national, and global marketplaces. (Stepan and Linz 1996 in Danziger, p. 275)
20 continued The “developmental-state” approach (Danziger p. 268). a. State-supported, export-oriented capitalism:b. Targeting market niches:c. Agrarian support:
21 The Dependency Approach The Core Actors:Developed States, Firms, and Financial InstitutionsThe Semi-periphery:National Economic ActorsThe Periphery: the villageswith local and regional actors
22 Political Development Characteristics of Political Development:Four Dimensions of a Political System’sDevelopment, (Danziger, p. 280):Concentration of power in the state:Specialized political structures:“Modern” forms of political behavior:Extensive capabilities of the political system:
23 Models of Political Development Model “A”: Social mobilization tourban areas (Urbanization) createsEconomic and Technological Development which allows Modernization whichmay allow Political Development.(Danziger, p.281)
24 continuedModel “B”: Political Development supports Urbanization, Social Mobilization, and Economic Development allowing Modernization to develop, which maybe significant in more/continued PoliticalDevelopment.
25 Democratization used as a tool to measure Political Development? Does a political system have to exercise democratic electoral practices to bedeveloped?There are 121 electoral democracies atpresent from approximately 200 states.--63 percent 2003 from previous 40 percent.(Danziger p. 282)
26 Economic Development a Necessary Prerequisite for Democracy? First, the level of economic development has long been presented as a crucial factor.Second, external actors have been an important force in the shift toward democracy, e.g. The World Bank and U.S.Third, the breakdown of Authoritarian and totalitarian remimes has provided a window of opportunity for democratization.Fourth, the expansion of democracy might be enhanced by changing norms that favor democracy.Fifth, nonviolent “people power” movements have beome a crucial force for change in amost 3/4ths of the countries that have democratized.Sixth, another key factor is often the presence of political leadership committed to democracy (Danziger pp ).
27 World of Changes System transformation: Most political change is modest: new policy decisions, alterations in the way existing policy is implemented, or variations in the in puts from the internal or external environments ( P. 280).A major change would be a major change from a dominant party to a multiparty system, or authoritarianism to electoral democracy, or from a period of war to a period without military hostilities, or from a statist political economy to a neo-liberal one, or from male-only to gender-neutral political rights, or finally, from an elected leader to a military dictatorship (pp )
28 Political Institutionalization and Political Decay Political Institutionalization: are political organizations and procedures that have acquired value in the eyes of the population and the stability to withstand significant pressure (Samuel Huntington (1968, 1987 in Danziger, p. 290).Political Decay: There is a significant decline in the capabilities of the political system, and especially in its capacity to maintain order(p. 290).
29 Additional goals of Political development: Political InstitutionalizationDemocratization: those chages that deepen and consolidate democratic process (p. 283, Diamond 2003; Wilensy 2020)Economic growth and development: the increasing capacity and complexity of the economic system and the production of a large array of goods and services for consumption are the essence of economic development(p. 283).
30 Chapter 11: Politics Across Borders Political Realism: States “Motives, values, and actions pursue an international environment”, (Danziger pp. 299)1. Politics between states occurs in an international system that is“anarchic” (without an overarching authority that can impose order andgood behavior on all the states in their relations with each other and withother actors.2. People are naturally selfish, therefore, states act the same.3. The fundamental goal of each state is to ensure its own security andsurvival.4. Security maximizes its powers: economic, knowledge, military.5. States are in constant competition for power, because power is a“zero-sum” commodity”.6. There is no expectation that another state can be trusted, will avoidviolence, or act ethically.7. A state makes treaties and breaks them; makes war or cooperates foronly one reason, to maximize its security goals.
31 continued Political Idealism, (Danziger p. 299): Human nature is basically good.People and the states they construct can be altruistic and cooperative.Aggression and power-maximizing behavior is not inevitable by States.If a states actions reduce the welfare of people in any country or increase interstate conflict and war, it is usually because of poorly designed institutions (governments, economic systems, legal systems), but not because people are innately selfish or evil.It is possible to establish an international system in which well-designed institutions can achieve and encourage cooperative behavior among states.If such an international system is exercised, states can create a “positive sum” environment.
32 Three Major Goals of States (Danziger, pp. 294-295) I. Security:1). Survival:2). Autonomy:3). Influence:4). Prestige:5). Dominance:
33 continued Stability: 1). Order maintenance: 2). Establishment violence:3). Political Development:
34 continued III. Prosperity: 1). Economic Development: 2). Political Economy’s capacities to:3). Welfare Distribution:
35 Mechanisms of Cooperation Between States (Danziger pp. 279-282) Diplomacy:Alliances:International Regimes:
36 International Law, Legal Structures, and International Organizations (pp. 306) On the Laws of War and Peace, by Hugo Grotius (1625): Grotius emphasized“natural law” -- sensible forms of behaviorthat should guide states behavior and actions with each other.By the 19th Century, “positivist law” is being used:--explicit written agreements that define both appropriate and unacceptable behaviors between states in the form of treaties orconventions, e.g. “the Helsinki Agreement”. (Danziger p. 306)
37 The International Court of Justice (World Court) located in The Hague Responsibilities and accomplishments:1. Interprets international law.2. Adjudicates disputes between states.3. Hears cases on human rights violations and genocide by states or individuals with state authority.4. Makes rulings (decisions) on trials.5. Holds states and national leaders accountable for ultra-violence perpetrated by the state on other states.6. Is a valuable mechanism for conflict resolution between states.7. It issues numerous advisory opinions (p. 307)
38 World Court continued Weaknesses of the World Court: 1. Even if states sign an agreement with other states and break or abuse the agreement, the court can rule, however, the court has jurisdiction and binding decision authority only if both parties disputing accept its ruling.2. Less than one-third of the United Nation’s state members have agreed to accept automatically the court’s jurisdiction in matters affecting them.3. Most of those states who have not agreed to automatically accepta ruling concerning them by the court have added qualifications to their acceptance.4. With ruling pertaining to political or economic importance or repercussions to states, states have refused rulings out of the court.5. Most states hold their own judicial systems and their laws supreme over the International Court of Justice.
40 Competition Among States Balance of Power among states:When there is a rough equality in the power of resources (political, economic, and especially military) that can be exercised by sets of competing states (Kaplan 1957; Morgenthau 1993 in Danziger pp ).An attempt to maintain a general stability in the relations among states and to preserve the status quo.Peace can be ensured only by a balancing of contending states because potential aggressors will be deterred only by overwhelming opposing power.Typically a few major power states [4-to-6] that are decisive in ensuring that the balance is sustained.These states and others, constantly create shifting alliances based only on self-interest and system equilibrium, never on friendship or ideology.To prevent actions that threaten the overall balance of system one or more power states must intervene in the affairs of a single state or the relations between states.There will be periodic political violence and war because states must use force to preserve themselves and because the system is not always in such balance that all conflict between states is deterred (p. 309)
41 continued Balance of Terror: The enormous destructive capacity of modern military technologies of competing states. (Danziger p. 315)---from mutual deterrence, a state expands its destructive capacity, number of weapons, and technical sophisticationto a point where it…can inflict catastrophic and unacceptable damage on a rival---Mutually Assured Destruction.
42 Domination and Dependence Three different forms of “leverage” powerful states exercise on dependent states:1. Economic leverage:2. Military leverage:3. Political leverage:(Danziger pp. 316)
43 continuedDominant states have employed three different “styles” of domination over dependent states:1. The “Segregationist Style of colonialism2. The Assimilationist Style3. The Style of Indirect Rule(Danziger p. 317)
44 continued Neocolonialsim: Since World War II, new forms of domination and dependence has evolved:--primarily by economic leverage, e.g.loans, technology transfer, militarysupport.--Also through the dominate states subtle alliance of asmall internal elite, transnational corporations, andfinancial institutions, e.g. The World Bank andInternational Money Fund.(Danziger pp 317)
45 GlobalizationGlobalization is the increasing integration of diverse economic, socio-cultural, military, and environmental phenomena by means of dense networks of trade, action, and information that span vast distances around the world. (Danziger p. 319)
46 Chapter 12: Political Violence: the use of actual physical violence or very serous threats of such violence to achieve political goalsTypes of Political Violence:1. State Violence against Individuals or Groups through:a. order-maintenance -- a state acts as police,judge and executer of punishment when individuals break the law.b. establishment violence -- the excessive reliance on force and oppressive laws to maintain public order. (pp )
47 Types of Political Violence, continued (Danziger pp. 334-344) 2. Individual Violence against an Individual.3. Group Violence against an Individual:a. Terrorism4. Group Violence against a Group:a. Nation-based violence (ethnonationalism).b. Class Conflict5. Individual or Group Violence against the State:a. Riot.b. Rebellionc. Separatist Violenced. Coup.e. Revolution
48 Revolution: is the rapid and fundamental transformation of the political system [p. 344] The explicit objective of revolution is to destroy the existing political system and replace it with a new one. (p. 344)
49 Four Broad Strategies that can be employed to achieve a revolution Strategy I: TerrorismStrategy II: Revolution from aboveStrategy III: Guerrilla WarStrategy IV: Democratic Revolution(Danziger pp )
50 Conditions for Revolution: What is the “J-curve” theory? Disparities between the values that the population expects to enjoy from the government and the actual value distribution the population receives. (p 346/47)Understand the three post-revolutionary phases as identified by Crane Brinton (1957) [p. 344]:1. Rule of the moderates:2. Rule of the radicals:3. Reaction and moderation:
51 Six uses of Force between States BlockadeState-sponsored terrorismA brief, single use of forceA ClashA low-intensity conflictWar(Danziger pp )
52 What Causes War? Newer nations. States that have effectively socialized their citizens to accept the government’s actions on national security.Most warlike states have rising prosperity, but are relatively poor.Countries with desirable geopolitical features: resources and location.Countries not well linked to the global economy.States most highly militarized and expanding their military power.Countries whose political culture reflects a high degree of nationalism.
53 Evaluating Political Violence The normative [or Conservative] perspective on political violence: it is unacceptable, deviant behavior. The only legacy of violence is to undermine order in the society; violence is part of an erroneous belief that radical social change can lead to lasting improvements.The contrary perspective argues: Political violence is often the best or even the only mechanism for liberation from oppression and tyranny. Dominant elites who manipulate the state to serve their interests, not the collective good, need to be rid of. And if government and its leaders refuse to be constrained by a limited mandate and are not responsive to the citizens, then the people have the right to overthrow them (John Locke in Danziger p. 335).