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IRELAND: ENGLANDS FIRST COLONY. BRITISH ISLES IRELAND IRELANDINTRO.

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Presentation on theme: "IRELAND: ENGLANDS FIRST COLONY. BRITISH ISLES IRELAND IRELANDINTRO."— Presentation transcript:

1 IRELAND: ENGLANDS FIRST COLONY

2 BRITISH ISLES

3 IRELAND IRELANDINTRO

4 PROVINCESPROVINCES

5 COUNTIES – most were small kingdoms

6 CLANS IN GAELIC IRELAND Family-based landholding - bailles and townlands Family-based landholding - bailles and townlands Monastic Christianity – no towns except near monasteries or where Vikings founded ports Monastic Christianity – no towns except near monasteries or where Vikings founded ports Wealth based on cattle and land Wealth based on cattle and land Chiefs elected out of most important family – did not automatically inherit – tanistry Chiefs elected out of most important family – did not automatically inherit – tanistry

7 LEGAL SYSTEM Brehon law – based on family responsibility as well as individual responsibilty; fines Brehon law – based on family responsibility as well as individual responsibilty; fines Rights of women – more than other places Rights of women – more than other places Language – no words for yes no or personal possessions Language – no words for yes no or personal possessions

8 COTTAGES AND TURF

9 PRE-ENGLISH: CHIEFDOMS AND KINGDOMS Surnames based Surnames based on descent from an ancestor, not occupation or place Some of Europes oldest names Tribal society

10 IRISH SOLDIERS – 1500s

11 FIRST INVASION AND THE PALE English King English King Henry II invited By MacMurrough Claims throne of Ireland. Cant conquer but Gains foothold Around Dublin – The Pale Norman knights become Irish – Burkes, Doyles

12 KEEPSKEEPS

13 ENGLISH-IRISH RELATIONS Wild Irish – English settlers and officials consider those living outside their towns as uncivilized. Wild Irish – English settlers and officials consider those living outside their towns as uncivilized. English become a power to be used by one chieftain against another. English become a power to be used by one chieftain against another. Irish chieftains more concerned about their own power and their traditional enemies than about the English threat. Irish chieftains more concerned about their own power and their traditional enemies than about the English threat.

14 TUDOR POLICIES Surrender and regrant policy. Submit to the English king and the chieftain got a title. Earl of …. Surrender and regrant policy. Submit to the English king and the chieftain got a title. Earl of …. Martial law – King can impose military control over an area in rebellion. Martial law – King can impose military control over an area in rebellion. Rebellions by Irish lords are crushed – wars with Fitzgeralds in 1550s and 60s. English soldiers awarded with land and estates. Rebellions by Irish lords are crushed – wars with Fitzgeralds in 1550s and 60s. English soldiers awarded with land and estates. Submission and pardon- A chieftain and his men surrender and are pardoned. Submission and pardon- A chieftain and his men surrender and are pardoned.

15 Tudor policy: Submission and regrant

16 Sir Walter Raleigh and Humphrey Gilbert commit first atrocity in English colonial history – massacre 600 surrendered soldiers. 1560s.

17 TYRONES REBELLION or Nine Years War As time goes on, more and more English towns and settlements are established. As time goes on, more and more English towns and settlements are established. Strongest native area still Gaelic in both culture and politics is Ulster, in north. Strongest native area still Gaelic in both culture and politics is Ulster, in north. Most powerful families – the ONeills Most powerful families – the ONeills Others: ODonnells, Maguires, McMahons, OCahans Others: ODonnells, Maguires, McMahons, OCahans In 1560s Shane ONeill conquers and unites Ulster, but is assassinated in Scares English. In 1560s Shane ONeill conquers and unites Ulster, but is assassinated in Scares English.

18 NINE YEARS WAR Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone Raised in the household of an English settler Raised in the household of an English settler Loyal to the Queen in rebellions Loyal to the Queen in rebellions Finally fed up with English treatment Finally fed up with English treatment

19 INITIAL SUCCESS! Large English armies destroyed Battle of Yellow Ford Battle of Yellow Ford

20 Continued Success Many northern chieftains ally with ONeill Many northern chieftains ally with ONeill English blunders – Elizabeth sends her favorite the Earl of Essex in English blunders – Elizabeth sends her favorite the Earl of Essex in He marches in wrong direction; makes a truce with ONeill. Executed upon return to England He marches in wrong direction; makes a truce with ONeill. Executed upon return to England

21 ONeill looks for help Contacts Spanish Contacts Spanish Conducts guerrilla- style war – raids and burning of English settlements. Conducts guerrilla- style war – raids and burning of English settlements. Pretends to ask for truces, but was probably biding his time. Pretends to ask for truces, but was probably biding his time.

22 SPANISH HELP! A Spanish force lands in Southwest Ireland and digs in at Kinsale. A Spanish force lands in Southwest Ireland and digs in at Kinsale. English lay siege. English lay siege. ONeill and his allies march the length of the island in three days to relieve the siege. ONeill and his allies march the length of the island in three days to relieve the siege. English under Mountjoy destroy the Irish forces. English under Mountjoy destroy the Irish forces.

23 AFTERMATH English commander Mountjoy (below) burns crops, uses famine to pursue ONeill, hem in his territory. About a thousand people starve to death in Devlin territory alone, for hiding ONeill. ONeill is forced to submit in Once he does he learns Elizabeth had died two weeks earlier. ONeill is forced to submit in Once he does he learns Elizabeth had died two weeks earlier.

24 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS Hugh ONeill and other leaders flee Ireland after submitting to English Hugh ONeill and other leaders flee Ireland after submitting to English Thousands are starved or killed in war Thousands are starved or killed in war Thousands of Irish leave in years following to fight in European armies – The Wild Geese Thousands of Irish leave in years following to fight in European armies – The Wild Geese

25 WHY THEY LOST! WHY THEY LOST

26 ULSTER PLANTATION

27 on/companies/index.shtml on/companies/index.shtml on/companies/index.shtml on/companies/index.shtml

28 CROMWELL IN IRELAND Catholic landowners side with the King against Parliament. Catholic landowners side with the King against Parliament. At beginning of uprising, some Protestants are killed. Rumors of massacres grow. At beginning of uprising, some Protestants are killed. Rumors of massacres grow. Cromwell leads a force against the rebels. Cromwell leads a force against the rebels.

29 4,000 massacred at Drogheda. this is a righteous judgement of god upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbrued their hands in so much innocent blood....

30 ALWAYS ON THE WRONG SIDE

31 PENAL LAWS

32 A MASS ROCK

33 LESSONS Divide and conquer tactics Divide and conquer tactics Destruction of native landholding and legal systems and attempted replacement with reliable English colonists Destruction of native landholding and legal systems and attempted replacement with reliable English colonists Cultural genocide – outlaw native customs Cultural genocide – outlaw native customs Failure to include colonized people so they become resentful. Left powerless and poverty- stricken, the Irish have frequent rebellions until independence in Failure to include colonized people so they become resentful. Left powerless and poverty- stricken, the Irish have frequent rebellions until independence in Patronage – going native – some settlers helped to preserve Irish cultural practices Patronage – going native – some settlers helped to preserve Irish cultural practices

34 LEGACIES glish_words_of_Irish_origin glish_words_of_Irish_origin glish_words_of_Irish_origin glish_words_of_Irish_origin


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