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Slide 1 of 27 chemistry. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 27 The Laws Governing Formulas and Names A birthday cake for a four- year-old has.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 27 chemistry. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 27 The Laws Governing Formulas and Names A birthday cake for a four- year-old has."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 of 27 chemistry

2 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 27 The Laws Governing Formulas and Names A birthday cake for a four- year-old has four candles. The ratio of candles to birthday cake is 4:1. In chemistry, similar relationships exist among the masses of elements as they combine in compounds. 9.5

3 Slide 3 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions What are the two laws that describe how compounds form? 9.5

4 Slide 4 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > The rules for naming and writing formulas for compounds are possible only because compounds form from the elements in predictable ways. These ways are summed up in two laws: the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions. The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 9.5

5 Slide 5 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > The Law of Definite Proportions The law of definite proportions states that in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions. The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 9.5

6 Slide 6 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Water obeys the law of definite proportions. In every sample of water, the mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is always 8:1. The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 9.5

7 Slide 7 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Hydrogen peroxide obeys the law of definite proportions. The mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is always 16:1. The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 9.5

8 Slide 8 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > The Law of Multiple Proportions The law of multiple proportions: Whenever the same two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers. The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 9.5

9 Slide 9 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > A Diagram of the Law of Multiple Proportions The Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 9.5

10 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 10 of

11 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 11 of

12 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 12 of

13 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 13 of

14 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 14 of 27 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 9.1 Problem Solving 9.34 Solve Problem 34 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

15 Slide 15 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds How do you use a flowchart to write the name of a chemical compound? Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

16 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 16 of 27 The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Follow the arrows and answer the questions on the flowchart to write the correct name for a compound. Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

17 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 17 of 27 The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

18 Slide 18 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > CuSO 4 is an example from the flowchart. The compound will end in -ite or -ate. Cu is not part of Group A, so you must name the ions and use a Roman numeral to identify the charge of the transition metal. The name is copper(II) sulfate. Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

19 Slide 19 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Practicing Skills: Writing Chemical Formulas What four guidelines should you follow to write the formula of a chemical compound? 9.4 Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds

20 Slide 20 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > In writing a chemical formula from a chemical name, it is helpful to remember the following guidelines. An -ide ending generally indicates a binary compound. An -ite or -ate ending means a polyatomic ion that includes oxygen is in the formula. Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

21 Slide 21 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Prefixes in a name generally indicate that the compound is molecular. A Roman numeral after the name of a cation shows the ionic charge of the cation. Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

22 Slide 22 of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Practicing Skills: Naming Chemical Compounds 9.5

23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Section Quiz -or- Slide 23 of 27 Continue to: Launch: Section Quiz 9.5. Assess students understanding of the concepts in Section 9.5.

24 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 24 of 27 Section Quiz The law of definite proportions states that in samples of any chemical compound, the elements are always in the same proportion by a.mass. b.volume. c.group number. d.period number.

25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 25 of 27 Section Quiz You want to write the chemical formula for iron(II) chloride. Based on Figure 9.22, after identifying symbols, what is the correct next step in the flowchart? a.Group A elements b.Roman numerals c.Balance charges d.Polyatomic ions

26 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 26 of 27 Section Quiz Using the flowchart in Figure 9.20, if you determine that the name of an ion ends in -ite or -ate, the ion is a a.polyatomic cation. b.polyatomic anion. c.transition metal cation. d.group A anion.

27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 27 of 27 The Laws Governing Formulas and Names > Concept Map 9 Solve the Concept Map with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. Concept Map

28 END OF SHOW


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