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Introduction to Computer Input Devices and Their Evaluation Shumin Zhai IBM Almaden Research Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Computer Input Devices and Their Evaluation Shumin Zhai IBM Almaden Research Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Computer Input Devices and Their Evaluation Shumin Zhai IBM Almaden Research Center

2 First Mouse (Douglas Engelbart and William English, 1964)

3 First Mouse Patent (Engelbart)

4 "A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect," Douglas C. Engelbart, and William K. English, Proc Fall Joint Computer Conference

5 A Variety of Input Devices Mouse Mouse Stylus Stylus Touchscreen Touchscreen Touchpad Touchpad Joystick Joystick......

6 Performance Evaluation I like it! / It is cool! is not enough I like it! / It is cool! is not enough Perception is not always realityPerception is not always reality Conscious articulation is not always behavior (describe how to ride a bike)Conscious articulation is not always behavior (describe how to ride a bike) Individual differences Individual differences Making HCI an empirical (good) science Making HCI an empirical (good) science

7 Iterative Design Observation / idea Design/ implementation Product/ Knowledge Performance Evaluation Evaluation for insights Evaluator vs. designer

8 Qualitative Analysis Touchscreen Touchscreen ProsPros ConsCons Stylus / light pen Stylus / light pen ProsPros ConsCons

9 Quantitative Performance Evaluation What to measure? What to measure? Depending on the task / application scenarioDepending on the task / application scenario Common measures Common measures Trial completion timeTrial completion time Error rateError rate Learning speedLearning speed Comfort / fatigueComfort / fatigue etc.etc.

10 Real task: Interacting with WIMP interface Real task: Interacting with WIMP interface Experimental task: target acquisition Experimental task: target acquisition abstract, elemental, essentialabstract, elemental, essential Performance measures: time, error rate Performance measures: time, error rate Pointing Device Evaluation

11 Fitts law ( Paul Fitts, 1954) MT = a + b log 2 ( +1) MT = a + b log 2 ( +1)DW ID DW 1/b - Index of Performance, Throughput, Bandwidth

12 Fitts law The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement, Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol 47, The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement, Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol 47,

13 ID (bits) log 2 (A/W+1) Time (sec) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

14 Experimental Design Fairness for the given task Fairness for the given task Wide enough ID combinations Wide enough ID combinations Ws: from character size (10) to icon (30 pixel)Ws: from character size (10) to icon (30 pixel) As: from short (60) to cross screen (800)As: from short (60) to cross screen (800) Multiple individuals/subjects Multiple individuals/subjects Balancing orders Balancing orders Statistical analysis Statistical analysis Controlling error (about 5%) Controlling error (about 5%) A B B A A B C B C A C A B

15 Task modeling for evaluation Bring task modeling to device evaluation Bring task modeling to device evaluation Card, English, Burr, 1978 Evaluation of mouse, rate controlled isometric joystick, step keys and text keys for text selection on a CRT, Ergonomics, vol. 21, Card, English, Burr, 1978 Evaluation of mouse, rate controlled isometric joystick, step keys and text keys for text selection on a CRT, Ergonomics, vol. 21,

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17 Beyond Fitts law Hicks law Hicks law Key stroke model Key stroke model Control theoretic modeling Control theoretic modeling Limitations to Fitts law: pointing only Limitations to Fitts law: pointing only

18 Trajectory-based tasks Example: hierarchical menus Example: hierarchical menus Is there a law to Steering? Is there a law to Steering?

19 Thought experiment... 2 goals passing 2 goals passing ID = log 2 ( +1) 3 goals passing 3 goals passing ID = 2 log 2 ( +1) N+1 goals passing N+1 goals passing ID = N log 2 ( +1) goals passing goals passing ID = ? A W A 2W A NW A A/2 A/N A/2 A/NA/N W A W A W

20 Steering law Steering law (Accot and Zhai 1997) Steering law (Accot and Zhai 1997) Beyond Fitts law: Modeling trajectory based HCI tasks, Proc of CHI97Beyond Fitts law: Modeling trajectory based HCI tasks, Proc of CHI97 dx W(x) ID C = C T C = a + b ID C

21 ResultsAW

22 Device comparison in steering tasks (Accot & Zhai, CHI99) Steering Index of Difficulty Time Trackball Touchpad Trackpoint Mouse Stylus

23 Conferences and Journals CHI: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems INTERACT: IFIP Conference on Human Computer Interaction INTERACT: IFIP Conference on Human Computer Interaction UIST: ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology UIST: ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology HFES: Human Factors and Ergonomics Annual Meeting HFES: Human Factors and Ergonomics Annual Meeting ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction (TOCHI) ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction (TOCHI)

24 Lab Assignment Measure Fitts law index of performance with bare hand on paper Measure Fitts law index of performance with bare hand on paper Measure any two devices using Fitts law with the Almaden Program Measure any two devices using Fitts law with the Almaden Program Compare performance of the two devices Compare performance of the two devices Compare devices with bare hand Compare devices with bare hand Discuss the validity/benefits of Fitts law in your study. Discuss the validity/benefits of Fitts law in your study. Discuss pros and cons of the devices: suggest improvements or new designs Discuss pros and cons of the devices: suggest improvements or new designs


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