# Startup Slide BorneoDream.com Billy Hammond #10407.

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Startup Slide BorneoDream.com Billy Hammond #10407

Nitrox Review Equipment Requirements Advanced Nitrox??? Extension of Time Welcome to Advanced Nitrox Diving Welcome to Advanced Nitrox Diving Decompression Gas Welcome to Advanced Nitrox Diving

Pressure & Pressure Effects! Equalizing Buoyancy Dive Time No Deco Limits MOD Equalizing Buoyancy Dive Time No Deco Limits MOD Depth + Pressure = Physical Principals Of Diving Physical Principals Of Diving STRESS STRESS Physical Principals of Diving

1 ATA = 760 mmHg = 14.696 psi = 1.0132 bar etc 1 ATA = 760 mmHg = 14.696 psi = 1.0132 bar etc 33 fsw approximately = 10 metres = 1 BAR Units Of Atmosphere Atmosphere vs. Atmosphere Absolute Units of Atmosphere

Depth Vs. Pressure Depth (fsw) Depth (metres) Pressure (BAR) Surface1 BAR 33102 BAR 66203 BAR 99304 BAR 132405 BAR 165506 BAR Pressure (ATA) = (Depth ÷ 33 fsw) +1 Pressure (BAR) = (Depth ÷ 10 metres) +1 Depth Vs. Pressure

Pressure Vs. Volume DepthPressureVolume (fsw)(metres)(BAR)(size) Surface11 331021/2 662031/3 993041/4 1324051/5 1655061/6 Simply Stated: Volume is inversely related to pressure Simply Stated: Volume is inversely related to pressure Formula: P 1 × V 1 = P 2 × V 2 Pressure Vs. Volume

Boyles Law Problem: A Flexible container has 57 litres of air at 15 metres. How much will the volume change if it is taken to 28 metres? Solution: Step 1: Change depths to BAR: Solution: Step 1: Change depths to BAR: 15 metres = 2.5 BAR 28 metres = 3.8 BAR 15 metres = 2.5 BAR 28 metres = 3.8 BAR Step 2: Re-work formula to solve for V 2 : P 1 × V 1 ÷ P 2 = V 2 Step 3: Solve: 2.5 BAR × 57 litres ÷ 3.8 BAR = 37.5 litres Boyles Law

Daltons Law The whole is equal to the sum of all the parts P total = P gas1 + P gas2 +P gas3 … P gas(n) Air = 21% Oxygen 78% Nitrogen 1% Other Stuff (mostly argon) Air = 21% Oxygen 78% Nitrogen 1% Other Stuff (mostly argon) or Pressure of a gas = Total pressure × fraction of gas Pressure of a gas = Total pressure × fraction of gas Pg = Pt × fg Daltons Law

Table 4 ~ Depth, Pressure and Gas Pressures Air and Nitrox DepthTotalAirEAN32EAN40 fsw metres Pressure (BAR) NitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygen Surface10.790.210.680.320.600.40 331021.580.421.360.641.200.80 662032.370.632.040.961.801.20 993043.150.842.721.282.401.60 1324053.951.053.401.60-- 1655064.741.26-- Daltons Law ~ Air & Nitrox

DepthTotalEAN40EAN60EAN80 fsw metres Pressure (BAR) NitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygen Surface1.0.60.40.60.20.80 1031.30.780.52 0.780.261.04 2061.60.960.64 0.960.321.28 33102.01.200.80 1.200.401.60 5516.62.671.601.07 1.60-- 66203.01.801.20 (1.80)-- 99304.02.401.60-- Table 5 ~ Depth, Pressure and Gas Pressures ~ EAN40, EAN60 and EAN80 Daltons Law Table 4 ~ Depth, Pressure and Gas Pressures Air and Nitrox DepthTotalAirEAN32EAN40 fsw metres Pressure (BAR) NitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygen Surface10.790.210.680.320.600.40 331021.580.421.360.641.200.80 662032.370.632.040.961.801.20 993043.150.842.721.282.401.60 1324053.951.053.401.60-- 1655064.741.26-- Daltons Law ~ EAN 40, 60, 80

DepthTotalEAN40EAN60EAN80 fsw metre s Pressur e (ATA) NitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygenNitrogenOxygen Surface1.0.60.40.60.20.80 1031.30.780.52 0.780.261.04 2061.60.960.64 0.960.321.28 33102.01.200.80 1.200.401.60 5516.62.671.601.07 1.60-- 66203.01.801.20 (1.80)-- 99304.02.401.60-- Daltons Law Example: EAN 60 at 10 metres has corresponding gas pressures of: Oxygen: 2 BAR ×.60 = 1.20 BAR Nitrogen: 2 BAR ×.40 =.80 BAR Table 5 ~ Depth, Pressure and Gas Pressures ~ EAN40, EAN60 and EAN80 Daltons Law ~ Example

Daltons Law Best Mix Fraction of the gas = Pressure of the gas Pressure Total Pressure of the gas Pressure Total fg = Pg Pt Pg Pt Maximum Operating Depth (MOD) Depth is the same as Pressure so… Pressure (Total) can be converted to Depth Depth is the same as Pressure so… Pressure (Total) can be converted to Depth Pressure Total = Pressure of the gas Fraction of the gas Pressure of the gas Fraction of the gas Pt = Pg fg Pg fg Daltons Law ~ MOD

Pg fg Pt Pg fg Pt Daltons Law Pg Pg fg Pt = = × × = = What Dose? Best Mix? How Deep? Daltons Law

Equivalent Air Depth Step 1: How Much Nitrogen? fN 2 = 1 – fO 2 Step 2: How much N 2 compared to air? Ratio = (1 – fO 2 ) ÷ 0.79 Step 3: Convert to absolute depth! Absolute Depth = Actual Depth + 10 metres Step 4: EAD absolute: EAD absolute = Absolute Depth × Ratio Step 5: Calculate the EAD: EAD = EAD absolute - 10 metres Equivalent Air Depth

Physical Principals Review Physical Principals Review 1.What is the absolute pressure at 28 metres? 2.What is the depth at an absolute pressure of 3.1 BAR? 3.What is the pressure of oxygen of EAN45 at 19 metres? (28 ÷ 10) + 1 = 3.8 BAR (3.1 - 1) × 10 = 21 metres ((19 ÷ 10) + 1) ×.45 = 1.3 BAR PO 2 Physical Principals ~ Review ~ 1-3

Physical Principals Review Physical Principals Review 5.At what depth does the pressure of oxygen of normal air reach 1.6 BAR? ((1.6 ÷.21) – 1) × 10 = 66.19 metres 4.What is the pressure of nitrogen of EAN28 at 43 metres? ((43 ÷ 10) + 1) × (1 -.28) = 3.8 BAR Physical Principals ~ Review ~ 4-5

Physical Principals Review Physical Principals Review 6.What is the MOD of: EAN28 EAN40 EAN50 ((1.6 ÷.28) - 1) × 10 = 47.1 metres ((1.6 ÷.4) - 1) × 10 = 30 metres ((1.6 ÷.5) - 1) × 10 = 22 metres EAN60 ((1.6 ÷.6) - 1) × 10 = 16.6 metres 7.What is the EAD of EAN50 at 21 metres? ((1 -.5) ÷.79) × (21 + 10) - 10 = 9.6 metres Physical Principals ~ Review ~ 6-7

Physiology is exceptionally complex 2 problems with diving: DCS and CNS O 2 Toxicity 2 problems with diving: DCS and CNS O 2 Toxicity Time and Dose relationship Physiological Principles of Diving Physiological Principles of Diving Body responds to nitrogen and oxygen as if they are DRUGS Body responds to nitrogen and oxygen as if they are DRUGS Physiological Principles of Diving

Properties of Nitrogen Decompression Illness: Type I – Pain Only Bends Type II – Central Nervous System Decompression Illness: Type I – Pain Only Bends Type II – Central Nervous System Nitrogen If anything seems wrong… IT IS WRONG!!! Surface NOW! If anything seems wrong… IT IS WRONG!!! Surface NOW! Dehydration is the leading cause of DCS Nitrogen

Properties of Oxygen ConVENTID Oxygen NOAA O 2 Exposure Chart Hypoxia Hyperoxia Pulmonary Toxicity Hypoxia Hyperoxia Pulmonary Toxicity OTUs CNS Toxicity Free Radicals OTUs CNS Toxicity Free Radicals Oxygen

CO 2 Convulsions CO 2 Convulsions Deleterious Effect Deleterious Effect Carbon Dioxide Worsens Narcosis Worsens Narcosis CO 2 Sources CO 2 Sources Carbon Dioxide

Compressor Intakes Improper Blending Techniques CO 2 Sources Problems: Poor Compressor Maintenance Colorless, Odorless, Tasteless: Hemoglobin Bonding Unconsciousness > Death CO 2 Sources

Physiological Principals Review Physiological Principals Review 1.What are the two pressure effects of nitrogen on the human body? 2.What should the diver do if nitrogen narcosis is suspected? 3.Does Nitrox eliminate the need to plan dives and the bends? Nitrogen Narcosis and Decompression Sickness Ascend or abort the dive Absolutely NOT 4.Is using Nitrox safer than using air? No, not necessarily, oxygen toxicity is a concern 5.Can the diver predict the onset of an oxygen convulsion? No, the diver can only plan to avoid Physiological Principals ~ Review ~ 1-5

Physiological Principals Review Physiological Principals Review 6.Is diving at a pressure of oxygen of 1.3 BAR safer than 1.4 BAR? 7.What are the two types of oxygen toxicity? 8.Which type of oxygen toxicity is of primary concern to the Nitrox diver? Only in the sense it may take longer to convulse, otherwise no, it is not safer Pulmonary and Central Nervous System Central Nervous System – convulsions 9.List three conditions that carbon dioxide can cause or make worse: a.Headache b.Increased narcosis c.Increased oxygen toxicity 10.Why is carbon monoxide considered a major hazard? It binds with the hemoglobin of the blood and prevents oxygen from getting to the tissues Physiological Principals ~ Review ~ 6-10

Accident Analysis Computer Loss Gas Loss Dive Planning What If….? Dive Planning

Reduced nitrogen absorption Planning Considerations: Tables / Computers Advanced Nitrox Uses Shortens deco time Increases N 2 elimination Shortens deco time Increases N 2 elimination Pony Bottles Different gases and reasoning Computer generated dive tables Multimix dive computers Advanced Nitrox Uses

SAC Rate Determining SAC Rate: 1.Determine bar used Gas Requirements Surface Air Consumption Rate (also SCR, Surface Consumption Rate) Surface Air Consumption Rate (also SCR, Surface Consumption Rate) 2.Determine litres used 3.Determine time 4.Determine litres used per minute 5.Convert litres used per minute at depth (BAR) to SAC (SCR) Gas Requirements

Use the table of choice: USN, Sport, DCEIM, Buhlmann … Use the table of choice: USN, Sport, DCEIM, Buhlmann … 3 Sections 1.No Deco Table Dive Tables 2.Surface Interval Table 3.Residual Nitrogen Table DO NOT MIX TABLES! Dive Tables

START SIT AD: EAD: TBT: AD: EAD: ABT: +RBT: =TBT: ABT: +RBT: =TBT: Dive Tables RECORD START TIME DETERMINE ACTUAL DEPTH RECORD EAD (AND NOTE GAS USED) TOTAL BOTTOM TIME SAFETY AND/OR DECO STOP(S) GROUP LETTERS & SURFACE INTERVAL TIME SECOND DIVE DEPTH & EAD (NOTE GAS USED) TOTAL BOTTOM TIME FOR 2 ND DIVE FINAL STOP(S) AND DIVE LETTER Dive Tables ~ Profile

Major Pitfall? … The Diver!!! Major Pitfall? … The Diver!!! No Multi-Level Tracking Pitfalls of Tables Inaccurate Time Tracking Inaccurate Depth Tracking Pitfalls of Tables

Based on Standard Tables & Mixes (Typically EAN32 & EAN36) Based on Standard Tables & Mixes (Typically EAN32 & EAN36) Ease Of Use Nitrox Tables No Calculation Errors EAD Tables More Common Nitrox Tables

EAD Table (Imperial) EAD Table (Imperial) Air Table.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29 30 31323334353637 40 41424344464748 50 5152535455565859 60 6162636466676970 7172747576788081 80 8182848687899092 90 9193949698100101103 100 101103105107108110112114 110 111113115117119121123126 EAD Table (Imperial)

EAD Table (Metric) EAD Table (Metric) Air Table.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29 999910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 27 28 29 3031 30 31 32 33 34 33 34 35 3637 38 EAD Table (Metric)

MOD Tables (Imperial) MOD Tables (Imperial) Air Table.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29 30 31323334353637 40 41424344464748 140 142144146149151154156159 MOD 1.4187177167159151144138132126 1.6218207196187178170162155149 MOD Tables (Imperial)

MOD Tables (Metric) MOD Tables (Metric) Air Table.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29 999910 11 12 13 14 42 43 4445 464748 MOD 1.4575451484644424038 1.6666360575452494745 MOD Tables (Metric)

PO 2 Table (Imperial) PO 2 Table (Imperial) PO 2 O 2 Time.21.22.23.24.25.26.27 1.0300124117110104999389 1.1240139132124118112106101 1.2210155147139132125119113 1.3180171162153145138132125 1.4150187177167159151144138 1.5120202192182173165157150 1.645218207196187178170162 PO 2 Table (Imperial)

PO 2 Table (Metric) PO 2 Table (Metric) PO 2 O 2 Time.21.22.23.24.25.26.27 1.030038363332302827 1.124042403836343231 1.221047454240383634 1.318052494744424038 1.415057545148464442 1.512061585553504846 1.64566636057545249 PO 2 Table (Metric)

Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review 1.What is the Surface Air Consumption rate of a diver that has the following data: Depth:12 metres Cylinder: 2830 L@227 bar Start PRESSURE: 145 bar End PRESSURE:117 bar Time: 4 minutes 1.What is the Surface Air Consumption rate of a diver that has the following data: Depth:12 metres Cylinder: 2830 L@227 bar Start PRESSURE: 145 bar End PRESSURE:117 bar Time: 4 minutes Aluminum 227 bar = 12.467 litres per bar (12.5 litre cylinder) Used 28 bar in 4 minutes = 7 bar / minute 7 bar/min. × 12.467 litres/bar = 87 litres per minute 12 metres = 2.2 BAR 87 ÷ 2.2 = 40 litres of gas per minute (rounded for safety) Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 1

AIR 3:21 AD: 23.5metres EAD: 23.5metres TBT :34 AD:16metres EAD:16metres ABT::36 +RBT::17 =TBT::53 ABT::36 +RBT::17 =TBT::53 Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review H H C C J J 2.Show the Dive Plan and profile for an Air dive to 23.5 metres for 34 minutes, 3:21 Surface Interval, and a second dive to 16 metres for 36 minutes. Show all residual nitrogen categories. Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 2

Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review 3.What is the best mix for a dive to 20 metres and not exceed an oxygen pressure of 1.4 BAR. 1.4 ÷ (20 ÷ 10 + 1) =.47 or EAN 47 Depth, Mix and PO 2 Table (Metric) PO 2 O 2 Time.44.45.46..47.48.49.50 1.3180201918 17 16 1.4150222120 19 18 1.51202423 2221 20 Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 3

Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review 4.Show the Dive Plan and profile for a Nitrox dive to 25 metres for 38 minutes, 2:18 Surface Interval, and a second dive to 19.5 metres for 48 minutes. Choose the Best Mix with an oxygen pressure of 1.4 BAR at the maximum depth. Use the same mix for both dives. Show all residual nitrogen categories. a.Using the EAD Tables, the best mix for 25 metres at 1.4 BAR oxygen exposure is EAN 40. b.Using the EAD Tables, the EAD of EAN 40 at 25 metres is 18 metres. (note there may be a rounding difference in depths between imperial and metric EAD tables) Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 4a-b

EAN 43 2:18 AD: 81 fsw 25 metres AD: 81 fsw 25 metres EAD: 50 fsw 18 metres EAD: 50 fsw 18 metres TBT :38 AD: 64 fsw 19.5 metres AD: 64 fsw 19.5 metres EAD: 40 fsw 12 metres EAD: 40 fsw 12 metres ABT::48:48 +RBT::37:49 =TBT::85:97 ABT::48:48 +RBT::37:49 =TBT::85:97 Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review F (G) D (E) I I 4c.USN Tables & USN Modified Tables (in this case using either of these tables results in the same answer, but note the difference using the metric tables.) Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 4c USN

EAN 43 2:18 AD: 81 fsw 25 metres AD: 81 fsw 25 metres EAD: 50 fsw 18 metres EAD: 50 fsw 18 metres TBT :38 AD: 64 fsw 19.5 metres AD: 64 fsw 19.5 metres EAD: 40 fsw 12 metres EAD: 40 fsw 12 metres ABT::48:48 × modifier:× 1.3× 1.4 =TBT::62.4:67.2 ABT::48:48 × modifier:× 1.3× 1.4 =TBT::62.4:67.2 Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review F (E) × 1.3 (1.4) E (E) E (E) 4c.DCIEM Tables Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 4c DCIEM

EAN 43 2:18 AD: 81 fsw 25 metres AD: 81 fsw 25 metres EAD: 50 fsw 18 metres EAD: 50 fsw 18 metres TBT :38 AD: 64 fsw 19.5 metres AD: 64 fsw 19.5 metres EAD: 40 fsw 12 metres EAD: 40 fsw 12 metres ABT::48 + RBT::19 =TBT::67 ABT::48 + RBT::19 =TBT::67 Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review E (E) E (E) E (E) 4c.Buhlmann Tables Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 4c Buhlmann

Dive Planning Review Dive Planning Review 5.How much gas would the diver in Question 4 require for the second dive assuming an average SAC rate of 25.5litres/min ? a.Convert 19.5 - to BAR: (19.5 + 10) ÷ 10 = 2.95 BAR b.Determine gas used: 2.94 BAR × 25.5 l / min × 48 minutes = 3611 litres. Dive Planning ~ Review ~ 5

EAN40 (cleaning, lubricants, materials) EAN40 (cleaning, lubricants, materials) Oxygen doesnt burn, FUEL burns (oxygen just promotes combustion) Oxygen doesnt burn, FUEL burns (oxygen just promotes combustion) Equipment Considerations Adiabatic compression (production of toxic gasses) Adiabatic compression (production of toxic gasses) High-pressure vs. Low-pressure (system components) High-pressure vs. Low-pressure (system components) Equipment Considerations

Regulator Identification Cylinder Markings (Oxygen, Nitrox, Argon, Contents) Cylinder Markings (Oxygen, Nitrox, Argon, Contents) Equipment Markings Cylinder Certifications (Eddy, VIP/CIP, Hydro, Oxygen Clean) Cylinder Certifications (Eddy, VIP/CIP, Hydro, Oxygen Clean) Equipment Markings

Components Of Analysis Fuel Cell Oxygen Analysis Analysis Unit Flow Containment System Analyzer Setup (Demonstration) Oxygen Analysis

Partial Pressure Nitrox Production Membrane Separation Continuous Blending Nitrox Production

Equipment Considerations Review Equipment Considerations Review 1.Oxygen cleaning means to remove what material? 2.Oxygen cleaning is required for mixes above what percentage? 3.Opening a valve slowly, reduces what problem? Hydrocarbon (oil/grease) contaminations Above 40 percent for all equipment - Any percentage for cylinders Adiabatic compression – high temperatures due to sudden pressure increases – may cause fire or worse, produce carbon monoxide 4.What three markings are required of a Nitrox cylinder? Cylinder Identification, Inspection Label and Contents Label Equipment Considerations ~ Review 1-4

Equipment Considerations Review Equipment Considerations Review 5.Who is responsible to ensure the analysis of a Nitrox cylinder? 6.Does an oxygen analyzer measure the fraction of oxygen or the pressure of oxygen? 7.Name at least two methods of producing Nitrox. The DIVER! It measures PARTIAL PRESSURE (unless of course you have access to mass spectrometers!) Partial Pressure Blending and it various forms, Membrane separation techniques, Continuous Blending Equipment Considerations ~ Review 5-7

Equipment Considerations Review Equipment Considerations Review 9.To analyze a cylinder of EAN80, what gas should be used to calibrate the oxygen analyzer Oxygen 10. Does a cylinder need to be oxygen cleaned to be used with EAN36? Of course, cylinders are the exception for the 40 Percent Rule … since they may be blended by the partial pressure technique 8.What color is commonly used for regulator covers used with high values of Nitrox or oxygen? Nitrox second stage regulator covers tend to be yellow and Oxygen (or mixes above 40% in some cases) tend to be green Equipment Considerations ~ Review 8-10

Congratulations!!! Lets Go Diving!!! Ending Slide