5I. Singapore Case Law A. The Major Law Reports The 2 principle sets of law reports in Singapore are:Singapore Law Reports (SLR)Coverage of cases from 1965.Malayan Law Journal (MLJ)Contains both Singapore and Malaysian cases. Coverage of Singapore cases from 1932 to 1991.Not all cases are reported. A case is only selected for reporting if it raises a point of legal significance. Therefore, only a small proportion of cases are reported, and these are mainly from the Supreme Court (i.e. High Court, Court of Appeal and Constitutional Tribunal)
6I. Singapore Case Law A. The Major Law Reports Singapore Law Reports Malayan Law JournalPrint: K7599 SLRPrint: K7599 MLJOnline: LawNet (NUS Faculty of Law; Other NUS staff & students)
7I. Singapore Case Law A. The Major Law Reports The Academy of Law has re-issued the Singapore Law Reports from 1965 through 2009 with re-written headnotes for the reports from 1965–2002, and re-edited judgment texts that conform to the SAL house-style. This set of reports is called the Singapore Law Reports (Reissue).Both the original SLR volumes from 1965 to 2002 and the Reissue are equally authoritative as each judgment reported in both remains in substance, though not in form, the same.Print: K7599 SLROnline: LawNet (For: NUS Faculty of Law; Other NUS staff & students)
8I. Singapore Case Law A. The Major Law Reports The Singapore Syariah Appeals Reports was launched on 21 May 2012.This series contains the authoritative grounds of decisions delivered by the Syariah Appeal Board between 1980 and It also includes grounds of decisions for appeals heard by the Appeal Board from the decision of the Registrar of Muslim Marriages.Print: K7599 SSC
9B. Other Current Sources of Law I. Singapore Case LawB. Other Current Sources of LawUnreported JudgmentsThese are full text transcripts of written judgments as handed down in the Subordinate Courts, the High Court and Court of Appeal. They are available on LawNet (see page 10).Earlier judgments are also available in print in the law library: Ref: K7599 CA (Court of Appeal, Civil Appeals)K7599 CRA (Court of Appeal, Criminal Appeals)K7599 DC (District Court)K7599 J (High Court)K7599 MC (Magistrates’ Court)“Case Law & Decisions” of the Subordinate Courts and Supreme Court are also available for free for the last 3 months in LawNet under its links to Free Resources.
10B. Other Current Sources of Law I. Singapore Case LawB. Other Current Sources of LawDecisions of Boards/TribunalsThe decisions of various tribunals and boards are available in full text in LawNet. Most of these decisions are not available in print elsewhere. They include decisions of the:Copyright TribunalIncome Tax Board of ReviewMilitary Court of AppealStrata Titles BoardsSyariah Appeal Board.LawNet access: NUS Faculty of Law; Other NUS staff & students
11I. Singapore Case Law C. Discontinued Series TitleAbbreviationPublication DateRefColony of Singapore Law Reports(previously calledSingapore Law Reports)SLR(covers )(covers )K7599 SLRStraits Settlements Law ReportsSSLR(new series) (covers )(old series) (covers )K7596 SSLRFederated Malay States Law ReportsFMSLR(covers )K7600 FMSLRStraits Law JournalSLJK7596 SLJKyshe’s ReportsKy(covers )K7596 KyStraits Law ReportsSLR Leic1877 (covers )K7596 SLRThere are several discontinued series of law reports that contain older cases from the courts of Singapore, Malaya and Borneo.A complete listing of these reports can be found on p.vii-viii of Mallal’s Digest: Consolidated Table of Cases 2009 Reissue under the section entitled “Reports and Publications and Their Abbreviations”. (Print: K Md)Here is a reverse chronological list of a selection of old law reports:
12I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools There are 6 categories of tools to help find andresearch case law:i. Indexes to legal abbreviationsii. Indexes to law reportsiii. Indexes with abstracts of casesiv. Citatorsv. Commentariesvi. Full text databases
13I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (i) Indexes to Legal AbbreviationsThese indexes help to identify legal abbreviations. Where the case citation is known, the first step to locating a case is identifying the law report that the abbreviation stands for.For example, the index answers the question, “What does the abbreviation SLR Leic in the citation  SLR Leic 56 mean?”For local law reports, it is recommended that you useSingapore - Legal AbbreviationsIf you prefer a print index, then refer to the Appendix at the back of the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation.Print: KB280.2 Can 2010Example:Using Singapore - Legal Abbreviations to find out what “SLR Leic” stands for:
14I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (ii) Indexes to Law Reports These are indexes published by the individual law report series.They contain 2 important categories of indexes:Alphabetical list by name of casesUseful for finding full citations of cases when the names of the parties are known.Subject index of casesUseful for locating cases on a particular subject.
15I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (ii) Indexes to Law Reports (contd.)Alphabetical index:a. Singapore Law Reports (Reissue): Comparative Table of Citations & Table of Cases Reported 1965 to 2009The “Table of Cases Reported” is an index to cases reported in the Singapore Law Reports from 1965 to For cases reported after 2009, refer to the Table in the individual volumes of the Singapore Law Reports.Print: K7599 SLRb. The Malayan Law Journal Consolidated Tables : General Index and Table of Cases Reported (Also Consolidated Tables , , , etc.) The “Table of Cases Reported” in these volumes index cases reported in The Malayan Law Journal and the Malayan Law Journal (Supplementary Series)Print: K7599 MLJ
16I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (ii) Indexes to Law Reports (contd.)Subject index:a. Singapore Law Reports (Reissue): Subject Index 1965 to 2009For cases reported after 2009, refer to the “Subject Index” in the individual volumes of the Singapore Law Reports.Print: K7599 SLRb. The Malayan Law Journal Consolidated Tables : Subject Index (Also Consolidated Tables , , , etc.) These contain a “Subject Index” to cases reported in The Malayan Law Journal and the Malayan Law Journal (Supplementary Series)Print: K7599 MLJ
17Mallal’s Digest (4th Ed.) Print: K7599.3 Md I. Singapore Case LawD. Research Tools(iii) Indexes with Abstracts of CasesThe main index in this category is the Mallal’s Digest.The Digest contains summaries of all reported cases decided by the Malaysian and Singapore superior courts since 1808, as well as all selected unreported decisions delivered in recent years.Both alphabetical and subject indexes for cases digested in the 4th edition of Mallal's Digest (Reissue) volumes are available in this series.Mallal’s Digest (4th Ed.) Print: K Md
18I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (iii) Indexes with Abstracts of Cases (contd.)Alphabetical indexa. Mallal's Digest: Consolidated Table of Cases 2009 Reissue Alphabetical table of cases from as early as 1808 digested in the 4th edition of Mallal's Digest (Reissue) volumes. Refer to the “Preface” for dates of coverage.Print: K MdTo update, use:b. Mallal’s Digest [Yearbooks]Refer to the “Table of Cases” in each volume.Print: K MDYc. Mallal’s Current LawRefer to the “Table of Cases Digested” in each issue. Use this to search for the current or previous year’s cases.Print: K MCL
19I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (iii) Indexes with Abstracts of Cases (contd.)Subject Indexa. Mallal’s Digest: Consolidated Subject Index 1808 to 2012This subject index is contained in 3 volumes. However, the paragraph references may not be in sync with later reissue volumes of Mallal’s. Print: K MdTo update, use:b. Mallal’s Digest [Yearbooks]Search the “Subject Index” within later volumes.Print: K MDYc. Mallal’s Current LawSearch the “Subject Index” at the back of each issue. Use this to search for the current or previous year’s cases.Print: K MCL
20I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (iv) Case Citators Having located a case, you will need to confirm if the case is still good law. You can do this by checking the subsequent judicial history of the case using case citators. This is referred to as “noting up”.The case citators provide citations to subsequent cases in which the original case is followed, distinguished, overruled, referred to, etc.
21I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (iv) Case Citators (contd.) To note up a Singapore case, refer to:a. Singapore Law Reports (Reissue): Table of Cases Referred to: 1965 to 2009Contains a list of annotated cases referred to in annotating cases reported in the Singapore Law Reports (Reissue). Includes significant English, Australian and Indian cases.Print: K7599 SLRTo note up more recent cases, refer to the “Table of Cases Referred to” in the latest issues or volumes of the Singapore Law Reports.b. Mallal’s Digest: Case Citator 1932 to 2010Contains a list of annotated cases referred to in annotating cases reported in the Singapore Law Reports and Malayan Law Journal. Includes references to cases which go as far back as the 1800s.Print: K Md 2010
22I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (v) Commentaries These publications contain comments and analyses of cases. They serve as good starting points for legal research:Halsbury’s Laws of SingaporePrint: KE5011 HalSingapore Academy of LawAnnual Review of Singapore CasesPrint: KE5003 SALAR
23I. Singapore Case Law D. Research Tools (vi) Full Text Databases Search for cases in these databases by case name, subject or keyword:LawNet is the only database that contains a comprehensive collection of Singapore cases.Access: NUS Faculty of Law; Other NUS staff & studentsLexis.com contains Singapore cases reported in the Malayan Law Journal from 1954 to Access: NUS Libraries Resources
24II. UK Case Law A. Modern Reports The Law Reports (1865-) The official set of law reports published by the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and WalesText of each report is reviewed by judges before publicationSo, it takes between 10 and 14 months to report casesThe only set of reports that has a summary of the arguments of counselThe High Court and the Court of Appeal require that where a case has been reported in the Law Reports, it must be cited from that source. Other series may only be used when a case is not reported in the Law Reports. See Practice Direction (Judgments: Form Citation) (Supreme Court)  1 WLR 194.
25II. UK Case Law A. Modern Reports The Law Reports (1865-) (contd.) The 4 current series of the law reports are:TitleReports Decisions ofPrintAppeal Cases(AC)House of Lords, Privy Council &Court of Justice of the EuropeanCommunitiesK2022 4CQueen’s Bench(QB)Queen’s Bench & Court of Appeal & ECJ on appeal from QBK2022 2EFamily (Fam)Family Division & Court of Appeal on appeal from Fam DK2022 1CChancery(Ch)Chancery Division & Court of Appeal on appeal from Ch DK2022 3BOnline: Justis via NUS Libraries Resources
26II. UK Case Law A. Modern Reports 2. The Weekly Law Reports (WLR) (1953-)Timely, full text reports.Print: K2020 WNROnline: Justis via NUS Libraries Resources3. All England Law Reports (All ER) (1936-)Timely, full text reports; contains editorial notes.Print: K2020 AELROnline: Lexis Library via NUS Libraries Resources4. Specialist seriesContain a selection of cases in a discrete practice area.e.g. Lloyds Law Reports (maritime and commercial law)Print: K2020 LLLROnline: i-law via NUS Libraries Resources (registration required)
27II. UK Case Law A. Modern Reports 5. Newspapers Brief, edited reports.e.g. The Times Law ReportsPrint: K2020 TR/ K2020 TLROnline: Justis via NUS Libraries Resources6. Unreported judgmentsThese are not available in print in the Law Library, but a selection are available online.Online: LexisNexis via NUS Libraries Resources BAILLI (free access)
28II. UK Case Law B. The Nominate Reports The Nominate Reports refer to the various published reports of English cases from the Middle Ages to the 1860s. They are known by the names of the reporters and have been reprinted in:1. The English Reports ( )Most comprehensive compilation. 176 volumes of cases & 2 index vols.Ref: K2020 EROnline: HeinOnline via NUS Libraries ResourcesCommonLII (free access)2. The All England Law Reports Reprint ( )Criterion for inclusion: present day relevance or value to the legal profession.Ref: K2020 AE/ K2020 AEE (extension volumes) Online: Lexis Library via NUS Libraries Resources
29The English Reports Ref: K2020 ER II. UK Case LawB. The Nominate ReportsThe English Reports Ref: K2020 ER
30II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools Indexes to Legal Abbreviations Indexes for UK law reports include:Cardiff Index to Legal AbbreviationsOnline:“Table of Abbreviations” in the first volume for the year in theCurrent Law YearbookPrint: KB3 CLYIndex to Legal Citations & Abbreviations (by Donald Raistrick,3rd ed., 2008)Print: KB280 Rai 2008“Law Reports and Journals and Their Abbreviations” in Osborn’s Concise Law DictionaryPrint: KB12 Osb 2009
31II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (ii) Indexes to Law Reports a. The Law Reports Index (or Consolidated Index to Leading Law Reports) (1951-)The red volumes cover cases reported in the Law Reports as well as the Weekly Law Reports, All England Law Reports, Lloyd’s Law Reports and various other law reportsContain a table of “Cases Reported” and a table of “Subject Matter”, enabling you to find cases by name or subject respectively.Print: K2022 Ib. All England Law Reports: Consolidated Tables and Index( )Only covers cases in the All England Law ReportsContains a “Table of Cases Reported and Considered” and a “Subject Index”.Print: K2020 AELR
32II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (ii) Indexes to Law Reports (contd.) c. The English ReportsIndex of Cases (Vol. 177 & 178)This is an alphabetical listing of cases. Use this if you know the name of the case, but do not have the complete citation (e.g. Alexander v Comber)Print: K2020 EREnglish Reports Wall ChartThis is useful when you only have the citation to the case, but not the names of the parties (e.g. 1 Keb. 434)Location: on wall opposite Law Library Information DeskBoth indexes indicate the volumes of the English Reports in which the cases have been reprinted.
33II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iii) Indexes with Abstracts of Casesa. The DigestThis set summarises cases drawn from different series of law reports covering the whole case law of England and Wales together with a selection of cases from the courts of the Commonwealth countries and Europe.Has both a Consolidated Table of Cases and an Index to subjects.Print: K2028 EED
34II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iii) Indexes with Abstracts of Cases (contd.)b. Current Law Yearbook and Current Law Monthly DigestContain digests of cases from most series of law reports as well as from The Times and The Independent newspapers. Cover UK and EU cases.Volume 1 of the Yearbook for each year contains a “Table of Cases”. But this index only covers the law from 1 Jan to 31 Dec for that year.Print: KB3 CLYEach issue of the Monthly Digest contains a “Cumulative Table of Cases” and “Cumulative Index” to subjects. But these only index cases summarised in the publication so far in that calendar year.Print: KB3 CL
35II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iii) Indexes with Abstracts of Cases (contd.)The DigestPrint: K2028 EEDCurrent Law Yearbook &Print: KB3 CLYMonthly DigestPrint: KB3 CL
36II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iv) Citators Print: Current Law Case Citator (1947-)For noting up UK and selected EU cases.Published in several volumes, i.e , , , etc.Print: KB3 CLC
37II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iv) Citators Online: JustCite Access via: NUS Libraries E-ResourcesJustCite provides information on how both cases and legislation have been applied and interpreted.One of the features of JustCite is that it indexes and links to full-text documents where available.
38II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iv) Citators Online: JustCite E.g. Noting-up Hedley Byrne v Heller using JustCite.On the homepage, select “Advanced search” for more search options.
39II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iv) Citators Online: JustCite E.g. Noting-up Hedley Byrne v Heller using JustCite.
40II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (iv) Citators Online: JustCite E.g. Noting-up Hedley Byrne v Heller using JustCite
41II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (v) Commentaries Halsbury’s Laws of EnglandThis legal encyclopaedia is a key research publication for UK law.Commentaries on the whole law of England and Wales are contained in the 52 volumes (arranged by subject). These are updated by the Annual Abridgement and Current Service (monthly booklets). Subject and alphabetical indexes to cases are also published as part of this series.4th ed. Print: KB11 Hal
42II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (v) Commentaries (contd.) Halsbury’s Laws of EnglandThe familiar brown-coloured 4th edition of this series is gradually being replaced by the 5th edition.5th ed. of Halsbury’sPrint: KB11 Hal
43II. UK Case Law C. Research Tools (vi) Databases Full text databases:BAILLI at (free resource)Justis via NUS Libraries ResourcesLexis Library via NUS Libraries ResourcesLexisNexis via NUS Libraries ResourcesWestLaw via Law Proxy ServiceFor a more comprehensive listing, refer to the Guide to Electronic Resources Collection. Print copies of this guide are also available in the law library.
44III. Australian Case Law A. Law ReportsCommonwealth Law Reports (CLR) (1903-)Authorised reportReports decisions of the High Court.Print: K9011 CLR Online: WestLaw via Law Proxy Service2. Federal Court Reports (FCR) (1984-)Reports decisions of the Federal Court of Australia.Print: K9011 FCR Online: WestLaw via Law Proxy Service3. Federal Law Reports (FLR) (1956-)Reports decisions of courts of Federal jurisdiction, exceptHigh Court.Print: K9011 FLR Online: WestLaw via Law Proxy Service
45III. Australian Case Law A. Law Reports4. Australian Law Journal Reports (ALJR) (1958-)Reports decisions of the High CourtBefore 1958, these reports were included in the AustralianLaw JournalCurrent issues also incorporated into the Australian Law Journal.Print: K9011 ALJR5. Australian Law Reports (ALR) (1973-)Reports decisions of the High Court and other casesdetermining Federal lawAlso contains the Australian Capital Territory Reports (ACTR) and Northern Territory Reports (NTR)Replaces the Argus Law Reports (ALR)Print: K9011 ALROnline: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries Resources
46III. Australian Case Law A. Law Reports6. Authorised Reports from the States and TerritoriesNew South Wales Law Reports (NSWLR) (1971-)Print: K9051 NSROnline: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries Resources(b) Northern Territory Law Reports (NTLR) (1992-)Authorised reportReports decisions of the Supreme Court of the NorthernTerritory.Print: K9011 NTLR(c) Queensland Reports (Qd R) (1958-)Print: K9091 SQR(d) South Australian State Reports (SASR) (1971-)Print: K9111 SRSA Online: WestLaw via Law Proxy Service
47III. Australian Case Law A. Law Reports6. Authorised Reports from the Various States (contd.)(e) Tasmanian Reports (Tas R) (1981-)Continues Tasmanian State Reports ( )Print: K9131 TSC(f) Victorian Reports (VR) (1957-)Continues Victorian Law Reports ( )Print: K9151 TROnline: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries Resources(g) Western Australian Reports (WAR) (1960-)Continues Western Australian Law Reports ( )Print: K9171 WAR
48III. Australian Case Law A. Law Reports7. Unreported JudgmentsThese are usually only available for the superior courts. They are not available in print in the Law Library but are available online.Online: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries ResourcesAustLII atColonial case law The Colonial case law project run by Macquarie University Law School makes available decisions of the superior courts of New South Wales and Tasmania from the 18th and 19th centuries as well as unreported appeals from the Australian colonies to the Privy Council before Entries are based on a mixture of newspaper and manuscript accounts of court records.Online: Colonial Case Law at
49III. Australian Case Law B. Research Tools(i) Indexes to Legal AbbreviationsIndexes for Australian law reports include:Legal Abbreviations Published by the Monash University Law Library.Online:“Abbreviations” in Australian Case CitatorRefer to the latest volume of the Citator for the most comprehensive listing of abbreviations.Print: K9012 ACCIndex to Legal Citations & Abbreviations (by Donald Raistrick, 3rd ed., 2008)Print: KB280 Rai 2008
50III. Australian Case Law B. Research Tools(ii) Indexes with Abstracts of Casesa. The Australian DigestConsult the “Table of Cases” in the Consolidated Index andTables.Print: K9011 AD3b. Australian Current Law ReporterConsult the “Cumulative Table of Cases” in the ConsolidatedTables and Indexes.Print: KB3 ACLROnline: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries Resources
51III. Australian Case Law B. Research Tools(iii) CitatorsAustralian Case CitatorFor noting up Australian and significant UK casesThe set provides a comprehensive alphabetical listing of reported Australian case law since 1825Each case entry also consists of references to journal articles in which the listed case has been usefully discussed.Print: K9012 ACCb. CaseBaseOnline case citator available in LexisNexis AU.Online: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries Resources
52III. Australian Case Law B. Research Tools(iv) CommentariesHalsbury’s Laws Of Australia The print set is not updated. Use the online resource for current information.Print: KB11 HlaOnline: LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries Resourcesb. Laws of Australia Updated looseleaf service.Print: KB11 Laa
53III. Australian Case Law B. Research Tools(v) DatabasesFull text databases:AustLII at (free resource)LexisNexis via NUS Libraries ResourcesLexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries ResourcesWestLaw via Law Proxy ServiceIndexes and abstracts:LexisNexis AU via NUS Libraries ResourcesFor a more comprehensive listing, refer to the Guide to Electronic Resources Collection. Print copies are available in the law library.
54IV. References For Singapore: For a more detailed account, refer to the powerpoint tutorial entitled “Researching Singapore Case Law” atRobert C. Beckman, Brady S. Coleman & Joel Lee, Case Analysis and Statutory Interpretation, 2nd ed. (Singapore: Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, 2001).Ref: KE5280 BecFor UK:Peter Clinch, Using a Law Library: a Student’s Guide to Legal Research Skills, 2nd ed. (London: Blackstone Press, 2001).Ref: KB280 CliFor Australia:Robert Watt & Francis Johns, Concise Legal Research, 6th ed. (Sydney: Federation Press, 2009).Ref: KB280 Wat 2009