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**Maxwell Equations INEL 4151 ch 9**

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics Maxwell Equations INEL 4151 ch 9 Sandra Cruz-Pol, Ph. D. ECE UPRM Mayagüez, PR Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Electricity => Magnetism**

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics Electricity => Magnetism In 1820 Oersted discovered that a steady current produces a magnetic field while teaching a physics class. Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Would magnetism would produce electricity?**

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics Would magnetism would produce electricity? Eleven years later, and at the same time, Mike Faraday in London and Joe Henry in New York discovered that a time-varying magnetic field would produce an electric current! Faraday’s Law: Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM**

Len’s Law = (-) If N=1 (1 loop) The time change can refer to B or S Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM

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**Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM**

Two cases of B changes S (area) changes Stoke’s theo. Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM

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**Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM**

3 cases: Stationary loop in time-varying B field Moving loop in static B field Moving loop in time-varying B field Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM

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**Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM**

PE 9.1 If B= Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM

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**Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM**

Example 9.3 Circuit with 10-3 m2 cross-section, radius =10cm, i1(t)=3 sin wt [A], 50 Hz, N1=200 turns, N2= 100 , m=500m0, find Vemf on both coils Find reluctance and use Faraday’s Law Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM

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Example PE 9.3 A magnetic core of uniform cross-section 4 cm2 is connected to a 120V, 60Hz generator. Calculate the induced emf V2 in the secondary coil. N1= 500, N2=300 Use Faraday’s Law Answer; 72 cos(120pt) V

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**Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics**

Some terms E = electric field intensity [V/m] D = electric field density [VF/m2] H = magnetic field intensity, [A/m] B = magnetic field density, [Teslas] Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Take a look at a capacitor**

dielectric is an electrical insulator d.c., C = open circuits What’s the current in an open circuit?

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**Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics**

Maxwell’s Eqs. the equation of continuity Maxwell added the term to Ampere’s Law so that it not only works for static conditions but also for time-varying situations. This added term is called the displacement current density, Jd, while J=Jc is the conduction current. Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics**

For static fields we had: But the divergence of the curl of ANY vector 0 The continuity of the current requires: We need to define: Now when we take the divergence of curl Therefore: This doesn’t work for time-varying fields! Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics, UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Maxwell put them together**

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics Maxwell put them together If we didn’t have the displacement current, Jd, then Ampere’s Law: I S1 L S2 At low frequencies J>>Jd, but at radio frequencies both terms are comparable in magnitude. Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics**

For dynamic fields we had: Therefore: Substituting in curl of H This is Maxwell’s equation for Ampere’s Law Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics, UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Maxwell Equations in General Form**

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics Maxwell Equations in General Form Differential form Integral Form Gauss’s Law for E field. Gauss’s Law for H field. Nonexistence of monopole Faraday’s Law Ampere’s Circuit Law Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics**

This is the principle of motors, hydro-electric generators and transformers operation. This is what Oersted discovered accidentally: *Mention some examples of em waves Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics**

Phasors & complex #’s Working with harmonic fields is easier, but requires knowledge of phasor, let’s review complex numbers and phasors Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Maxwell Equations for Harmonic fields**

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics Maxwell Equations for Harmonic fields Differential form* Gauss’s Law for E field. Gauss’s Law for H field. No monopole Faraday’s Law Ampere’s Circuit Law * (substituting and ) Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electrical Engineering, UPRM

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**Earth Magnetic Field Declination from 1590 to 1990**

Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM

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News Jan 2011 The Earth's magnetic north pole is slowly heading toward Russia, according to scientists, but one of the places being affected by this is Tampa International Airport. Airport officials closed its main runway this week until Jan. 13 to adjust the taxiway signs accounting for the magnetic pole shift, Tampa Bay Online reports.

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